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JANUARY 1925, 






♦w #V' 


THE F OH 3 S? : RK I R 
January, 1925 

published bimonthly by the Forest Servic , IT. 3, D ;o rtnent 
of Agriculture , Viashiivt n, D. 0. 


C H ? E IT 1 3 

Ul — — 

Announcement a , 3-4 

State forestry departments and r :iiz-\tions 5-24 

Education and extension 25-32 


<3 7 >rest Service notes 33-48 

Miscellaneous 49-64 

Personals ...... 65—68 




q Articles, bibliographies, and publications .• 69-72 














vegtiiv; of Am erican Forestry ^ssocio.tio n 

The annual meeting of the American Forestry Association, T ^hioh 
"'ill also bo its semi-centennial,' "Jill be held on January 22, 1923, at 
the Hamilton Club, Chicago, Illinois, with the Illinois Forestry associa- 
tion as host. 

The American For' stry Association ,rT as organised in Chicago in 
1875, ana for that reason the 19 35 ""ill be held there. Hr, 
William L. He'll of 3hie go, a member of both associations, is Chair- 
man of the Committee on Gen< ral arrangements, and has arranged a program 

(1), forest interests of Illinois. 

(2)_ 3pw maximum cooperation in forest fire protection may be 
developed under the Clark --MclTa'ry Law'. 

(3) An enlarged program of forest land purchases under the Heeks 
Law as enlarged by the Clarke -McNary Law. 

A Correction 

On page 6 of the IToVember issue of "The pore st TJorker" there 
appeared an erroneous statement regarding the "Forestry Contract -ict 
for. Georgia, ■> in ^hich ifc was stated that the act recently became a 
law in Georgia, 'whereas the bill was killed in the Assembly. 



Annual Meeting 

of the Southern Fore 

stry Congress 



"be . 

>u are invited to 

attend the Seventh Forestry Cbngre 

. held 

in Little Hock, Arkansas, January 19-21, 

1925, at the 


irion . 

. Hote 



very interesting' 

program is being arranged includin 


State Forestry L 



Forestry problem 

s in Shortleaf pine. 

Forestry problem 

a in Hardwood. 

Louisiana and at 

ki nsas Hardwoods. 

Paper and pulpwo 

od in the South. 

Forestry and Nav 

al Scores. 

C. B. Herman 


, Secretary. 

"As Others See Us" 


"The Forest Uorker" re- 
ceived. It's attempts at humor 
are strictly mid-western, if 
not mid-Victorian, Can't you 
help pftt more pep and orderli- 
ness in it? It seems a jumble 
of unrelated paragraphs. It 
doesn't seem to be impressing 
itself much in this District.". 

(Extract from a letter from 
one Forest Service man to an- 


"The Forest Worker" 
has just fipine and has made 
a very goats, impression in 
every way. It is particu- 
larly interesting perhaps 
as heralding the fast-coning 
change in Government publica- 
tions from something dry-as- 
dust to a humanized document 
with a nicely developed vein 
of humor running through it. 
Great stuff J" — (Extract from a 
letter from a -Canadian for- 

Our skin is thick and xir vanity easily tickled, hence criti- 
cisms and comments of all kinds are gladly received. TJe especially 
welcome helpful constructive criticisms. 


st-AjTS f drf J? d v p *?":•-. "is .::: jp.e^iTiZATioiJS 

Speaks on qojns r vction in A^nar'. s 

In an address on "The Conservation of Forest Resources in 
Arkansas" delivered at the Arkansas State Fair, Dr. a. 0. T 'illar, "ho 
is secretary of the honorary forestry commission of .Arkansas, appoint- 
ed by 3-ov, T. J-. j-,icR; to itudy the forest situation in Arkansas, ca.L? 
attention to the absolute necessity of conserving our national timber 
resources which the American people hav< £ ssumed w ire inexhaustible. 

After explaining tV occasion for 3ov, McRa 's appointment of the 
honorary forestry commission, jr. ;"iil-r specified four principal problems 
requiring solution, as follows: (1) the: prot ction of our forests from 
destructive firss; (2) a syst n of equitable taxation that "ill protect 
the owners against prohibitive tax^s on the growing timber, while it 
yields a fair tax from the land itself and a deferred tax from the tim- 
ber when cut; (3) provision for err ting State end Rational Forests, and 
(4) a plan to encouragi the small awner to maintain a perpetual woodlot. 

To prevent fires there must be provision for organizing and edu- 
cating the people so that every citizen may become int llig ntly inter- 
ested and ready for cooperative service, as a solution of th se-cond 
problem he suggested that the otate should enter into a contract to tax 
only the land values during the process of growth, and then collect i n 
equitable tax from the timber when it is mature or is cut. He further 
advocated that lands valu less for other purposes should be purchased 
at nominal prices and converted into National and State forests. TTood- 
lots, it was pointed out, may becoi i s source of p rpetual profit to "both 
the farmer and the st; te, sine" the income to he gained from one lot raay 
exceed that from almost any other kind of farming. 

Dr. Millar closed his address with an app -'.1 for intelligent and 
hearty cooperation on the part of the citizens of the State when the 
Arkansas honorary forestry commission presents its recommendations to 
the State legislature for adoption. — .American Lumberman. 

(Due to the work of the Honorary Forestry Commission of ^rkansas 
last summer, the January session of the ^rkansas State Legislature will 

doubtless have before it a bill embodying the creation of a State For- 
estry Department and an organized fire prot ction system which will en- 
able the State to qualify for the cooperative funds distributed under the 
Weeks Law and the Olarke-McNary La".) — yd. 


On: 7on and Q ne Los t in h i nne sot a 

The referendum vote upon the proposed amendment to the Constitu- 
tion of the State of Minnesota, known as Amendment #4, authorising the 
enactment of laws for the encouragement and promotion of fore station of 
lands in the State, whether owned "by private persons or the public,, in- 
cluding "irrepealable provisions for definite and limited taxation of such 
lands during a term of years, and for a yield tax at or after the erd of 
such term, upon the timber and other forest products so grown," was sub- 
mitted to the people "of Minnesota upon November 4, 1924, and defeated. 
This was not due to the votes against it, hut rather to the lack of in- 
terest of people voting 1 . 

Amendment £5, permitting the State and its political subdivisions, 
when authorized by the Legislature to contract debts and pledge the pub- 
lic credit for and engage in any work reasonably tending to prevent or 
abate forest fires, including the compulsory clearing and improvement of 
wild lands (whether publicly or privately owned) , and also providing for 
the assessment against such land of the value of all benefits so conferred 
and the payment of damages so sustained in excess of such benefits, voted 
upon at the same tine as amendment #4, was carried, — G. M, Conzet, State 

N--W York State p ark Bond Issue Vj'ins 

The election on November 4 resulted in a substantial victory for 
the $15,0.00,000 bond issue to be used for the continued .support of exist- 
ing State parks and for extensive purchase of new park areas.. 

One-third of the proposed bond issue, $5,000,000, goes to the ex- 
tension of the Adirondack and Cat skill forest preserves -by the Conserva- 
tion Commission, :£u-.yfcenan'ce ei forest 'Cover in these regions, it is said, 
is vitally necessary to project their streams from drying up and from pollu- 
tion. Eventually these p.res?rves may become sources of timber for commer- 
cial use, but for the present their principal value is for watur, hunting, 
fishing, camping, tramping, and mountain climbing - a three-million-acre 
playground for the people of the densely populated areas of the State. — 
American Forests and Forest Life. 

Amendment Carried in Wisconsin 

The referendum vote upon the proposed amendment of section 10 of 
article 8 of the Constitution of tTiscbnsin, authorizing the State to appro- 
priate moneys for the acquirement of land for State forest purposes, was 
submitted to the people of Wisconsin upon November 4, 1924, and carried, 
with approximately 65 per cent of the voters having expressed themselves on 
this item,— C. L. Harrington, Sopt. of State Forests and parks, Madison, wis. 


The keynote of discussion at the 'Fourth Washington State Forestry Con- 
ference held in Seattle, Washington on November 21, under th auspices of the 
Forestry Committee of the Seattle Chamber of Commerce, ^as " How Should Forest 
Lands be Taxed?" 

The -forest land taxation committee, which has been studying the ques- 
tion of timber taxation no^ for several years, made an interesting report 
with definite recommendations for State forest tax legislation to be intro- 
duced in the January session of the State legislature- In brief, the bill 
to-be presented' 

1. All forest land shall be ass- ssed at a valuation based on the 
value of the land for the production of .timber. In making the assessment 
the State supervisor of taction, as advised by the State forest board, shall 
furnish each county assessor ~ith a schedule of values of land to conform 
with the above ana the county assessor shell be guided by this schedule of 
values and limited by the maxiieuiri and minimum rates so fixed, Any iraprov - 
ments or value other than forest value shall be assessed in addition to the 
value of the land in accordance with existing laws. 

2. All forest crops shall be taxed uniformly at th< tax rate prevailing 
in the district of assessment und-.r the following conditions: 

When immature forests, or those under 70" years of age, as deter- 
mined by the State forester, are cut in whole or in part, a yield tax shall 
be applied in the following' manner: The owner or owners shall report to the 
assessor each quarter in thousands of board feet the amount of material re- 
moved and this will be entered 1 on the rolls and assessed at the same rate as 
matured standing timber, this tax being the only tax assessed. Timber 70 
years or more of age which has been and is being regularly assessed as stand- 
ing timber for taxation purposes shall not be additionally assessed on any 
other basis, but the land will continue to be valued as in Section 1. 

3. Owners of land suitable for forest oroduction desiring to grow for- 
est crops may enter into a contract with the State for a definite period of 
years whereby they place their lands in the reforestation class to be Man- 
aged under reforestation plans and policies approved by the State supervisor 
of forests, and subjecting themselves thereby to the terms and conditions of 
the laws of the State with reference to fire protection and reforestation. In 
all contracts so entered into valuations - as stated in Section 2 of the act and 
the valuations as determined in accordance with Section 1 shall become a part 
of the contract. 

Taxation and reforestation of logged -off lands is no ,rT recognized as on- 
of the most important problems of the State of Washington, a bill creating 
a definite forest policy for the State was adopted at the last session of the 
legislature as a res-alt of the activities of the State Forestry Conference. 


Dean Hugo Vinkenwerder , of the College of forestry, University of 
Washington, was chairman of the conference and arranged the program. Among 
the resolutions adopted were these: 

Urging the State legislature to appropriate at least $30,000 annually 
for forest research work under the direction of the University of Washington 
college of forestry; endorsing the fire warning weather forecasts of the 
United States Weather Bureau and urging their continuance and extension; 
urging the passage of adequate aporopriations under the Clarke-McNary JJ^l 
urging amy airplane forest fire patrols in this s:ction, and pledging the 
State" legislature the full supwort of the conference in all constructive for- 
estry legislation, — Condensed from various sources. 

Recreational Use of Forests 

Participation in recrertional use is not only a forester's privilege, 
it is his duty. We arc in the pioneer stage of forestry in America. The 
profession will necessarily continue pioneering until sound forest practice 
is exemplified generally throughout the United States. One of the most grati- 
fying developments in our "ork has l>2^n the increasing recognition by the pub- 
lic of the urgency and wisdom of forest production and utilization on a sci- 
entific "basis, "he temper of the public is to have forest devastation stopped 
and to utilize as fully as practicable all products of the forest. TMs atti- 
tude of the public mind is attributable to many factors, not the least impor- 
tant of which is the regard held by the American for trees and forest values 
for those intangible benefits which mean to him better health, better recrea- 
tion and a more attractive environment. No element of our people has worked 
more persistently for better tree and forest appreciation than those whose 
dominant goal is the broad public interest rather than commitment to a higher 
forest technique. The forester has been most fortunate in having the confi- 
dence of this and other classes, earnest in their appeal for better forests, 
in his attempt to have sound forest practice adopted. Whether he will or no, 
the forester is definitely identified in this country with outdoor recreation. 
He should be thoroughly grateful for this wide opportunity for public service. 
— P.. Y« Stuart, Sec'y penn. Dept. of forests and Waters in penn. Service 

A Color problem 

(How to (Jet White Paper from Yellow pine by the Brown paper Company) 

A few months ago the Itonroe Uews Star printed a rather unusual oe.ition 
in the interests of industrial activity of ITorth Louisiana. The newspaper was 
printed on Kraft paper made in Monroe, Louisiana, by the Brown paper Company. 
*orty-eight hours before the edition was published the paper on which it was 
printed "as in the form of small logs, branches, and trunks of small trees, 
and was piled in large stacks in the receiving yard of the paper company. 


The possibilities of the paper-making industry iB Louisiana loom larger 
and larger as research in this product dev lops. In times past there have 
be,en isolated instances whern a flat— bed press has used Kraft paper for a 
specia!Lc edition. Thi's is. the_ first instance in ^hich a high-speed rotary 
press has used Kraft paper for any* edition- Chemists at present have not 
been able to solve a cheap commercial process for bleaching this paper 
white. The paper as manufactured varies from a deep brown to a light brown. 
It would not serve the newspaper industry for regular editions because it is 
difficult to read and a strain on the eyes, but foresters and paper makers 
are very optimistic and believe that ultirat ly a method will be worked out 
through eohcraicrl research for the bleaching of this' paper to a white surface 
at a reasonable cost. When this' comes to pass Louisiana will enjoy a tremen- 
dous prosperity through the pulp industry Which has been established in the 
past few y^-ars. 

The basic material for the manufacture of paper is nine pulp. Trees 
for pulp wood can bo grown in 7 to 15 years on lands not fit for e.gri culture. 
Louisiana has 13,500,000 acr.s of idle cut-ever lands which .can supply the 
generations to com: with vast supplies of wooc, for pulp wood. To grow pulp 
successfully, forest fires must be eliminated. The basic problem of refor- 
estation is the elimination of forest fires which, if adhered to, means the 
growing of a new cron of timber for pulp, and the development of forest prod- 
ucts industry which will contribute greatly to the future industrial prosperity 
of Louisiana. — Louisiana Conservation Hews. 

Pormulate Z 7 -^' ?or;3try L'-gislatiftn . 

4 meeting of State and Federal forestry officials and representatives 
of the "lumber industry of Montana was h I'd at Missoula recently to formulate 
a more coraprehensiv.e code of for3stry laws for pres ntation to the next leg- 
islature, aimed to protect present forests and insure as far as may oe the 
perpetuation of the lumber industry in the Stat'-.— The Timberman. 

Trees for Eeforestatio n 

A total of 32q,150 trees were shipped from our Few York State nurseries 
this fall. Most of those were purchased by individuals, although some were 
planted by municipalities, fish and game.-. clubs,, camps, schools, etc. Tie 
total distribution of trees from the nurseries for 1924 will be about 
9,115,000 trees. This' is a n orT record for this State in reforesting. 

We already have on file for spring delivery a large number of tree 
orders, aggregating some 825,000 trees. In addition to this we will receive 
on January 1 orders covering the allotment of 500,000 trees, which are to be 
granted to the counties of the State for demonstration plantings under the 
direction of the various farm bureaus. — N.Y. Observer. 

ffore st ry pract i c e and Vision 

Thirty years cover the total age of American For- 
estry, In that period only the old-timers can wholly ap- 
preciate hoy/ high in achievement and promise the profession 
has climbed. In the old ■ ignorant and scornful days the for- 
ester almost 'foreswore his ideals lest he "be called a fool- 
ish visionary* Now, not only the unmistakable demands of 
the future, out the very "business needs of to-day ^require 
him to be a man of vision, Timber is not the only one of 
the natural resources bv which we live that is Hearing a 
predictable end, but it is one of the few that is replace- 
able, and its immense on our standards of living 
no- longer has to be prov3d. Where once --and not so long 
ago - the question was where to buy stumpage, the question 
now is how to grow it. 

From 'now on we are s:oing to be asked to produce tim- 
ber crops, , : 7e must bring our silviculture out of hiding 
and put. it to work. Let us be sure - for .the sake of our 
jobs .rr : that it will work, but let us be sure also that W.e 
know its wider meanings,, For the true forester it is not 
a set of immediate prescriptions and expedients, however 
practical they may be; it is a minute and growing knowledge 
of the life of a particular forest, its past, its future, 
and the ideal of composition and productiveness that is al- 
ways obscured by the conditions of the present. It means 
more and more insight into- the. Working of those natural 
factors that are lasting, like soil and water, and that 
maybe in .. large part controlled hy the forest itself*'. 
finally g it. means a long look ahead to all the human uses 
that the ultimate forest may fulfill. It is the exercise 
of this kind of vision that in the years soon to come will 
make the forester all the better a business man, and that 
makes his -orofession one of the most rewarding in existence, 
—~R. T. Fisher, Director,' "Harvard Forest School, penn. Serv- 
ice Letter. 

To Cure the 111 in Illinois 

One of the very interesting and instructive .exhibits at the Illinois 
Products Exposition held in Chicago recently w^a that of the Scientific Sur- 
veys, State of Illinois, which was arranged by P.. B. Miller, State Forester, 
and presented- in miniature the .forestry situation in Illinois. This display 
was in three parts,, one shewing the amount of wood needed for various pur- 
poses on the average Illinois farm; another showing the actual amount of wood 

grown on woodlots of the State; and the third shoeing the amount that with 
sound forestry methods could be grown. 

It was indicated that the chief products of the farm woodlot are 
posts, ties and cord wood; the fibres given being based in part on ques- 
tionnaires and in part on surveys actually made on thi ground. Of the 
2,353,662,000 board feet of lumber consumed in the State annually, 
2,310,453,000 feet is imported ana 43,209,000 is home grown and consul" d 
within the Statu. Native woods art chiefly hardwoods. — American Lumberman. 

T o the Industrial Workers of Louisiana 

Statistics on the cost of producing lumber show that for every $100 
spent for lumber, $90.00 goes to the labor n c ssary to remov same from the 
stump to the consumer. What action are you taking in protecting the natural 
resource that gives you 90 per c nt of its manufactured value as a means of 
making a living? Carelessness is the greatest of all factors causing the 
destructive forest fires. You protect your homes against fires, why not help 
us protect the product that means a good living to you? 

'That are you doing to prevent forest fires? — La. C as rvation ftuws. 

Bad Autumn '^ir '■ Season in East 

The droughty Weather that prevailed for rw ny w ks over a consider- 
able part of the country east of the Rocky Mountains, particularly in the 
New England and ftorth Atlantic States, had the usual effect of increasing 
the fire hazard in forests. In consequence of a special forecast issued 
by the Weather Bureau for the Adirondack region, indicating that no rain 
was in prospect, the Governor of "Tew York State took the unprecedented step 
of closing, by executive order, both the Adirondacks and the Catskills to 
campers and hunters until further notice. A statement issued in connection 
with the Governors proclamation declared that more than 40 fires had oc- 
curred since the preceding week, which "seriously threatened all the for- 
ests 1 ' in those regions. The order affected only the so-called "fire towns" 
in each forest preserve, which are a popular resort of hunters and picnickers. 
— Official Record. 

prosperity of Georgia D e-jj nds Upon Its Timber Supply 

The prosperity of Georgia, as well as ..very other State in the E T nion, 

depends upon what its citizens, are able to secure or produce from the ground 

For the past fifty years or more our lumber and naval stores have netted us 
an average of about fifteen million dollars a year. 


More than half of the States of the Union would pay millions of 
dollars for Georgia's climate and soil and begin growing timber in loss than 
thirty days. The State of Hew York spent more than two million dollars last 
year on purchase, protection and maintenance of forest land; the State of 
Pennsylvania, $683,000; Massachusetts, $427,0005 Michigan, $324,000; Maine, 
$210,000; Minnesota, $19S,C00; Ohio, $159,000-; Washington, $163,000; and 
twenty-three other States sums from. $2 ,000 to $87,000. All told, thirty- 
two States spent $5,410,119 on forestry. Every °tate in the South except 
Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina has concentrated its forces against the 
forest fire evil and in -ten years, unless we do the same at once, we shall 
be buying 50 per cent, if not more, of our lumber from them. 

The essentials necessary now are fire protection, standard taxation 
on land for a definite period, deferred -taxes on growing timber until cut or 
worked, a State forestry beard with a number of assistant foresters suffi- 
cient to advise and inform the public, and the necessary money to maintain 
such an organization.— C. B. Harman, Sec'y, Southern Forestry association in 
AGRICULTURAL BULLETIN, Atlanta and T7est Point R. H. Co., "estern Railway of 
Alabama , Georgia Railroad. 

Will Study Maryland's Lumber Need s 

The Maryland Department of Forestry is planning investigations to de- 
termine the quantity of lumber used annually in the State and its ratio to 
the amount produced there. It will also seek to determine the lumber- 
producing possibilities of the State, in order to ascertain the forestry 
development necessary to make Maryland self-sustaining in this commodity. 
In this connection F. 1. Besley, 'state Forester, pointed out that investiga- 
tions made by the Department show approximately four-fifths of the lumber 
used in Maryland to be brought in from outside sources at an outlay annually 
for freight alone of not less than 5 million dollars. This item, Mr. Besley 
contends, could be lopped off the freight bill if all of the lumber used 
were turned out from forests within the borders of Maryland. The... average 
freight haul on lumber was found to be about 475 miles. — American Lumberman* 

North Carolina on Exhibit in New Yor k 

The North Carolinian who is din New Ycrk in January and who '-visits the 
Southern Exposition to be held at the Grand Central Palace will be able to 
imagine himself "Down Horae, !: from whatever section of the State he may hail. 

A travelogue film, which is being made by the Motion picture Arts, 
Inc., of Greensboro, North Carolina, in pursuance with a contract' recently 
signed by the North Carolina Geological and Economic Purvey, will include 
views of the three sections, Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal plain. In 
turn these will be represented by pictures of their- more striking and il- 
luminating features, both physical and vocational* In form the motion pic- 
ture will be run in the familiar manner of scenes from a moving automobile, 
so that whatever is shown as the indicative finder follows the journey on 
the map of the State, the outstanding exhibit of North Carolina's now na- 

The film, in addition to making a novel and very attractive part of 
the, exhibit, will "be the permanent property of the State and of high value 
as a record. — M.C. Natural Resources. 

Idaho to Travel on the Clarkc-H c pary Train 

Idaho's forest fire laws are admittedly weak as r^ - ris th pre lec- 
tion of cut-over lands, and adequate protection here is the key 10 a. futur 
timber supply. Idaho, therefore, in order to share the- increased appropria- 
tions proposed by the Clarkc-McBary Law for .cooperative fire protection must 
so amend her forestry laws as to insure permanency in timber growing on State 
and private lands. To enable the State to take advantage of the various 
provisions of the Clarke-aciary Law, the worth Idaho Chamber of Commerce and 
the ^outh Idaho Commercial Clubs have appointee a committee of fourteen mem- 
bers to formulate a forest policy in line with tin needs of the entire State. 

On the committe are repr< sent^d th irrigation interests, the stock 
growers, the luiiber industry, the merchants, the State and federal govern- 
ment. The committee has for some months been studyinr th States' needs in 
the way of forest legislation, has held numerous rne tin", s, and is now- for- 
mulating a constructive forest policy to be introduced at the coming acasion 
of the Ida.ho legislature. — University of Idaho Forestry Bulletin. 

Gipsy T 'oth Yncount ;rs Opposition in 1'ew York 

Henry L. Mclntyre, supervisor of gipsy moth control of the Conserva- 
tion Commission for Hew York, who is in active charg< of the' ^ork of keeping 
this most dangerous forest, fruit and shade tr- a pest out of Pew York ->tate, 

"More than one hundred men are now actually engaged in the eiudson 
Valley in the battle to keep the gipsy moth out of New York State. During 
the summer months quite an extensive surv< y of the Stat vest of the Hudson 
River in search of this insect, failed to reveal its presence, which at the 
present time indicates that the danger of an invasion of the State by this 
pest is still confined to the Hudson Valley, pr ("sent indications are that 
complete eradication of all colonies found in the barrier zone area in pew 
York State has been secured, squally encouraging reports have been received 
from the federal Bureau of Entomology on conditions in the section of the 
barrier zone in New England over ,rT hich they have supervision." — P. Y*. Seed 


~Ez\7 Hampshire State Forest Area 

The State now owns forty— sev-en separate tracts of forest land compris- 
ing a total acreage of 20,133 acres. ,1*hree of these - Crawford Notch, Cardi- 
gan Mountain, and &. Z. pillsbury reservations each contain more than 2,000 
acres*— N.H« News Letter. 

A Hew Gam 3 preserve in Indiana 

The Fish and Game -Division o'f the Indiana Department of Conservation 
has recently made negotiations for the purchase 'of a 7,600-acre tract in 
Brown County, one nf the hilly sections of ' the State, for use as a game 
preserve, .a large part of this tract is forested and has excellent cover 
for game. It is planned to reintroduce some wild turkeys and other game 
"birds and animals once native to this region on 'this preserve. Hunting will 
not be allowed. 

The Division of forestry expects to cooperate with the Fish and Game 
Division to reforest certain portions of the game preserve and bring it into 
good timber-growing conditions. By means of this game preserve the .Depart- 
ment of Conservation hopes to keep for all time specimens of the wild life 
that originally frequented the Indiana hills and at the same" time demon- 
strate the possibility of growing timber-producing trees. on land that h?s 
been termed "too poor to grow trees." — Geo. R. Phillips, Asst. State Forester, 

Figurin g Up For est 7a lues in Penns y lvania 

- • * 

The question has frequently been asked, !, ',7hat"is the probable value 
of the forests in Pennsylvania?" \tith as few definite" figures as we now 
have showing actual forest conditions, both with respect to area and con- 
tent, the best answer that can be made to this question is nothing more than 
a reasonable guess. *. r e know that there are approximately 13 million acres 
of forest lands within the State. This includes large bodies of forests 
as well as the small woodland tracts scattered throughout the farming dis- 
tricts. Assuming that 3 million acres will not return any wood volume pro- 
duction we have left 1Q million acres of productive forest land. Under prac- 
tical and reasonable management these 10 million .acres are capable of yield- 
ing 80 cubic feet per acre per annum* Assuming that this annual crop of wood 
is worth to the owners of the land the low average of 2><j: per cubic foot, we 
have an annual wood crop stumpage value of 24 million dollars. Capitalizing 
this possible annual income at 6 per cent, we have a~capitalization of wood- 
land production amounting to 400 million dollars and it is this possible wood 
crop value and capitalization with which we are concerned in the protection 
of forests from fire. If en the other hand the' annual wood crop stumpage 
value is capitalized at a low and safe rate of interest close to the rate 
of interest which is actually obtained from farm investments, namely 3 per 
cent, it shows a capitalization value of 800 million dollars. 


Taken from another standpoint, we have the consid ration of what 
the possible outlay in wages would be annually if 10 million acres of for- 
est land in Pennsylvania arc satisfactorily protected and reasonably cared 
for. '.7e my reasonably assume that it will cost on the average of $2.00 
to cut the annual production on each acr : , $3.00 for transportation, £15. OC 
for manufacturing,. $3,00 for selling manufactured production, making a total 
outlay on the acre annual production of $23.00 er a total outl; y in wages on 
account of the production of the lo million acres. of 23 million dollars. 
These figures of course are estimates but I believe they ar< r asonable. 
Even allowing for considerably lower rates there is no question as to the 
fact that the productive forces of nature as expressed in our fore'st re- 
sources are of immense value to their owners end tc the commonw alth and 
that the economic necessity for their protection, considered purely and 
simply from the value of the annual wood crop, is fully demonstrated. — 
Geo. H. Wirt in pain. Service Letter. 

Unusual Drought in Louisiana 

Thirty perishes in the wooded areas, of Louisiana suffered int ns^ly 
from the drought during the autumn, .although many forest fires w re preva- 
lent, the loss did not exceed 10 p<"r cent of the total ares protected. 
Landowners, lumbermen, railroads and other agencies r.v ? the foresters 
splendid cooperation in holding down the loss. 

Clouds of sand blown from the large send bar on the Louisiana side of 
the Mississippi River at Natchez so obscur d th river for a few day3 that 
boats navigating within three miles of Natchez were compelled to sound fog 
signals to avoid collision. Rivermen say that this is the first time that 
the river has been so dusty that one could not see across the stream. — la. 
Conservation News. 

Bona Fide Jatives of Alabama 

Wild y^c&n trees have: recently been found in the vicinity of Union- 
town, Alabama, measuring approximately four feet in, diameter. Men who have 
lived in the vicinity for over sev< nty years stated that wh< n th y were 
small children trees' equally as large as tht se were very abundant. The 
native pecan is among the most valuable of forest trees. Of late years 
there. has been a question raised as to whether the wild pecan was native tc 
Alabama. Early botanists included the tree among those indigenous to the 
State,. but the latest books on the distribution of forest trees omit refer- 
ence to the pecan in the forests of .Alabama. 


To settle this question, Dr. Roland K. B&rper of the Alabama Geo- 
logical Survey and Major Page s. Busier, State Forester, made a field ex- 
amination through the sections of the State where the pecan had "been re- 
ported as existing in a natural wild state. The large specimens discov- 
ered and the testimony of the old inhabitants indicate "beyond a doubt that 
the wild pecan existed in Alabama long before any probability of its being 
introduced into this State from other regions. This most interesting and 
valuable tree has therefore been officially entered on the list of native 
Alabama trees. — Ala. State Commission of Forestry. 

Arbor Day Prize 

District Forester Holland in a special letter addressed to all the 
school teachers of his district, called attention to the fall Arbor Day, 
October 24. He offered three prizes of $1 each for the three largest col- 
lections of tree leaves, properly named. Simple rules for the guidance of 
the contestants were outlined and prizes will bo awarded as soon as the 
identification of leaves can be checked and the winners determined. The 
names of the pupils winning the contest will be sent to the teachers of 
each school. This prize idea was a feature of Arbor Day in the Sinnenahoning 
Forest District. — Penn. Service Letter. 

Slight Fire Damage to Montana Timber 

R. P. McLaughlin, State Forester of Montana, reports that less than 
$1,000 damage was sustained to Montana State timber during the fire season 

of the present year. There were but two fir3s on the half-million acres of 
timberland owned by the State. — The Timberman. 

A Burning Editorial Comment 

An editorial in The Hew York Times says: "Bad as is the destruction 
by forest fires in the Eastern States this year, due to the excessively dry 
autumn which made the leaves and grass almost as inflammable as tinder, it 
is but a repetition of what has happened many times before since the white 
men first pushed the line of civilization westward. The Indians, more chary 
with fire than ourselves, never caused the wanton damage that so many white 
men have done, to their shame; and, although lightning has often started a 
blaze, the destruction from natural causes never equalled that which re- 
sults from the carelessness and negligence of our own people. The forest 
area of the United States is estimated at about 550 million acres. Of this, 
according to Messrs. Zon and Sparhawk, two of the principal forestry ex- 
perts in the country, about half has no fire protection of any sort. In 


the reminder, which is composed of national and State forests and a few 
large prts' >rves belonging to great lutiber companies, a handful of rangers 
are kept and wa-tch towers have be n built. All 3f this is a recent develop- 
ment. It cane too Into to save the vast -r 's in Michigan, Wisconsin and 
Minnesota, which have been burned up during the last half century, The 
forests in l!ew Jersey and Her York have suffered irreparable injury this 
season. Due to the dry soil, there has be n more underground burning than 
usual, with the result that not only are the roots of the trees and plants 
destroyed, but the dried vegetable ratter in the soil itself hr .3 be e: 
scorched* . This means that it will be y< ars 1 f r such areas can be re- 
forested..." — Daily Digest, Department of agricultur . 

Setting; the' ~aco as '7:11 as r ?r - s in ' * " Yerk 

The jjew York Stat' For stry ass ciation has actually planted mor< 
than 25 ,000 'tree 3 on the hundred acres r>f 1 md purchased by the "'. Y. State 
Federation :£ Somen's Clubs at South G-L n " ] Ls, . Y. , known 1 z the ronen's 
Federation Forest, th3 first of it 3 kind in th Unil 1 States. The plant- 
ing T "ork will bo c:::toI ted in the Spring at w time 75,000 1 sr trees 
will be set out. Actual planting is bine done mainly by the 33 y Scouts. 

The Federation Fori st is of practical int r st t c us th <- x -a;i of 
the Stat-, have launched a campaign whos :oal will be ''.. F d ration Forest 
in every county >.f the State." ""'hey -will be led in teds work by the For- 
estry Association, m ith the hearty cooperation of th: Stat Conservation 
Commission. — I j . Y. 3 d Tree. 

T" 1 ^-ssi?t 7o:dl:t Q"-n -rs 

The ALabai.a Commission of Forestry announces th t Mr. Charles F. 
Fuechsel, an agunt of the Commission, has been assigned to the work of as- 
sisting farmers and other owners f small forest ar '3 in connection with 
handling and developing their woodland holdings. The' aid extended to the 
owners of snail tracts by the State Commission f Forestry is without cost 
to the landowners. Farmers and others who desire assist: nee in this connec- 
tion may obtain it oy addressing the State Forester at Montgomery, —Agri- 
cultural Bulletin issued by Atlanta and West point Railroad Co. , The West- 
ern Railway of Alabama, Georgia Aeilroad.'" 


Data on The Forsst Fires of 1924 in Idaho 

FIRES:. Causes 

Lightning „ 931 

Railroads 146 

Camp fires 191 

Smokers 236 

Brush burning 146 

Incendiary . 15 

Lumbering 39 

Miscellaneous 59 

Unknown 64 

Total . . 1367 





Class A - less than % acre. 
Class B - 4 acre to 10 acres. 
Class C -over 10 acres. 

LI. feet B.Mv 

National Forest land 12,000 
Other lands .17,460 

Totals 29,480 

IQ , 35Q 


Damage to 
logs, improve- 
ments! etc. 



Total acreage Area burned 

National Forest lands 20,616,000 58,273 
All other forest lands 2 . 324,000 6 9,688 

percentage burned 

totals 22,940,000 107.961 .0048 

The great outstanding needs for better forestry in Idaho are: 

(1) Constructive new forestry legislation. 

(2) Technical forest administration permanently free from political 


(3) Additional funds for fire protection. 


— Idaho Forestry Bulletin. 


r i^i ir.' znc j-ro s y e.;en :.n w j rse y 

When the gipsy moth vr^s first iiscovered in New Jersey in 1920 it 
was found, after preliminary scriti^, to occur over an area of shout lOC 
square miles,. After the first year's scouting the area was found t :> b- 
appro ximately 4Q0 square miles. In this area, 855 colonies, totaling over 
3 rr.illion egg rrasses, were found ana destroyed. After the first year's 
scouting and spraying work had be a don< , the territory ~" s ' gain scouted 
and 215 colonies, totaling 9q9 : ; ra ss s, were found. The infested 
area continues to remain at approximately 400 square miles. After two 
years of extermination work, 98 colonies, totaling 1,182 egg masses, were 
found which then occupied about 250 squar-.. miles. After three years of 
extermination work, a scouting of the t rritory resulted in finding 43 col- 
onies, totaling 723 egg clusters. The infested territory has been roauccd 
to less than 200 square miles.— Insect pest Survey Bulletin. 

F orestry Conval e ocing at a p v.t Jjo_sp ital 

For the past t r *o years tea acres of the forest 1: ad belonging to the 
Werneraville State Hospital, p ■ an sylvania , have be n worked over carefully 
and all blighted chestnut : ai other dead trees have b - r >ved. In- 
jured trees, as well as defective and inferior tre-v-s, hav be a cat out. 
The large logs are taken to the sawmill >p rated "by the institution and 
cut into lumber. The smaller material is cut into firewood, lio healthy 
trees are cut. All the tops and branches that are left after the cutting 
em, rat ion are piled ana burned. 

Each spring following the ".'inter's cutting operation all op :n places 
in the forest arc restocked by planting white, pine, Norway spruce, Scotch 
pine, and white ash. More than 9o per c nt of the tr as planted during the 
past three years are growing and in a thrifty condition, plans have n o^cn 
made for cjntinnin^: the improvement work during the coming winter, when 10 
additional acres "ill be worked over and put in shape for planting curing 
the spring of 1925. .all the cutting, logging, and plantina nork is done 
by inmates of the institution. Most of the trues used in the planting are 
grown in the small forest tree nursery that is maintained at the institu- 
tion in cooperation with the otate ^epartn nt :f Forests and Waters. The 
inmates at the institution also take care >f the nursery, which includes 
the sowing of the seed, cultivating and w eding the trees, and lifting and 
packing them fcr shipping.— penn. Service Letter. 

Cur^at -'ark on Currants 

Since the inception of the Western Blister Bust program, nearly 77qo 
plantings of cultivated blacic currants have been eradicated in the east. 
The number of plants eradicated is over 118,000. In Idaho alone, over 750 
plantings, representing nearly 5,000 bushes', have been removed. The Sta.tcs 
of Idaho and Oregon have passed definite legislation, making it unlarjful to 
possess, propagate or sell cultivated black currants. — Idaho Forestry Bul- 

fo r asters Hold Actional Convention 

A meeting known as the Ohio Valley Section of the iociety of .Amer- 
ican Foresters was held recently at Ol'ifty Falls, Indiana,, Foresters from 
Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois. Michigan, Wisconsin, and Indiana were present, 
and several spoke of the forestry problems of their individual States. — 
awe r i can Lumberman, 

To Prolong the Lives of Fenc e Posts i n Illinois 

Farmers in Illinois require annually 20,530,000 fence posts for re- 
newals, and the Natural History Survey, Urbana, estimates the number of 
posts in place at 200,162,000 in 625,506 miles of fence, equivalent to 25 
times the earth* s circumference. About 50 per cent, or 10,931,860 posts, 
of the total yearly requirements are obtained from native woodlots, the 
balance being imported' "crecsoted yellow pine and other species of wooden 
poets. By adopting preservative treatment of fence posts and thus erxtend- 
ing the It: life to an average of 20 or more years instead of 10 or less, the 
Natural History survey believes the farmers of Illinois can produce enough 
fence po! ts at the present rate to suoply 'choir o'*m r quirenents from native 

Of late, the supply of post timbers of the more durable species, such 
as mulberry and white oak, in the woodlots-, has been nearing the point of 
exhaustion, This ha-? increased the uu of several' less durable species 
for pcsts a principally red or black oak, elm, and even such trees as cotton- 
wood, willow,, ash, and maple. All these, species are short lived in the 
ground, and it does not pay to set them unless first treated with preserva- 
tives. It is also probable that sapling or second growth white oak will not 
la?t in the ground, much over eight years, hence it will pay to treat such 
posts as well as those of the less durabls species.r— Wood Preserving Hews. 

A Harvest Challenge 

Arthur Herbert Richardson, Forester for the Department of Lands and 
Forests of Ontario, writes that "In the fall of 1923 we gathered -over 3,000 
bushels of red pine cone's, and it has occurred to me that this might be a 
record for this species. Do yon. know of any one organization that .gathered 
more than thxs in one year?"— -p:nn. Service Letter, 


K. E. Kimball, District For ster 

Or"; of the district foresters of the State ? : si Service Department 
of the North Carolina ~\ >logical and Economic Survey claims th< record for 
showing a forestry film, "pines That Co: ! "" s shown 45 times in 

three days (19 tinier in one dry) at a roc nt county fair in < istern Mcrth 
Carolina, Hot a s many people stopped to view the forestry xhibit as V. 
attendant of the booth desired. The moving picture machine was part of the 
exhibit so he started it qoing. The hall was gloomy enough so the elec- 
tric lights were nece ssary during the cO r ' Th screen was a 30-inch square 
of white cardboard,. Too lantern was s^me tw Iv f t away, a bright pic- 
ture about two feet square "as shown* It is estirn: ted that ovr 3000 peo- 
ple saw more nr less of th< r L : c rri •" y a definite idea of the 
forestry exhibit. Many more must •' -. c lv in r ssion. 

New Orleans "_ j la-- of ;;> . - :, ;ocir.ti.:n _ "f ^tao - ~r et rs 

Chap in Jones, Forester for Virginia, Sec.-Treas. 

The fifth annual meeting of t . t ss c.i: tion if >>t; t - >r< soers held 
at New Orleans Di c rabor 1—1 ■ as very >:'cc ssful and lelpfui* The following 
program was giv* n: 

Address cf Welcome, State Senator Henry E. Hardtner. 

President »s .address, .<". -I. Sonde regger, P r st r for Louisiana. 

Clarke-McNary Law, Col, '.'.'. j, Greeley, Forester J, 3„ Forest ° rvie'e. 

Weeks Cooperation and Fire. Pr vent ion (info: y :r s nt JO 

J. G-, Peters, assist; nt - >i a r, : . i. Forest S rvice. 

Recreational Sites in the Statu Forest, : . "". Stuart., For< ster for 

P< nnsylva ciis . 

Extension Forestr; r , 0. 3. Celling™^ od, Ext nsior Forester, 0. J. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 

Extension Forestry under of t- Sup* .vision, 17, ^.. L. Bazeley, Comrr.issioncr 
of Conservation and State forester, Ivass. 

developing .Association. Efficiency, 0. ?. McLau hi in, Tor ster for I'iontana. 

Responsibility of Reforestation, !kjor ?. 6. Bunker, forester for -^lat^n . 

Forest taxation, J, M. C^ns' 1 5 -or i ster for jinn seta.. 

Forest taxation, Mrs. Florence Ston , Southern Pine association* • 

Secretary's Report, Vhapin Jones, J jr^stor for Virginia. 

A feature of the formal program was to addr ss of Colonel Cree^ey 
en "Cooperation between Federal Jovernment and the States under the Ciarke- 
McNary Law." Col. Greeley had at hand the tentative statement of "adminis- 
trative policy, which he went over thoroughly, explaining many of its new 
provisions and answering numerous requests for information from the State 


Another special feature of the meeting was the quite unusual oppor- 
tunity given to the State Foresters to s - the exceedingly interesting and 
significant experiments in forestry that are being conducted at Bogalusa 
and Urania. The hospitality of Col. '■■ . H. oullivan and his associates for 
the Great Southern Lumber Company and of Senator H* S, Hardtner for the 
Urania Lumber Company was quite exceptional , and the members of the staff 
of the Southern Forest Experiment Station of the U. S. Forest -Service also 
were very helpful to the State Foresters in explaining the research work in 
progress in those places. I thin 1 ' I can speak for the ot:oer State For- 
esters in saying that 3ogalusa and Urania fully came up to their advance 
notice s» rhich is going some. 

Splendid publicity was given by the New Orleans press and Lumber 
Trade journals were also represented. 

The resolutions adopted were as follows: 

1. Resolved, that in view of the tremendous losses from forest fires 
which have occurred throughout the United States this year, we, the members 
of the association of State Foresters, unanimously urge the committees on 
appropriations of both branches of Congress to allot a sum of not less than 
$1,000,000 for cooperation with the States in forest fire prevention under 
the Clarke-MclTary law, in the budget about to be considered. 

2. Whereas the Clarke-LIcSJary law was intended, supported and passed 

as a forestry law, and whereas in most States the regularly established State 
forestry department is vested, with the special and sole authority .for the 
execution of the State's forestry larr and policy, be it resolved by the as- 
sociation of State Foresters that the cooperation of the Federal Government 
on all matters pertaining to forestry with the respective States under the 
Clarke-MclJary law should be tLrouzh the State forestry departments, where 
such departments sxist. 

3. Resolved, by the Association of State Foresters at its -if th minim- 
al Meeting, ^ecember 4, 1924, that it is the sense of this meeting that a 
copy of the resolution passed o-j the association concerning the Clarke- 
McNary law be sent to Col. U. 3. Greeley, Forester, U. S. Forest Service, 
with the request that a committee of the association be given the opportu- 
nity to confer with him and through him with the U. S. Secretary of Agri- 
culture in sur>port of the resolution adopted and transmitted. 

4. Whereas the Association of State -orosters at its Fifth annual 
Meeting has recuived marked rssistance in its deliberation through the in- 
formation and suggestions received from Col. W„ B. Greeley and his associates 
in the U. S. Forest Service, be it resolved that the association hereby ex- 
presses its appreciation and thanks to them for their attention and coopera- 


5. Whereas the success of this in - has been very largely due 

to the foresight, thought fulness and sn varj ::" State For =t r ~.\ I-L 
Sonderegger of Louisiana;, "be it resol 1 . t we hereby ercpress our 

thanks for his splendid and efficient management of all the arrange- 
ments affecting the meeting. 

S< 7hereas the hospitality of the pr-ople of Louisiana his ;r *." 1 y 
added to the effectiveness and ;njoyr.:ent of this n tin ; be it 
resolved that ^e tender this expression : t cks to thcs< who have so 
generously extended true southern welcoi . - hospitality to us, partic- 

ularly the Division of Fori stry jf the Louisiana j partment of Conserva- 
tion, the -Lumbermen's Club of I sw Orleans, the Southern pine Association, 
Col, '.V, H- Sullivan and his associ t s in th~ Gee t Southern Jjumber Company 
and Senator Henry s. Hardtner and his assjeiai . s in th Urania Lumber Com- 

Officers elected for tV ensuing year were as follows: 

President, M. 3. Pratt, Sacramento, California. 
Vice President, C. I, wilbur, -ronton, N. J. 
Sec.. -Trea s. , Chap in Jones, University, Va. 

Additional numbers of the Executive Committt . : 

V, H. oon&eregger, 1 1< w jrl ans, La. 
• Edmund oecrest, Wooster, Ohio. 

Pore st 


>r Distribut i »n 

The following forest trees will be given away during the spring of 
1925 by the p nnsylvania Department of Forests and maters for planting on 
idle lands in Pennsylvania: 











Pitch pine 



'Jhite ash 


Scotch pine 



Black loci 

ist i 



6- 12 

3- IS 

These trees may seem small to the inexperienced planter, but twenty 
years practice in forest tree planting has shown conclusively that the best 
and most economic results are attained by planting small but stocky and 
thrifty tref s» "Shipment will be made by age and not by height. 

These trees have been grown for wood production. They are not suited 
in size and shape, and cannot be furnished for planting around private resi- 
dences, on cemetery lots, in private parks or on other private lands for 
shade and ornamental purposes. — -penn. Service Letter. 


I aland t Chr mi pie s 

In his annual report, Arthur F. Fischer, Director of Forestry, 

Philippine Islands, recommends giving greater impetus to the policy of 
permanent forest reserves; changing the legislation affecting communal 
forests in ord.->r to give th Q m the status of forest reserves; delegating 
authority for the enforcement of forest legislation tc the Director of 
Forestry; establishing at least si:c forest experiment stations throughout 
the Islands; -providing a forest products laboratory for the Division of 
Investigation; making funds available for adequate reforestation of 
watersheds; placing a larger teaching staff ana sufficient equipment at 
the Forest School; and increasing the personnel of the Bureau, particu- 
larly in the ranger group. 

The Bureau of Forestry lias a field and office force of 5 foresters, 
4 forest supervisors, 72 rangers, 45 forest guards, and 13 clerks. 

The reforestation problem of the Philippine Islands divides itself 
into four main heads: 

(1) Reforestation of all absolute forest lands not included within 

the communal forests* ■ 

(2) Reforestation of communal forests. 

(3) Reforestation of forest lands privately owned whose owners 
desire to devote themselves to the growing of timber. 

(4) Cooperation in establishing forest nurseries and plantations. 

At the Forest School the present wood collection contains 1,756 
specimens representing 112 families and 9.24 species- Of the above total 
461 specimens representing 45 families and 359 species are foreign woods 
mostly from Borneo, Sumatra, Burma, Sarawak, and the Malay peninsula, with 
a few from Argentina, Guam, Cochin China, Java, Australia, and the United 
States. — p. I, Annual Report for 1923. 



e .rent I\ieeds of G-c omin 

As in every other project, tut first need is for instruction 
reaches the individual. In Georgia "e must educat: th< citizens to realise 
the meaning and value of forestry to him personally. If w could teach the 
forestry slogan " T Jse but not abuse" to every ran, woman, and child in 
G-eorgic the problem would be simple, tut this is a hard task and will take 
tine. If we delay longer in putting tb ;i i letter forestry" program before 
the people to make them s th ir ?. struct! v rr thods f 1 Lng and lack 
of conservation, all the virgin ti ill 1. - .. nd ~ "'ill lave to 

grow another crop. It is estimated by good authority that there is the 
equivalent of enough lunib r oar l.pssly d i tr r in the United 

States to build fivo-roo/r bungalows fift • i rt on both sides of a 

street reaching from l?ew York to Chicago. Our annual loss by fir is 
10 million dollars. Th ; « -\ nt l >rt says tl ; mor than fifty per 
cent of this less wis in the South. Another authority t lis us that t 2 loss 
by insects is equal to that of fire, twenty- eight Stat* s ' e" 7 ' :>r ■ nia< i fire 
and insect protection. Georgia has no ouch organization. 

Thirty-five now have some form of forest I islation. although 
Georgia is one of the best tinb x- rowing States in th Union, she will never 
make much headway until we have a State Department of forestry with a State 
Forester and can adequate number of helpers situated in different sections of 
the State. T7e should have our State nursery w] r 3 Lings could be grown 
and distributed at cost,. 

The State of Geo] la should hew a St te forest located in the noun- 
tains where forest products C , .d be grown, wh re the people could find cool 
camping grounds, and where the headwaters of cur streams would be protected, 
insuring us a constant flow and non-e ■ / m of the land. The control of 
woods fires is absolutely necessary befor w can practice forestry in Georgia, 
In order to stop these we must have two things; a strong public sentiment for 
better forestry protection, and the enactment of adequate timber protective 

In addition to fire prevention, the forest lands need only one thing 
to grow another crop of timber and that is time, line runs into money with 
our present tas laws. Why should we tax our timber crop 20-30-40 times rr\cn 
cotton, corn and such crops are taxed only once? This can be cared for ''ay a 
Forest Contract Act, 

There are 27 States receiving Federal aid in cooperative forestry work. 

The last session of the T J. S* Congress made an increase of $2 B 7Q0;000 
available to States having certain forest laws. Why can't our State get for- 
est legislation and her portion of this "Federal Aid" money? Until Georgia 


creates a public sentiment which will secure forest legislation we cannot get 
our snare of this Federal aid. 

There are a number of organisations doing all they can for the forests 
of Georgia and I think a few of them should have mention here. The Georgia 
Forestry Association has accomplished more than an- other organization along 
this line; the Federation of i7omon*s Clubs has done splendid workj the Par- 
ent-Teacher Associations arc very active; ana the Georgia State College f 
Agriculture not only produces expert foresters at its school of forestry but 
employs an Extension forester. 

Lot me briefly summarize some of the "Forest Needs of Georgia": 

Education in forest conditions and betterment. 

a) Department of Forestry, rrith a State Forester and Ms helpers. 

State nursery and extension foresters to promote forestry and' advise 
the farmer. 

Adequate laws of protection ana taxation. -- Depre Barrett, Extension 
Forester,. Georgia State College Df Agriculture, in the ^agricultural Bulletin, 
Atlanta and West point R, R, Co., "estorn Railway of Alabama , Georgia Railroad, 

Fore st Taxation Study in '■'jiohi o-in 

Professor A, K. Chittenden Df the Michigan Agricultural College with 
Karl Dressel, Graduate Assistant, is making a study of forost taxation in 
Michigan. They have covered 30 far tine results obtained from the Woodlot 
tax act of 1917. It ^as found' that only 91 tracts are listed under this 
act. pighty-five per Gent Of tho woodlot owners sc far interviewed expressed 
themselves as being satisfied "ith the op ration of the act. Mr, Dressel is 
carrying on a field study in several typical townships, in the northern part 
of the State with a view to determining what the present forest tax situation 
actually is, ,,'■-:•• 

Increase in lumber o f Forestry Students at Cornell 

The registration of professional forestry students this year is' ex- 
ceptionally gratifying, 134 signing uo with the Deportment of forestry; Cor- 
nell University, Ithaca, IT. Y. , for the first term of 1924-25, last year the 
first term registration was 38. Seldom if ever has the number been over 100 
prior to this. *■■*£«. H, Guise. 


Tee ooirie o f F.ese^rch 

In an interesting article on "Research work and its 
applications" in a rec mt number :>f "Nature, " the author, 
Sir Tllliam Bragg, suras up the important reasons for re- 
search as follows: 

"Her are various- reasons for the encouragement of 
resp£.rch: the benefit )f the student, the addition to 
human knowledge, pow r and riches, and the needs )f - - 
fence, military and industrial. But I t hi rue we still 
have failed to includ; the most imp rtant reason of all, 
the real reason of which the others are only derivatives* 
It is that the spirit -of res arch is like t - v ment of 
running water, and the absence of it la t a nation 
of a pool, .Scientific res arch, in its widest sense, im- 
plies, of cours , far mor<^ than "^coloring th: question >f 
physics and chemistry and bj >i - -; . It is not a reli :% n; 
but it is the act of >nc. It is the outcome "if belief 
th t in all things which *.: ■ try t.. do wc nay by careful 
Si a.:', i nd by a better und est "in- ■■ them better; that 
the world, far b < u't. i.t we can sc of it "n the sur- 
face, is full ?f the ;s which it would be well for us tc 
know. It is rvjir duty and >ur -"in to explore; we have 
always ^rown by doing so, and we beli vc that the health 
of our souls depends on doing* so. Shall we sit still 
when there- are difficult qu stions to solve and when the 
answers may give us new insight and now power? There is 
a hesitation which ^ould bo>e us not to push forward lest 
we come to think less of the world. As against this, re- 
search is an act of faith in th immensity of things. 
There is no end -co the sr-arch; it is a poor thought that 
there might be. 

'■'The spirit of research would drive us all to work 
to the utmost af our power, believing that the mere we do 
and the better we do it, the better fir the T_T ork and lives 
of others. It is vigorous, hopeful, trustful and friend- 
ly; it adds always new interest and new life," 


G-.:i::3 from the Accent Ranger Examination 

"The creation of the National forests was due to the formation of 
the earth, the volcanic outbursts, the climate and the heavy rainfall* 1 ' 

"The forests started from a stone in a stream. The stone hurst in 
two and soon had twi^s which grew into bushes, and then many bushes which 
grew into trees, etc., which had seeds, and that is the reason we have pins, 
seders, fur in IT. York, '.Test Virginia and California." 

"I desire to enter the forest Service because I like the forest. 
I like the work of a Forest ranger. I like the but dore life. I am not 
afrade of work. It is good wages. I want to help pertect our grat forests. 
Help to save our country, and to keep thousans of men in work." — C&1. Ivcws 
Notes for Forest Schools. 

Talk on South .American -'pods 

Dr. B. ::. Dahlgren, of the botany department of the Field Bfiaseum of 
Natural History, Chicago, has spent considerable time in British Guiana ^n 
the north coast of %uth America studying the tropical flora, and is inter- 
nationally regarded as an authority on exotic woods. In an address "before 
the Roo-Hoo Club of Chicago recently, ho gave a vivid picture of the vast 
South American forests of the magnificence of the trees in their natural 
habitat, and of "the rare beauty, durability and commercial value of their 
woods. Very little is as yet jtnowri regarding the South .American woods. 
About 5 per cent ->i the forests of British Guiana are held by private owners, 
and practically all cutting is being done Dn the remaining Government land. 
The annual exports of all commodities for that country are valued at 60 mil- 
lion dollars, of which only $230,000 are of timber, $193,000 of this latter 
sum being credited against one species, greenheart. 

The outstanding features of the South American forests are tZie great 
height of the trees and the thick underbrush. The forests are in most cases 
of a badly mixed character. The great number of differ, nt trees that can 
grow on srall areas is astonishing, and as many as thirty different species 
have been found on one acre. Greenheart, which is described as a very 
straight and very tall tree, with first branches 60 to 70 feet above the 
ground, is at present the most valuable and commonly exploited wood and 
often represents 40 to 6c p* j r cent of a stand. It is a heavy and hard wood, 
impervious to water, insect depredations, etc., and is an excellent material 
for wtorf construction, piling and like uses. The average greenheart log, 
as seen at Georgetown ready for exportation, is 2q to 24 inches square and 
60 to 70 feet or more in length. 

The s^cend most important commercial wood is carapa, also known as 
crabwood or British Guiana mahogany, and the third, walapa. These woods 
also are to be found in 40 to 50 per cent pure stands. Another valuable 
and abundant wood is purpleheart, so named because its heart is of a purple 

color. This should make excellent veneer, flooring and stair material be- 
cause it cannot wear out, is by nature very shiny and takes a beautiful 

finish." One wood to w Mch p? .■■'■" ".a called particular ' a: j.r 

snakewood B the pretti st oi ta a. rari ti s, '-"hica . : I - . . - - a,' 

demand from furnitur md e ; . r- r These ar all very hardwoods, hut 
there are also i;aay other varieties in Scuth America that are as light and 
scat as pine. — American Lumberman, 

T ra vj ling E xhibit ei ~si^. pailr?ad 

H. R, Kylie, la Charge rf Motion Pictures and Exhibits, - " >t c rvice 

a train of privatt errs carrying exhibit material and motion pic- 
tures on forestry has just fini a a successful trip on the Erie Railroad 
through p< rts of h" 7 i rk -ad Pennsylvania, end has the distinction of ~'o>-Lnz; 
the first enterprise of this kind as fer as the writer is aware. 

The t^o cars of exhibit material - r ere- nged in somewhat the follow- 
ing order: 

Types of haul 3 to b. forestei. 
Species to be planted, 
Examples :f ere 'a la 
C C2 jf the w ) ell .t. 
Marketing the product,, 

S dling: \n -~ . shown fc different e s and methods ~>f planting were 
demonstr . : d, Ore rs ! r plants i ;r ta' . by th< L partm nt if - >r 3ts 
and Waters of Pi ee ■'-■ a. . c.nd ' - ; ^ere.Ven Commissi ot. : f Hew York 
State. Motion pictures from both c ta : s ' re shoT/n and short lectures 
given at each of the stops made by the "F restry Special," 

It was estimated that the average attendance a: s approximately 400 
at each stop, and ther - re 50 st:>ps. This ned ; . an attendance of 2c, 000 
people - farmers, city dwellers, owners of woodlots, high school and grade 
school pupils and eaaa teachers; in fact, a truly repress " biv roup 
from the communities visited. As a result, some 500,000 trees will probably 
be planted next sprin a 

In addition go the exhibit and'mctjc^ picture work a great deal of 
P*eppy advance publicity was gotten out, ard the extension departments of the 
two States have planned to follow up the work done her? with demonstration 
plantings in the spring, Vvhat'th harvest will be may only be conjectured, 
but most of us who w-a'e interested fe ;I tie t a great deal of good must neces- 
sarily come of it. It was a new undertaking and there is every possibility 
that other railroads may be glad to cooperate along similar lines in the 
future . 


Starting to plot at G- 'o rg ia ?or-,st School 

The forest School of the Georgia State College of Agriculture has 
started an experimental plot in silviculture. Mr, H, 3. Mitchell of Clarke 
County has turned over to this department one acre which was thickly cov- 
ered with pine saplings. Half of this timber was thinned and the other 

half untouched. It is the purpose of "the department to let the hoys who 
are specialising in forestry study the contrast in growth and reproduction 
from these two plots. — Agricultural 3ulletin issued by Atlanta and -'est 
point Railroad Company, Western Railway of Alabama, Georgia Railroad. 

T'ork of International Institute D iscussed 

Dr. Asher Hob son, delegate of the United States to the permanent com- 
mittee of the International Institute of -Agri culture, Rome, Italy, spoke re- 
cently at a special conference of Department of Agriculture extension work- 
ers in the Office of Cooperative Extension work, Washington, D. C. 

The institute, which -."as established through the efforts of an Amer- 
ican citizen, David Lublin, held its first conference in 19q5. Forty coun- 
tries signed the treaty prepared by that conference. Now practically all 
countries of theworld are signers of the treaty, which has the distinction 
of being perhaps the only one involving a considerable number of countries 
that continued to function during the World War. 

In addition to its service in disseminating general agricultural 
statistics obtained from the cooperating Countries, the International Insti- 
tute is able to collect from the 30 countries requested information which the 
permanent committee finds of sufficient general interest to warrant the under- 
taking. Individuals are also assisted in making special agricultural stud- 
ies in any of theco operating ccunvries, through butting them in touch with 
the persons cr offices best equipped to assist these particular investigations 
and through furnishing linguistic secretarial and interpreter assistance when 
desired. — Official Record, 

pulp rind Paper Courses in Deman d 

Almost 125 men have been enrolled in the pulp and paper correspondence 
courses given by The Forest Products Laboratory in cooperation with the Uni- 
versity of *'isoonsin. Most of the students live in the Lake States region 
and the Hew England States, but there are also some from adjoining regions 
as well as from the extreme South and ".Test. 

The courses are primarily for those who have had pulp and paper mill 
experience and who want the technical knowledge, although such experience 
is not essential to an understanding of the work, ^-mong those enrolled are 


oilers, clerks, salesman « in fact, practically every position in a pulp 
and paper plant has been represented, 

The courses include the preparation and treatment of wood pulp, 
manufacture of mechanical, sulphit i , 3oda, and sulphate pulp, and the rr.anu 
facture of paper. The cost of the courses is from $2o to $25. Additional 
courses will "be announced short ly 

7ild Life Dir e ctor "Jnk ^s Tr ip to ! Y7 ild "est" 

Dr. Charles 0. Adams, Director of the Roosevelt Wild Life Forest 
Experiment Station, of the rfw York State College of Forestry at Syracuse, 
spent July, August, and September visiting the National Forests and nation- 
al Parks of the Southwest, Ho visited the -^i strict Forest offices at Albu- 
querque, San Francisco, Ogden, and Denver, as well as the Southwestern For- 
est Experiment Station, the Great Basin Range Experiment Station, and the 
Fremont forest Experiment Station, o )• oci< 1 attention was ;iven to seeing 
as much of fi^ld conditions as tin p rmitt d, with particular reference 
to wild '.ifo, research, grazing, recreation, and general forest and Ration- 
al park policies. 

The Rational Forests visited were Carson, Coconino, Tusayan, Kaibab, 
Sequoia, Stanislaus, Sierra, TTasatch, kanti , the Fr mont, and the national 
parks were the Grand Canyon, Sequoia, and the Yosemit . VJith regard to the 
forests he was particularly impressed with the serious and widespread over- 
grazing, with few exceptions the relative paucity of game, end with the keen 
appreciation on the part of local forest officials of the importance of game 
and forest recreation in its relation to s- curing public support for general 
forestry purposes* He w^.s pleased to not- the widespread recognition of the 
severe menace of overgrazing. The urgency of greater financial support for 
sil^icultural research was very evid :it, : nd the need of extending research 
to other fields of forestry than silviculture and grazing was equally evi- 
dent. Several serious administrative difficulties hove arisen because of 
this lack of adequate research and publication regarding T "ild life and other 
problems. The enthusiasm and devotion of the men to their work was every- 
where in evidence. 

F 3W 3v , j 1 d i n o^ J'qj? '£', > r e .; t _?ro -.octs Lob' r- t^ry in panada 

Arrangements are being concluded between th Dominion Government and 
the University of British Columbia, whereby the latter will erect a new 
building specially frr the Dominion Forest Products Laboratory, at the new 
university site, point G-rey, to which the university is moving this year. 
A cooperative agreement has existed under which the staffs of the labora- 
tory and of the forestry faculty rf the university have mutually arranged 
for facilities in the laboratory for student demonstrations. The Dominion 
Government maintains the laboratory staff, providing equipment and machin- 
ery. It has recently expanded its field of research to more nearly meet the 
special requirements of British Columbia woods, -and of the lumber manufac- 
turing industry. Still further broadening of the scope of the institution 
is to be provided for in the now building. — American Lumberman. 

School Child r .n bo Buy Forest 

A mass meeting of Milwaiflcee high school students was held recently 
in the auditorium of the public mussun at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, at which 
tent- -civo pirns were made for fche -purchase of 4,000 acres of virgin timber- 
land on the shores of Lake o» the Pines in .Sawyer County, Wisconsin, for 
preservation as a permanent park and forest reserve. 

An executive committee was chosen and tentative plans Bade for the 
raising of $300,000 necessary to purchase the property. The plan is to 
reach all the teachers of Wisconsin through the State Teachers' Convention 
and to enlist their support in carrying the appeal to the 500,000 school 
children of the State. 

Milwaukee educators are of the opinion that no such spontaneous move 
of such large proportions has ever heretofore originated among the high 
school children of the nation and have expressed surprise at the thorough- 
ness with which the oroject is "being planned. — ^American Lumberman. 

Old .tjjrjot plantatj ^ns^^ _M ; o a: ■■•.'■ n agricultural College 

While professional courses in forestry were not given at the Michigan 
Agricultural College until 1903, an active interest was taken in forestry 
matters much earlier as is evidenced by the forest plantations established 
by Dr. Beal in 1896 and 1875. permanent sample plots ore maintained by the 
forestry Department in these plantations and yield table data are being 
gradually collected. 

■a Menace t : _gi are seta Oaks 

According to Dr. S. A. Graham, forest entomologist with the univer- 
sity of J-'innesota, the two-lined oak borer is killing oak trees in Minne- 
sota, particularly in th< Lak r prions. The oak trees of the southern half 
of the State also are menaced, according to complaints reaching the divi- 
sion of entomology at the university farm in St, Paul. If the oaks contin- 
ue to die at the present rate, there 1<T ill be practically no oak trees left 
in fifteen years, is th jpinion of Dr. Graham, — American Lumberman. 

Re gistration in ^or-- :' stry at penn. State College 

The enrollment at penn« State College this year for courses in for- 
estry is as follows: Seniors, 10; juniors, 10; sophomores, 12; and freshmen, 
25. This is not including those taking courses in wood utilization and lum- 
bering, and those in city forestry, — ?enn. State forestry ITews Letter. 



HDNB7 C. " 7 LI -. 

The forest Service has lost a great loader and a sym- 
pathetic friend in th< a nth of o :C r :tary H nry G. Wallace. 
o cretary 'Jr.] lace cai to the ijepartm nt with a deep inter- 
est in national cons rvation, cr ated "by his o w n study )f 
the land problems of the country i i by hie intima/te con- 
tae-t ,T itIi CJov r . r pinchot and jt . r 1 ■ • - ts in the earlier 
phases of th mov r it. 

IJn Secretary >i iigricultur h s ever had a more com- 
plste grasp of :he fun i Ltal things which the National 
Tor* sts seek to accomplish >r >f •:' , need fcr a i re c m- 
pletc n " : . tal for< strj policy. N r has an - ; Secretary I: 
a mon sy k the-tic fell •• ■ ; . Ing for his a : c s in the 
Government work and fur th .r - r.l needs end int< r s f s. 
Hs never lost the hearty, conr dely f lj ; of th man 
is bred from the soil and thoroi l- stands : ad shar s 

th: viewpoint md ispirrxtions of t Lain ,_ ]i . It 

always a p] >asur ■ me to tak i the personal 

problems and interests of the peopl in the S :>r ■ zi Service 
because of bis quick end. sympathetic u ' Linq of the 

airs of y life, v ras n ■ - ' htful 

experience than to ace -• .v.- Secx'etary Wallace in tec. field, 
whi r 7a s . '. 3 L as muc i it h >mc in eating a meal at a 

ranger station, in talking with a forest guard, or in meet- 

settl n and stockmen, as h. ,-T e.s in mingling -c7 ith the 
di ,nitaries and potentates of oh; lend. 

Secretary T allace always had a kuen zest for the sim- 
ple pleasures ana everyday interests common to us all, 

. bh r it was a fishing exoediti?n, a trip over ~ Rational 
Forest^ or a horseshoe pitching contest. And he carried 
this sain; broad syi Lhy and mid rstanding through all of 
his official duties. 'Those ef us who had the privilege of 
close association "'it,' 1 him will always think of him first 
as a personal friend. 

Our leader end fri«n<? is gone, but his inspiration 
and his work remain, The b^et possible commemoration of 
Secretary T7alla.ce will be f.or as who carry on to live up 

to the faith which he had in what T ?e are trying to do and 
to his trust in our ability and loyalty to accomplish it. 


Board of P^?vi?w to stuo y for est Fires Starts Uork 

The Board of Review which ^as appointed to investigate the 1924 , 
National Forest fire record, in order to determine how the Forest .Service 
can profit by the lessons and experiences of the past season, started work 
on the Shasta Rational forest, California, on October 21. later, the 
board will visit the Plumas, r j?ahoe, ^ierra, and Angles National Forests. 
Members of the Board of Review are District Forester paul C-« Redington, 
Inspector Svan W. Eelley of the Uashington office, -assistant District 
Forester R. L. Deering, District Inspector E. I. Kotok, 3. B. Show, gilvi- 
culturist, and Logging Engineer J. H. Price, It has visited the Shasta and 
Plumas Forests and gone over in great detail the accomplishments of the sea- 
son ana the failures, and made a thorough-going analysis of the fire prob- 
lem, although the work is not yet complete, several ma jo* conclusions are 
already evident. The first of these is that we have no real measure of the 
maximum rate of spread of fires in different forest types on which our 
field men can make an estimate of the type and extent of control measures 
necessary. Several fires were analyzed, which started about the middle of 
the day and reached a size of over 2,000 acres before evening, necessitating 
the construction of between 8 and 10 miles of fire line to control. Unless 
the men In charge of fire suppression can know several hours in advance how 
large a particular fire is to become, there is serious danger of underesti- 
mating the resources needed and of failing to control the fire the first 

Another distinct conclusion is that there must be a serious attack 
upon the problem of reducing physical hazards by such means as snag disposal, 
slash disposal, can struct ion of more fire trails through large areas of re- 
stocking brash fields, along rights of way, etc. Under critical conditions 
such as existed for a continuous stretch of 4f months this year, the possi- 
bility of ^controlling fires is seriously reduced because of previous inabil- 
ity to concentrate physical prevention measures in the forests. 

The thirl important conclusion is the vital need for thorough and 
systematic training. 'of men. Perhaus in no task in civilian life is the 
penalty for unskillful work so severe as in fire suppression. It ought to 
be no more impossible to teach, men go fight fires than to teach them to 
wage war and it is eviient that serious attention must be paid to this ex- 
ceedingly important problem, 

^ : '15 rcased Inter >ee t_ in Ranger Job 

A class of 29 candidates appeared for the Forest Ranger examination 
at Hot Springs, Arkansas, en October 25. This is by far the greatest num- 
ber ever to enter the examination on the Arkansas and is doubtless somewhat 
indicative of the awakening interest in forestry throughout the 3tate. 


Condensed from an address given under the auspices of the California 
Development Association by paul /"&. Redington, District Forester, 
California -ist-hco, 7. 3. o'orest Service. 

First as a necessary background to a few of the outstanding forest 
conservation needs, I desire to point out the important place which for- 
ests as a basic source Dccupy in our economic life. Any account of for- 
est values must consider timber production, watershed protection, recrea- 
tion, grazing and wild life. 

Important as these functions if the forest are, it is as the source 
of wood that the forest exhibits one of its most valuable relations to oxxr 
economic structure. 

The ^ast has already exhausted its northern pineries, once thought^ 
"inexhaustible" while its last rreat softwo >d reservoir, the southern piner- 
ies, is already s:> markedly declining that the president of the °outhern 
pine Lumbermen's Association has estim t i that within 10 years that indus- 
try will cease to supply more than th d< mands of its own immediately trib- 
utary region. That: means that the industrial east, from Hew York ^ity to 
Chicago and the Mississippi Vail.-.-, c i ming more lumber than all the rest 
of the country put together, must tarn almost entirely to the Pacific Coast 
fer its softwood timber supplies* It means that pacific Coast lumber pro- 
duction must double, treble, quadruple in future years. 

Cm we supply it? Yes, if we and all the rest of the United states 
grow more timber, on every acre best suited to that purpose. But only thus. 
Otherwise we snail repeat here the ures' nt pliant of Pennsylvania, "penn's 
Woods," where with millions of acres once forested out new neglected, fire 
gutted deserts, growing nothing of value, the whole State produces less 
lumber than is used in the metropolitan district ef Pittsburgh alone; or of 
Michigan, which 35 y:ars ago produced more pine lumber than any other equal 
area in the world, bat now cuts less than little Connecticut, while its peo- 
ple pay a freight bill of approximately 15 million dollars a year to haul 
from our Pacific Coast the lumber which they must have and which their own 
once forested lands, aonagrieiVltural, and now idle wastes, should produce 
but do net. .and after the Pacific Coast is exhausted, if it shall be, we 
are as a nation at the end of our virgin timber supplies. 

The problem is s what shall b don-: with the timberland now in pri- 
vate ownership, rapidly being cut ~>v r with no definite plan for insuring 
a new crop. The Congress of the United States has recognized the problem 
and through the enabling legislation of the Clarke-McITary -^ct offers to 
the States an opportunity to take the first stews in a sound forestry pro- 

Coming now to the steps necessary to insure growing timber on lands 
adapted for that purpose, we hold the following to be of immediate impor- 
tance : 

1. Air— tight fire protection on both virgin forest and cut-over land, 
because without this, other steps in the program are futile. This can be 
most readily accomplished by embracing the offer of the Federal Government 
to match on a 50-50 basis the sums expended by the State and private agen- 

2. State legislation whi^li will give the State authority to re- 
quire, "by practical methods, the adequate and timely disposal of the 
slash and refuse on logged off areas, and money for strict enforcement. 

3»"That in the process of logging an adequate number of small trees 
should be carefully reserved for seeding purposes, and the young forest 
growth "be saved to a reasonable degree. 

4, That the destructive methods of high lead and high speed log- 
ging now in general use, are incompatible with this program and should be 
supplanted by those which will make possible the saving of seed trees and 

These may anuear on first glance as arbitrary measures but research 
shows that they are all practical steps and already accepted as such by 
operators who are thinking somewhat of the future. They are in the main 
justified as ojxch by operating economy and efficiency as by the desire to 
maintain a productive forest. Definite studies show that small trees in 
most cases <5.o not pay for their cutting and it would therefore be good 
business, as well as good forestry, to leave such for seed reserve pur- 

Slash fires not only destroy the cut-over lands but in the end cost 
real money -to suppress. 

There are admitted difficulties in the path of this program, per- 
haps the most serious of which is the present over-taxation of cut-over 
lands. This renders it cczzly ti hold lands for timber production, but I 
am confident that an early solution of this vexing problem is in sight. 

The Ranger's prayer 

H. E» Elliott, Mainour National Forest 

Oh Lord in Heaven, hear our plea ! G-ive us high humidity; 
Spare us trouble, work and pain, send us stormy skies and rain' 
Teach the folks chose summer days "Prevent Forest Fires - It Pays"; 
Keep the lightning from our pines ; keep the sheepman in his lines; 
Make the cowman know his faulb '.'hen ho fails to put out salt i 
Teach the tiniberman to blush when he fails to pile his brush; 
Make us wise to under scr.nd these nc Manuals at hand; 
Make our Supervisor wise, hide our Loneheads from his eyes; 
Hear this our meek request and tlaen we'll do our very best; 

Jjnen I 


Usir.v: "v :i '. 7a.;tes f or Pulp 

:, "i7hy. aren't the poor species and the wood wastes used for pulp?" 

is a question frequently asked. Apparently the chief reason is because 

)f the hi eh cost of brin ing the materials to the mill or in shipping the 
: 1 : ... ;o ;h markets. 

The pulp-wood species in the Pacific Coast States, with usually 
limited lumber values, Would seem to offer specially good opportunities 
for utilisation. Markets, however*. are largely in the Northeast which 
in 1922 consumed 31 p jr cent ^)f the total pulp wood usee in the United 
States, while the Pacific C^st used only 7 per cent. Freight costs on 
pulp wood are constantly increasing in the North e st as the supply of 
timber decr.jfi3;s; in 1922 th cost per cord f.o.b. the mill was $17, 55 
in the Northeast and on the Pacific Coast it was $10. 20. If * he differ- 
ential in pulp— rood costs becomes sufficiently great to take care of trans- 
portation on the finished product, due allowance being made for any small 
difference in c^st of manufacture, the eastern market will be to>:i to the 
western manufacturer. Transcontinental freight rates on paper are also a 
factor in this dey lopmeht. 

In the oouth the problem of use depends largely upon the location 
of the material; if it is found at plants unduly scattered, none of which 
produce it in amounts sufficiently large to support a pulp mill unit, the 
cost of collecting an adequate supply from several sources soon becomes 
prohibitive. The lar - qtiantities if "lightwood" and pine stumps in this 
region nave pot ntial value as sources of naval stores and pulp. Under 
favorable conditions the irrmufactur of pulp from the chips should yield 
a profit and at the same time place the extraction industry on a better 
basis. Possibly development would be most favorable if , th pulp mill could 
be located at the extraction plant, thus reducing the cost of transporting 
the extracted chips, — Forest Products Laboratory, 

Hemlock - Th? Bitter Truth 

In Pennsylvania they plant 'em to grow into a future timber supply, 
because they are tolerant of - heavy sheet, moke rapid growth in early life, 
and are ^ery hardy under trying climatic conditions. In District 1 (lion- 
tana and northern Idaho) wc give 'em away to set rid of 'em, or we girdle 
'em to form • future fire tra? - I mean hemlock trees. All of these things 
done to heraloek trees are "forestry." True, the hemlocks in Pennsylvania- 
are a different species. than Durs, but not one forester in ten could tell 
the difference in either trees o? the wood if they saw them side 'o-j side, 
or had them made into a bo% or a nowspap ;r. I wonder if all of us are doing 
the right thine to hemlock trees. — Writes in District 1) 


Opportu i lities for foresters in Grazing Work 

V. R. Chapline, Inspector. yf Grassing, Washington Office, Forest Service 

As early as 19o7, the forest Service recognized the importance of 
having men specially trained for grazing work stud/ the problems confront- 
ing tho adnini strati on of grazing on the Rational Forests. Since that 
drte tliree grazing experiment stations have "been established; several nen 
have studied special problems; grazing reconnaissance for the development 
of permanent grazing management t)lans has covered ;>ver 23 million acres 
of National Forest land; several trained grazing men are in .Supervisors' 
positions; and there are 33 such men assigned to the Districts or Forests 
for special administrative or reconnaissance ^ork. ■■ 

Some- forest ?.r s used to think it was unprofessional to enter the 
grazing field of forestry, but many now agree that a highly important 
phase of forestry is-. to develop such 'plans for grazing management of for- 
est areas as will insure adequate reforestation and economical production 
of livestock, while at. the „same time. providing conservative use of the 
grazing resources,, There is much investigation needed before all the 
principles of grazing management' are known or developed. This is a work 
which must eventually be greatly expanded. There is at present, however, 
a job already upon us which cannot await results of needed investigations 
and which will require many more men. This is the big job of determining 
the application to specific areas of principles already developed and of 
securing the results in administration. 

In an effort to develop an adequate force for handling the work 
about S to. 10 special grassing men have been employed each year for a num- 
ber jf years. There have not boon that many added new positions, however, 
since the demand for men with grazing training for higher administrative 
positions in the Service, for places in other Bureaus or in State work, 
and in commercial ondeavcr, has been such that these new men have been re- 
quired to maintain the technical grazing organization. There are now 48 
men within the Service who came in by the technical grazing examinations. 
Twenty-seven colleges and universities have entered into the training of 
these men, 30 per cent of whom are forestry trained; 60 per cent served as 
rangers or administrative guards before taking up special grazing work, and 
only 6 per cent, though college trained, had not had forestry training or 
administrative experience,, The organization thus enjoys the benefits accru- 
ing from practical field experience and from a wide diversity of technical 
training, and is moreover thoroughly imbued with sound silvi cultural sympa- 

Of those grazing men who nave left the Service and entered °tate or 
college work, one is now. director of a State agricultural collegeexperiment 
station, one is an assistant director, one is the head of a forestry de- 
partment, three are in charge of departments of range management, and one 
is an assistant State forester. Others include the Chief of Reindeer In- 
vestigations in Alaska, Chief of the Office of 'Jeed Investigations in the 


Bureau of Plant Industry, Chief of St ck Raising Homest ad classification 
in the Geological Survey, ana ■}:.-.■ Warden in Charge of the Montana Bison 


The grazing phase of forestry work needs many good men, V/e espe- 
cially desire foresters with sound botanical training and preferably with 

experience in handling livestock. It is hoped that other technically 
trained foresters, including those now in the Forest Service and those yet 
to join, will consider the advisability of entering the grazing field if 
Forest Service endeavor, .a. greater appreciation of the grazing work by 
forest schools is needed, as well as the establishment of curricula that 
give the essentials for this work, and " T '~ r this is not done a greater 
willingness by schools to allow substitution of the necessary courses so 
that grazing foresters rray rec jive adequate training. 

- Distribution of national Forest Receipts Among the States 

Under authority of the acts of Congress governing receipts from na- 
tional Forest resources the sum of $1 ,346,353 will be paid to the 3tat< s 
containing national Forest land for the use of the school and roac" funds 
of the counties in which such land is situated. 

The amounts the various States will receive for county road and school 
funds are calculated on the basis of one-fourth of the total receipts from 
National Forest resources within each separate State. The funds for roads 
and trails within the forests are computed on a one-t nth basis. 

Twenty-eight States and ala ska shored in the distribution of the two 
funds. California will receive 5434,889, Oregon $247,721, Idaho $184,277, 
Arizona $175,014, Colorado $125,380, Washington $124,860, Montana $115,901, 
Wyoming $93^,34, Utah $81,465, New Mexico $63,077, Nevada $55,653, and South 
Dakota $34,2q3. 

Arkansas will rec ive &23-.002, Virginia 313,276, north Carolina $12,990, 
New Hampshire 312,732, Minnesota '$8,726, Florida $8,311, Tennessee $4,859, 
Nebraska $3,912, Georgia $3,605, Oklahoma $2,655, •'est Virginia $1,293, Maine 
$1,010, South Carolina $569, Pennsylvania $350, Alabama $243, and Michigan 


Alaska will receive $42,72o, a sum almost twice as large as the Terri 
tory received last year, thus indicating a corresponding increase in timber 
sales from Alaska* s two National Forests. 


Forestry and the United. St ates Chamber of Commerce 

The midwinter conference of the Chamber of Commerce of the United 
States, which held its western meeting in Los Angeles December 2-3, had for 
one of its major topics the problem of reforestation in the West. Refores- 
tation is taken in its very "broadest sense and includes methods of cutting, 
conservative loggin - and other silvi cultural practices as well as such sub- 
jects as taxation, w-hich affect materially the possibility of the practice 
of silviculture "by- private operators. 

preserved pulp for Pa uer 

In spite of the increasing newspaper habit among Americans and the 
diminishing stand of pulp timber, there is an. annuel waste in. pulp wood 
equal to about 12 Trillion cubic feet of standing timber which could be pre- 
vented by an effective preservative treatment of ground wood pulp. 

Deterioration of wood pulps is due to the action of bacteria and fungi 
which break, down the fibers, thus resulting in a decreased yield. 

Unless the fungi discolor the pulp and thereby give. visual evidence 
of their presence, the mill pan pays little attention to them. 

Fungi of this type often cause a great loss in fiber. In one case a 
mill lost 500 tons of ground wood through decay, the amount representing 
at rat 2 per cent of the total production of the mill for that year. Al- 
though the loss in ground wood due to fungi varies widely, a 10 per cent 
annual loss seems a conservative estimate. , This means that 142,700 cords of 
wood or the equivalent of ever IS million cubic feet. of standing timber go 
through the pulp mills every year but yield no paper. 

Although this loss can be considerably decreased by the application 
of the ordinary principles of sanitation, the only effective method of com- 
pletely overcoming decay is to treat the pulp with some cher.e which will 
prevent the growth of fungi. Sodium fluoride and certain cymene (crude spruce 
turpentine) and naphthalene mixtures are effective in preserving ground wood. 
pine oil, also, may be substituted for the cymene. 

Preventive treatments of pulp add to the cost naturally, but this is 
offset by the pulp saved and the. reduced cost of handling pulp which must 
be sorted be:>re it is sent to the beaters, pulp-wood manufacturers lose 
about $2;;50C-000 annually in wood that gees into rotten pulp. The great 
loss, however, is to the country in timber thus wasted. — Forest 
Products Laboratory. 


Patch the Southern Pira r ■:■ tl o 

During the past season the south rn pine beetle lias again become ag- 
gressive in the States of Texas, "Louisiana, and Mississippi. It is the 
opinion of entomologists that those outbreaks are coincident i**i"Gh drought 
periods. The area in which this beetle is active coincides with that 

showing a marked deficiency in precipitation during the past summer and fall. 
Some concerns report one to five million feet of timber hilled since July. 
The Bureau cf Ifrtomology, " : . 5.- Department of Agriculture, v/ashington, D.C. , 
is anxious to secure all reoorts of pines dying from this cause. — F. C. 
Craighead, Entomologist , Bureau of Entomology, TJ. 3. D. a. 

Local Timbe r Jhor ta,--"c in "orPp Days 

Our attention is directed at different times by various writers to 
the forestry situation in the American Colonies 150 -'to ..300 years ago. Mr. 
Jill C. Barnes of the Washington office has giv n us som< abstracts from a 
quaint old book, "ximerican Husbandry 'oy an .." rican," publishe in 1773: 

"Another article which I shall here mention is that of timber, which 
already grows so scarce upon the south coast that even fir ere d in some parts 
is not cheap.*** They not only cut do'-n timber but in clearing the ground 
for cultivation they destroy, all that comes in their way, as if they had 
nothing to do but ~ot rid of it at all events as fast as possible instead of 
cutting only what was desired for use among them or .enclosing or reserving 
portions of their best woods for future use of themselves and the general 
goods of the country, points which wo have hitherto seemed to have very 
little at heart y: **. it is clear *** that if legislation dees not interfere 
at this point the whole country may be deprived of. timber *** which ought 
not to be the case while any attention is given to the public interest." 

Mr, Barnes colic the writer of the above !l the Gifford Pinchot of 1775 
demanding the establishment of National Forests." 

Scatteri ng peed Infor mation 

Reports from Forest officers indicate that the crop of forest tret 
seed this year is very meager throughout the .Rocky Mountain District except 
on a few Forests, ^h^ Black Hills national Forest has a bumper crop of 
yellow pine seed, and several Colorado Forests report good seed crops of 
Douglas fir aid Fngolrann spruce. The Norway pine seed crop is very scant, 
as usual. There has been a big demand for Norway pine seed during the past 
few years from State and private organizations to raise stock for forest 
planting, and the lack of seed has retarded forest planting in the Lake States 


and the East. A recent seed catalogue gives a quotation of $22.50 a pound 
for Norway seed. In addition to the Forest Service, the State of Minnesota, 
the University of Minnesota, and several private collectors arc withering 
cones in the vicinity of the Minnesota National Forest* William T. C*ox, 
former State Forester of Minnesota, and nov; a consulting forester and seed 
dealer, is attempting to make a big collection, and is negotiating for the 
use of the Cass Lake Seed Extract ory on a cooperative basis. He al&.o ex- 
pects to extract some cones at the Cloquet Experiment Station. At the 
price quoted above, it should be quite profitable to collect Norway pine 
seed even though the crop is very small. 

Honorabl e I.k nt ion 

Down on the La Sal national Forest, Utah, they average about one fire 
a year. Forest values are not extraordinarily high and the hazard is not 
great. Nevertheless they have the right spirit as shown by the following 


Man-caused fires, 3; arrests, 3; convictions, 3. 

N ew Forestry Films 

H. R. Xylie, In Charge of Motion Pictures and Exhibits, Washington Office 

Before our New Year's resolutions are all broken there will be re- 
leased for showing three new motion pictures gotten out by the Forest Serv- 
ice in cooperation with the Q-eorgia Forestry Association, Florida ^oreatry 
association, and the Conservation Commission of Alabama. The three pic- 
tures comprise the SOUTHERN PINE SERIES. 

The first is called DUAL PURPOSE TREES, and covers the turpentine 
operations from the tree to the shipping of the finished product. Into 
these are w^ven statist ics to show the effect of forest depletion on the 
industry and the plea for its preservation through the practice of forestry* 

The second picture is titled FROM SEED TO SAWMILL and covers natural 

reforestation. There ar shewn good and bad logging operations, gone and 
bad forestry practice,- some statistics on growth., possible profits, and the 
splendid opportunities for the practice of forestry in the South. There are 
beautiful southern scenes that it is hoped will make the picture attractive 
•and mitigate in a measure the dryness of statistics and other necessary mat- 
ter contained in the film. 


The third picture is titled PINES FOR PROFIT, and covers the impr . 
tant subject of "planting. Examples of fast and slow growing stands of tim- 
ber are shown, methods Df making the seed bed, planting the seed and seed- 
lings, flashes of areas which contain planted stands of various ages, types 
of land that should be planted, with many reasons why the planting shou.ul be 
done - winding up with the remedy. 

The tnree pictures have the same theme - "Growing frees." 

..: nested to secure the loan of these 
.. rial purposes, and it -ill also be possible to purchase 
copies at a price of approximately 340 a reel. DUAL PURPC5Z TREES and 
PINES FOR PROFIT are one-reel pictures of 1,000 feet each. FROM SEED TO 
SAWM'ILLis a two-reel picture with 2, COO feet of film. 

looks juilce All U;rk and Lp Play for Jack Pine 

Field work just completed ^n the study of the jack pine growth in 
the Lake States by the Cloquet Forest Experiment Station, in cooperation 
with the Wisconsin Department ,i Conservation and the Michigan Department 
of Conservation, was undertaken :n 70 plots in "Tisconsin, 82 plots in Mich- 
igan, -and 143 plots in Minnesota, a t oal of 300 plots. Form measurements 
of 1150 jack nine trees for the construction of taper, form and volume tables 
were obtai;ied. 

7ood_-; 7orking Difficulties Reduced by pron er o^asonin.- 

Inefficient seasoning is 'responsible for a waste of from 10 to 40 
per cent of rough lumber in the average wood-working plant. 

The defects in the lumber -ray be twist, side curl, splits, honey- 
combing, or cupping., all of which were developed during the seasoning. In- 
stead of remedying the drying practice it has been the custom to accept these 
defects as inevitable and to remedy them by cross cutting, ripping, and re- 
joining parts with glue* 

Illustrating such wastes is the experience of a plant which manufac- 
tures bedroom furniture and used 5,500 feet b. m a of 2.. inch gum a day for 
p~;sts and rails. Rejection of pieces portly worked up, some after assembly, 
and troubles in the glue and finishing rooms were finally traced to improp- 
erly seasoned stock. An examination of the kilns and the substitution of 
the proper kiln drying methods for the rule-of-thumb operation removed the 
difficulty. Thereafter only 4,000 feet a day were required, and machine 
work and' labor were reduced., thus saving the company over $300 and the na- 
tion 1,500 feet of lumber each day. 

Such cases are not uncommon by any means; it would be difficult to 
state how much cut-up wastage could be saved through improved seasoning 
methods,— Forest Products Laboratory. 


Sxcerwts grog the Reoert >f the F.rvstcr for 19 34 

The year just closed has witnessed further gains in public in- 
terest and support, in reforestation as a business undertaking by 
landowners, and in the growing perception of the value of forestry 
as a part of diversified agriculture. 

Th.:- outstanding event of the year in national forestry was the 
enactment nf che Clarke-McNary Lav; on June 7, 1924, which takes ils 
place with the #<5eks Law of 1911 and the earlier legislation au- 
thoring the creation of forest reserves from the public domain as 
a milestone of progress. **** 

Commercial forces are no^ placing a "powerful pressure behind 
the practice ">f forestry by private landowners. The two great ob- 
stacles in the path of this scononic development arc (1) the fire 
hazard to vrMch forests are subject and (2) the danger of taxation 
that will make timber growing unreraunerative. The cls-rke-Mclfary 
Law strikes at each of these obstacles.**** Two additional fea- 
tures of the Clarke-McNary Law seek to bring about (1) for st plant- 
ing on farm lands suitable for growing timber and {2) the practical 
instruction ->f farmers in forestry. Both are directly in line with 
the national movement to make timber a staple farm crop and timber 
growing a profitable adjunct hi agriculture.**** 

Among the immediate things for which provision should be made 
by the Federal Government arc (l) the establishment of a definite 
program and fiscal policy for the extension of the Jjational forests 
by purchase, and (2) a concerted drive for the elimination of waste 
in the manufacture and donsumDtJon of timber,**** 

The receipts from the National Forests for the fiscal year 
were a 3 follows: 

From the use of timber $3,036,395.75 

!1 " " ,? forage , 1,915,561,49 

11 miscellaneous uses, including the 

us = of land, water-power sixes, :tc. 299,945.87 

Total $5,251,903.11 

The total is less by $83,915.02 than that for the previous 
yeer. The receipts "Cor the use of timber exceeded those for the 
preceding year by ?314 r 5I9.55, ana for the use of land by 
$27,489.79, These gains were mora than offset, however, by a de- 
crease of $425,924.35 in the receipts from grazing. The reduction 
in the revenues from the National forest stock ranges was due in 


part to delinquencies and delays in the payment of .grazing fees, 
arising from the depression und^r which the livestock industry is 
still suffering in many portions of the West.**** 

The net area of National Forest land at the clos^ of the fiscal 
year was 157,502,793 acres. The gross area, which includes privately- 
owned and State lands lyins within the "boundaries, was 182,817,159 
acres. The net area increased during the year 255,986 acres; the 
gross increased 717,357 acres, of which, however, 23, 309 acres repre- 
sent recomputations of existing areas based upon more exact surveys 
and projections.**** 

Cs. 1 enda r Numb e r 
year of fires 

Total area Total dam- 

of national ag >f ;-■.- Total cost of 

Forest land tional For- fighting fires, 

burned over est land exclusive of tine 

ncres "burned over cf Forest officers 

1921 5851 376,208 $212,182 $454,093 

1922 6375 373,314 494,965 6Q7.200 

1923 5168 263,348 180,544 273,593 

The steady and substantial growth in the National Forest tim- 
ber business that has characterized recent years continued, th- quan- 
tity of timber cut last year and the receipts from sales materially 
exceeding the record for any previous year since the National Forests 
were established.*** The timber cut during the calendar year 1923 ex- 
ceeded by 2o per cmt the amount cut during 1922, and had a 23 per 
cent greater value. The calendar year 1923 was the first year in 
which thf cut exceeded one billion feet.**** 

Throughout the west the number of livestock is slowly decreas- 
ing; and since 1918 there has been a steady decline in the number 

grazed on the National Forest*.**** 

Far from its being true that the demand for range on the Nation- 
al Forests is slacking down, it is fully as strong as ever. With the 
National forests able at present to carry ~>nly 16 per cent of all th 
the cattle and 30 per cent of all the she p in the 11 western range 
States, the demand will continue to grow. It is important to con- 
serve and increase the carrying capacity of the forest ranges.**** 

The number of people visiting the National Forests f~r recrea- 
tion is estimated each year by the local forest officers. Since no 


. actual census of visitors can be taken, the figures reported are 

. approximations only; but they afford a fairly reliable criterion of „ 

. the volume of recreation use. The total number of visitors reported. 

. last year exceeded ten million five hundred thousand. In less than . 

» 10 years the number has more than tripled. 

Compliments of the Season 

The ^rest products Laboratory at Madison, Wisconsin, is very proud 
of a letter received recently from which the following is quoted: "The 
writer might just say that the pleasant memories of a trip to Madison, 
Wisconsin, with the National Hardwood Association in '23 was the reason 
for writing you recently. I feel that in the one short day spent there I 
learned more of the lumber business than in all the twenty years I have 
be:n in it." 

Report of Additions to Na t ional Forests in ^ast end South 

The annual report of the national Sorest Reservation Commission for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1924, which has just been transmitted to 
Congress by Secretary of War Weeks, president of the Commission, calls 
attention to the fact that the aggregate amount of land which has been 
purchased for eastern and southern National Forests now amounts to 
2,346,354 acres. These National Forest lands are distributed in 19 units 
in 11 different States. 

There are being acquired in Alabama 87,097 acres; in Arkansas 59,731 
acres; in Georgia 159,979 e:---, -<n Maine 32,256 acres; in Hew Hampshire 
409.Q18 acres; in North Carol iu= -' '-,-27 acres; in Pennsylvania 166,937 
acres; in South Carolina 2Q.'±£h aereG: in Tennessee 269,077 acres; in 
Virginia 560,928 acres; in West Viiginia 226,743 acres. 

The average price paid by the Federal authorities for the total acre- 
age stands at $4*98 per acre. Duving the past fiscal year lands approved 
for purchase amounted to 136,290 acres at an average price of $3.26 per 
acre, the lowest price ever paid during r.ny year.-- 


D ifficult i < s jf F.oad Bui ld i n,:: in Alaska 
T. W. Korcross, Chief Engineer, ■''orest °ervice 

Head building in the national Forests r>f Alaska is an entirely 
different proposition from building in the States. If the work is handled 
in the most efficient manner, the engin r has not an enviable job. There 
is a vast variety of conditions, not only on Forests or sections of For- 
ests but on the individual projects. Taken as a Thole, the work on the 
Chugach Forest there looks easy, but it is mainly by comparison with the 
average project on the Tonga3S Forest. But even on the Chugach, difficult 
and exasperating conditions are met. One looking f r easy road work and 
lack of variety had better go to the interior region near Fairbanks; even 
there he will sometimes meet trouble. 

The probability is that for th same type of rood, the cost in Alas- 
ka will always be higher than in the Stat .s- The finished product will not 
show the difficulties met during construction or why so large an expenditure 
was necessary. 

There are many obstacles in the way of the road builder. The main 
one is water: water from the sMes, water in the soil, and running water. 
Others are transportation difficulties, high prices, remoteness of Alaska, 
the heavy and frequent precipitation, and the long period of short days. 
T^ get trained and experienced highway engineers to accept permanent posi- 
tions at the Government scale of oav is a difficult matter. 

Development of Gas Tractor Log^in^ 

C-as tractors and big wheels were used quite extensively and very 
successfully this season in northern California for logging on slopes up to 
25 per cent. Apparently one of the best types of tractor for the work is 
the Best 6C H. P, manufactured by the C. L. Best Tractor Company of 4m 
Leandro, California. The Robinson Big Wheels manufactured by the Robinson 
Tractor Company of Oakland, California, are generally j used. Where this 
type of equipment can be employed the cost of yarding is said to be only 
about one-half of the usual cost where donkeys are employed. 

While considerable swamping is necessary in connection with the use 
of wheels, on the whole the forest is left in much better condition than 
where donkeys are employed. ?7o injury is done to saplings, poles and trees 
left, which is a very great advantage from the forestry standpoint. — (Xl. 
News Notes for ^orest Schools. 


jiuuic.s in w ■ iviunu 

The Appalachian Forest Pxp ^riment station has Obtained fifty pints 
in second-growth oak and taper measurements on 135 felled trees on a 
tract of 8,000 acres near Principio Furnace, Maryland, belonging to the 
Whitaker Iron Company. This excellent opportunity to secure records n f 
even-aged, second -growth oak stands tos afforded by' cterc^'d wood opera- 
tions ^hich have "been carried on periodically since 'the furnace was first 
established in 1722. Stands ranging from 30 to 86 years old were found in 
extensive tracts. These are =ven-aged, well stocked, partly of sprout 
origin, and have not suffered severely from fire except in parts of the 
forest burned during the past three years. 

Through the courtesy of jyir. 3esley, State Forester of Maryland, 
three men were supplied by the Forestry Department of Maryland to continue 
work on the oak study, and about 1,000 taper measurements on second-growth 
oak trees were furnished the station. 

Tamarock in Young S econd Growth 

The £leauet purest Experiment Station is studying the rate of estab- 
lishTTient of stands of second growth after cutting. One factor of consider- 
able interest is the fact that in irany of -the young stands of second growth 
considerable tamarack was found growing in the upland, while in nature 
stands tamarack is vary seldom present. The indications are that the tam- 
arack is suppressed and prsses out as a factor in the stand at about the 
25th year. 

Piling a Factor in Flue Stain L^sse; 

More than ten million dollars annually is the loss causes, by blue 
stain, primarily because of a reduction in grade accompanied by a drop in 
the selling price. 

A good share of this loss occurs in the mill yard during air season- 
ing and could be prevented by prooer piling. 

Bulk piling for periods of time longer than 12 hours previous to plac- 
ing in piles is especially undesirable as this favors the retention of moistur 
in the boards, making favorable conditions for the growth of sap stain fungi. 

Since ample air circulation about each board is one of the principal 
factorc in reducing stain, it follows that any method of piling that allocs 
greater air circulation will favor the pr eduction of bright stock* In this 
connection, however, there is one fact that must not be overlooked. 'Jht-re 
checking duo to air seasoning becomes a serious defect care mast be taken 
to pile the lumber so that both cheeking and sap stain are reduced to a 
minimum. — Forest Froducts Laboratory. 



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This conference has bo°n called for the purpose of further 
attempting to deal with the rnclor; of ur national timber sup- 
ply* One of the chief items in that problem is the present ap- 
palling waste. Some of this waste may b( unavoidable - to a 
large extent it is unnecessary. The time is at nand wnen "»ur 
country is actually confronted with a timber shortage. That can 
be remedied in only two ways; by diminishing the or sent waste 
and increasing the present supply.*** The Gov rr_.~ nt is ; i . ; to 
ask you to consider definite plans for reducing timber waste. It 
is going to suggest that out of this conference shall eir-csr^e a 
program of specific action for timber-saving rather V -.. ■ m re 
expression of ideas. Containing as it does lead rs from tvevy 
branch of forestry industry and fr^n many interests cl sely allied 
with forest industry, this conference has, I know, the ability 
and the r-ill to create ouch a program.**** 

The era of free, wild timber is reaching its end, as th era 
of free, wild food ended so long ago. k 'e can no longer depend on 
moving from one primeval forest to another, for already the sourjd 
of the ax has penetrated the last of them, ffe like to think that 
it took three centuries to harvest these imm nso forests. It is 
comfortable to believe that they will last indefinitely still. 
But in reality we hove cut .tost of our timber not in the part 
three hundred but in the past seventy-five years, tc s^rve the 
great expansion of population and industry, and there is no rea- 
son to expect a decline in the rate of cutting as long as the for- 
ests last.**** "7e do not know the forest situation down to the 
last acre and board feat, but we know it well enough to make us 
t hi nk a nd a ct « ** * 

There is no easy road out of this unprofitable situation. 
The end of free timber is in sight. ". : orld competition for the 
world supply ^ill leave no large dependable source of imports 
open to us. The use of substitutes hardly keeps pace with new 
uses fir wood; there is no likelihood that we can become a wood- 
less nation even if we wanted to. V7hen the free timber is oov; 
we mast grow our wood from the soil like any other crop. Strange 


. as it may seem, the American p >ple, bi eel for nxiny generations to 

. forest life, drawing no small measure of their wealth from the'-for 

. est, have not vet acquired the sense of timber as a crop. These 

- immense stretches of cut-over land, mostly too rough or too ster- 

• ile for tilling, have not awakened us to their vast potential 

-. worth as growers of wood. "Rully ohe-fararfch ">i >ur land area might 

, to "be kept in forest - not poor, dwindling bhl'ckehs )f scrub, but 

. forests of trees fit for bridges and houses and ships.**** 

The Glarke-McNary Law, passed by the last s< ssion of Congress 
► will, i hope, speedily change the outlook for these neglected for~ 
. ests. It authorizes Congress, in c~ o ration with the States, to 
. establish systems of pr( tection against fire; and it authorizes, 
. among other things, cooperation in tree planting and a study to 
. develop stable and equitable forest taxation. '**** 

There are hopeful signs. Y>'t we have started too late and 
. are moving too slowly to bridge the gap between cut and growth. 
. '.7e must adjust ourselves to an era of reduced pur crpita con- 
. sumption. e must husband our- supplies. Granted that wi s3s?.ll 
. get into effect a big-scale urogram of timber gro^ira?, it ^ould 
. be poor business to go to the expense of growing tfrnc r if we 
. should persist in losing a large' part of the crop ~:,; r unsati siV o~ 
. tory ways of manufacturing and Using it. Between catting the tim- 
. bcr in the woods and finally pu^cing the product to use, nearly 
. two-thirds of the total volume is lost. A third of this los?, 
, it is estimated, can under present economic conditions and- with 
. tried and tested methods be saved - a yearly saving nearly as 
. great as all the timber our forests errow each year. Saving tim- 
. ber, it is obvious, will not only reduce the; amount we mast grow, 
. but if started new on an effective scale it will relieve the timber 
. shortage and make l^ss drastic the social and economic '-"■ adjust- 
. ments this shortage will fore: upon us. A tre^ saved is a tree 
» grown.**** 


We hold the resources of our country as a trust. They ought 
. to be used for the benefit of the present generation, beet they 
. ought neither to bo, wasted nor destroyed. The generations to 
. come also have a vosted interest in them. They ought t-> be ad— 
. ministerea for toe benefit >f the public. Ho monopoly should be 
. permitted which --would result in profiteering, nor on the other 
» hand should they be indiscriminately bestowed upon those who will 
. unwisely permit them to be dissipated. These great natural re- : 
. sources must be administered for the general welfare of all the 
. people, both for the present and for the future. There must be 
. both use and restoration. The: chief purpose of this conference 
. is to discover policies which will, in the hands of private in 
, dividuals end of public officers, tend- to the further advancement 
. of thi'a-weil^-de fined and securely adopted principles. 

JJr: ... ... 


An I hrpre ssive '^lTsp son 

"A hundred years ago a forego fire was perhaps excusable, but in 
1924 the :--,.-■ ae'j conf.tafirr.tion is little short of treason/ 1 says the 
Eritish Columbia Lumberman, Hundreds of good fellows who would conoid- 
er themselves "blacklisted forever if they burnt down the Methodist 
Church on Main Street have yet to experience the first e'- ; . f con- 
science when their camp fire or cigar < tti s ts ablate a forest of fir 
and cedar hundreds and hundreds of years old,.. -Portland Conm. rce. 

Permanent Pr ogra m of f o ■■ nf i noe an th Jbi llzat io n of 

Ifori • Z7r," 

The first national conf r -e. n utilization of forest products 
concluded its sessions on Uo'v tnber 21, aft 2 r: ... ' >ut r p srman^nt pro- 
gram and entrust in? it to the central committ n lumber standards. 

The program of activities as adopted calls for c :mpletion .and gen- 
eral adoption and application of lumb r standards, as n r.e- nl-.d by the 
centre! committee; development ^f the application )f cvr attention to 
the problems of piling, storing and drying lumber, in its form.-,; wood 
preservation treatments; ext nsion of ace :f a. *j nli^n in pulp and 

pulp wood in storage; consideration Df methods for arrest and prevent,! n 
of decay in logs and lumber; encouragement of surveys with the object of 
utilizing waste products through diversified operations; development, 
improvement and unifying of building codes; improved designs of boxes 
and crates and other economies, and encouragi ment of imprcv rn< nts and 
economies by organized industrial units consuming forest products. 

Lines of investigation which, in the opinion of the conference 
committee, require first consideration are: forest drain loss in the woods; 
sawmill waste and practices and machinery; best uses of so-called "inferior 
species"; properties of wod; a timber survey, mbracing th supply, 
amount of land available by regions and classes )f soil jn which iorrests 
can now and later be grown, and the rate at which timber is now growing 
and the potential growing capacity of the lord; wood-using industry sur- 
vey; forest protection from fires, insects and tree blights, and possible 
use of tropical woods to supplement American high-grade hardwc ds, being 
rapidly depleted. 

The necessity of putting idle land to work in growing tree crops 

by the cooperation of the °tatos with the- ederal Government, through the 
medium of the Clarkc-ivlclJary Law, was pointed out. — Science* 

The report and recommendations of the Committee on Permanent Or .-ion 
and Program, together with copies of the speeches made by presid* 
Coolidge, and ^ol. W, B. Greeley, ca.n be obtained from the -^orest Products 
Laboratory, U. 0. forest Service, Madison', ' ;V ioconsin, upon application, — 

Big Fibres on a gmall .article 

The United States uses more than 1,5Q0 billion matches made out of wood 
every year. This is about 37 matches a day for every man, woman and chila in 
the country based on a population of 110 million. Hecent statistics from 
Europe have placed the per capita consumption there at 14 matches a day. The 
world output costs 200 million dollars and reaches a total of 4,675,650 
million matches a year. --The Timbcrman. 

The Central Committ ee on Lumber standards and Its Work 
By H. G-. Uhl, Secretary, Central Committee on Lumber Standards 

In view of the emphasis placed upon the work of the Central ommittee 
on Lumber Standards by the recent national C on f e rence on the Utilization of 
Forest Products, this article is considered particularly timely and impor- 
tant. — Ed. 

The standardisation of lumber manufacture is perhaps the most important 
single accomplishment in American industry- "hile lumber standardization orig- 
inated with lumber manufacturers and was made possible through the support ^f 
wholesalers, retailers, and consumers of lumber, it is due to the earnest and 
enthusiastic cooperation of the department of Agriculture and the department 
of Commerce that the consummation of this effort came about so rapidly. 

In organizing for standardization and adopting a program, a conference 
of manufacturers, distributors, and consumers, together with architects, en- 
gineers, and technical men in way 1922 adopted a program which divided the work 
into the following three general divisions: 

1. Simplification of standardization of grades, including nomenclature 

of grades and species. 

2. Standardization of sizes. 

3. Certification of quality and quantity for protection of the public. 

The Central Committee on Lumber °tandards provided to put this program 
into operation was composed of 3 men selected from the manufacturers, whole- 
salers, retailers, wood-using industry, railways and architects. 

As an advisory committee to the Central Committee,' a much larger body 
numbering thirty men was selected, which is known as the Consulting Committee 
on L^-ber Standards. This committee is made up of experts representing prac- 
tically every phase of production, distribution, grading, inspection and con- 
sumption of lumber. On this committee there is represented every branch of 
engineering that is concerned in wood specifications. 

Another consulting committee, known as the Hardwood Consulting Commit- 
tee, consisting of 30 members, is working on the program of standardization 
in the hardwood industry. 


Upon the consulting committees falls the great burden of study and 
working out the program. These commit toss report their conclusions on the dif- 
ferent questions to the Central Committee and if this latter committee approves 
them, it then asks the Secretary of Commerce to issue invitations to all inter- 
ested associations to send authorized del-gates to a general meeting to act up- 
on standardization proposals submitted by the Central Committee. If the general 
conference adopts the submitted recommendations, they are published and recom- 
mended by the department of Commerce 'yider the title of American Lumber Stand- 

In December, 192,3, in ^'ashingt^n, with more than 100 representatives 
present from all branches of the trade, the General C on f e rence accepted the 
recommendations of the Central Committee on lumber classifications, grade names, 
standard and extra standard yard lumber, sizes, methods of lumber measurement, 
standard shipping freights and other provisions relating to inspection, com- 
plaints, degrades, etc. 

One of the biggest problems that arose was the question of determining 
the dressed thickness of standard boards and dimensions, -after a long discus- 
sion, it was unanimously votea to set up a standard 25/32 inch for boards with 

26/32 inch as extra standard, and a standard of 1-5/8 inches for dimension and 
1-3/4 inches for extra standard dimensions. The recommendations of the Central 
Committee provided for a minimum standard and the adoption of the "extra stand- 
ard" was made to meet the views of retailers who favored 26/32 inch as single 
standard f^r boards and 1-3/4 inch for dimension. 

At a similar conference in April, 1924, recommendations were adopted re- 
lating to basic provisions for lumber grading, )dd and short lengths, lumber 
bundling, definitions of defects and blemishes, lumber abbreviations, nomencla- 
ture of commercial spacies of trees, grade marking, rough dry yard lumber sizes, 
mouldings, simplifications of working, tally cards, shipping provisions, shin- 
gles and inspection service. 

Among the important projects now under way are the following: (1) promo- 
tion of the program of standardization for the hardwood industry. The Hardwood 
Consulting Committee, in cooperation with the Forest Preducts Laboratory, is now 
working on the subject of grading rul3s, standardizing size of cuttings used by 
the different industries, and making a stwdy to determine the dry thickness that 
will dress to present practice. (2) The Central Committee is cooperating ^ith 
the Department of Commerce in conducting a survey of the construction uses of 
short lengths and at the same time ths Forest Products Laboratory is conducting 
a survey on industrial -uses of short lengths. (3) The ^orest Products Labor- 
atory has recently submitted a remrt on factory lumber grading studies of soft- 
woods, dealing with the subject of sash, doors and general mill work* The 
recommendations of this report will be considered by the Consulting Committee on 
Lumber standards early in 1925. 

The above projects and a number of others of equal importance will be con- 
sidered at another General Conference to be held in ''ashington in May, 1925. 


Official acceptances of American Lumber Standards have been reportcd 
to the Department of Commerce by more than 70 associations of manufacturers,, 
wholesalers, retailers, architects, engineer's, contractors, wood users and 
railroads. Hundreds of individual acceptances have also been reported. , , 

.. Summing up the progress" made in standardization after three years of 
preliminary work in cooperation, with" the forest products Laboratory and two 
years, detailed study of the many complek problems' confronting the industry, 
it can be said that the standardisation of sizes, nomenclature, grades and 
grade practices of softwoods is out of the stage of conversation and into the 
stage of practice. •" ~ '..*'. ",'■'. '■■ ' ' 

m Two- great objectives have b6?n attained: 

First, by the elimination of unnecessary and- often wasteful sizes, the 
number of actual finished yard lumber items has be-~n reduced nearly SO lier 
cent, and by fixing definitions of basic c?;rL ; Ies a firm foundation has been 
established for grade ; equalization* • Such simplification of ''business practice 

means, economies of great magnitude, a " ' -" ■ 

"' '' ' • .- ..-. ,.-.••■ " "'. '•- ■ ■ ■ ' •■ 

Second, and even, more important , through the .operations "of the recom- 
mendations, the home builders of America are a. : ssured the production of stand- 
ard lumber and standard products maintained by the.urJ.ted force of the Indus- 
fry.. - 

Copies. of American Lumber Standards, with a brief history of the stand- 
ardization movement . can be secured from the- Division of Simplified Practice, 
Department of Commerce. The publication is entitled- '''"--Sim^x If icd practice Kcq- 
ommendation iJe. 16 — Lumber,?-. ; .• ,- . ■ 

Postern Conference on Blister Rust Control 
S. 3. Detwiler, pathologist, Bureau' of Plant Industry, U. S. D. A. 

A meeting of the Board- of. Trustees of the Western White 'pine Blister 
Fust Conference was held in Seattle, Washington", on pec=mber 1, 192$. About 
50. representatives of -State and .Federal' "departments,- Timber protective. Asso- 
ciations, lumbermen and nurserymen^were present,. -MrV'C. A. park of Oregon pre- 
sided, and C. S. Chapman of Washington nas- executive secretary. Trustees from 
Idaho, Washington, Montana* -Oregon-, and Calif ornia" we're present. 

Deep interest was manif ested.'irTthe progress of the blister- rust con- 
trol work in the Vest. Eradication "of cultivated black currants to delay 
rapid spread of the rust has neared -completion in Idaho and -Washington, an- 
nouncement was made that the United States Department of Agriculture cor.-s5.d3TS 
the cultivated black currant (Eibss nigrum) a public nuisance and is opposed 
.to -its growth anywhere in the United States. 


The experimental eradication of wild currants and gooseberries for the 
purpose of determining the most practicable methods of local control were con- 
ducted in the upper Priest River Valley in the Kaniksu National Forest, Idaho. 
Approximately 8,000 acres of the white pine type were cleared of these hushes, 

averaging 53 hushes per acre. Control reconnaissance was also conducted over 
a considerable area .of the Kaniksu forest. 

Other experimental and investigational work has made good progress 
following the schedule of the ten-year program for cooperative blister rust 
control activities in the V7est which was adopted by the conference last year. 
Quarantine enforcements continued us heretofore; -36 illegal shipments were 


The meeting nassed r ^solutions urging Montana, 'Washington and Califor- 
nia to enact legislation declaring the cultivated black currant a nuisance, 
similar to the laws now in force in Idaiio and Cr g m. The Federal Horticul- 
tural Board was also r quested to take the most drastic action possible to pre- 
vent' interstate movement of this nurse plant of the blist-. r rust, otate and 
Federal appropriations in accordance with the ton-year program were also rec- 

Let Us Spray 

J. 0. Evenden reports that a later examination of the spraying "ork 
against the lodgep<'le sawfly and needle tyer in the Y-llowstone national park 
shows the work to have been entirely successful. A high perc^nta;- e of mor- 
tality was obtained against b^th insects. However, only the roadsid trees 
were sprayed and there are many square miles of infested territory on each 
side of the road which will necessitate continued spraying for several years. 
A continuation of this "^ork on r much larger scale is cont< mplated for n«xt 
year. — Monthly Letter, Bureau of Entomology. 

In ffen ccn Ha r dwood For e sts 
(Aqui 3? Eabia Sspano'i) 

In cessment ing on a recent trip to Southern Mexico, where he went on a 
vacation trip to cruise a million acres of privately-owned tropical timbers, 
Tom Gill of the U. 6, Forest Service, Washington, D. C. , mentioned the diffi- 
culties encountered in their attempt to get any accurate information: 

Timber estimating is a precarious kind of prophecy at best. On is never 
sure of the outcome - so many things way happen to knock the estimate galley 
west even in familiar country and • among species so well known as t ? seem old 


But there wers no old friends to greet us on entering the tropical for- 
ests of Southern Mexico. A million acres and more to cruise among almost 
totally unfamiliar tree species, itfot a boundary line or section corner. 
A country where, so far as we could discover 5 no white man had been, where 
even our own Indians were reluctant to go because of unfriendly tribes in 
the interior. 

Two species we knew in all that riot of unidentified wood — mahogany, 
king of tropical timbers, and cedrilla of the cigar-bo^: fame. 

It was easy enough to lay out our sample acre s and turn in a dozen 
Indians to clear the underbrush. It was not difficult to measure' each tree 
with a diameter tape and take the height with an Abney, But getting the 
names of the trees was a different matter. 

Notebook in hand, I would turn to Pedro, our Indian dendrologist, and 
pointing to a tree ask: 

"que palo es, Pedro?" 

The Indian would scrutinize the leaves, perhaps chop a bit of the wood 
with his machete and finally say something sounding like, 

" Conchun" 

One wondered whether Pedro had answered or was merely clearing his 

"What kind?" 

,! c onchun , s'eno r . " 

The name., or what sounds like the name, was written down. Then the 
class in wood technology began, 

"A good wood, Pedro?" 

" oi, May fuerte. Strong like iron." 

"What is it used for?" 

"Oars for tie canoes and fish spears." 

A crude kind of research surely, but you must remember we were dealing 
se far as we knew with wood unknown among the markets of the world* 

Later on, reaching the sea coast, I sought enlightenment at the office 
of the Mexican forest Service. Twenty-five samples of wood specimens I placed 
before ou :5 of their foresters. He laid aside the specimens of mahogany and 
cedar, then pointed with a shrug at the others. 


"We do not know these," he exclaimed; "bad: there," and he pointed to- 
ward the mountains whence I had cone, "are a hundred species, perhaps more, 
all unknown. You cannot float them down th streams because of their -oat 
weight- There other way of getting them out of the forests. :?he 
Indians, of course - they know them. 2ach tribe has its own name. Sometimes 
thorn ore twelve names 'for the same tree. Sometimes t™o or thro..- species will 
bear the same name. It is what you call - very confusing." 

I remembered our own dondrological debauches tad: in the States, and 
agreed heartily. 

I.;/ Mexican forester made, what seemed to me, a gesture of derision. 

"So you tv ill sue that these," ve > ain ho p.>inoed at my little pile of 
wood samples, "are quite unimportant." 

I thought of our own pitiful remnant of broadleaf forests in the States 

and wasn't so sure. 

Already north of the Gulf hardwood interests are casting ■ ': nit for thi 
special-purpose woods of tomorrow and here not so far away 15. billions >f feet 
of at least potential timber, and in face of this demrn th: . pr o-aheity 

it would seem unlikely that thpse tropical species shall la.' r main ••• a >wn 
and unnamed. 

T 7hy tV Forest Assistant "Pesianed 

A now Forest Assistant, on leaving for his first inspection trip, was 
told by his Supsrvisor to keep hiir posted. 

"Tire me anything I shoulo. know,-" he said. 

To: following day the Supervisor received thi 3 wire: n arrived safely. 
Have lovely room at Paradise Inn. TTea.ther fine. }- d shows in town," 

This was the irate Supervisor's reply: " ;i "."ir': received. So glad. Trice 
long vacation. Lov and kisses." 

Loaves Burner as M onument to -'aste 

A significant "sign of the times" is reported from. Bogalusa, Louisiana., 
where the Great Southern Lumber Company h r s abandoned, for all time, the 1 3 
of its huge refuse burner, said to be the largest in the world. Th comor.ny 
finds that all its waste materials are needed for the paper and pulp ■ ' a .Is and 
other by-product industries centered at Bogalusa. The waste burner will be 
allowed to stand, however, as "a monument find memorial" to waste." — American 

Tobacco Fim to gglp Check rarest Fires 

First fruits of the efforts of the Oregon State Chamber of Commerce to 
obtain aid of the great tobacco manufacturers in forest fire prevention has 
come in a letter from the P. Lorillard Company, in which immediate cooperation 
is promised.* A forest fire warning Till be enclosed in each pekage of tobacco 
that leaves its factory. The letter was accompanied by a sample of the notice 
to be used, which bears a caution to the smoker to be careful of matches and 
burning cigars, cigarettes, and pipe tobacco. Sixteen other factories .are. yet 
to be heard from. Other requests in the past have been heeded only by the 
makers of LUCKY STRIKS in their ten-cent packages. — &. L. Crooldhara in "The 


"If you can toss a match into o clearing, 
ejid never give a thought to put it out. 
Or drop your cigarette butt without fearing 
That flames may kindle in the leaves about, 
If you can knock the ashes from your brier, 
Without a glance to se:. v?here the;/ may fall, 
And later find the forest all afire, 
T7here you have passed with no one near to call; 
If you driv.> your auto through the working, 
And cast yrar stogie stub into the slash, 
Unmindful of the danaer therein lurking, 
Or homes or happiness that you may smash; 
If yew can leave your campfire while 'tis glowing, 
'Jo thought of industries that it may blight, 
Or of the "billion saplings in the growing 
Turned into charcoal ere the coming night; 
If you can start s fire beneath n brush pile 
;-/hen th wind is roaring like a distant gun - 
You surely should "op jailed without a trial 
.-aid labeled as a lunatic, my son." — Selected. 

rorestry Investigatio ns uf Practical Importance 

The Research Department of the "Jo stern Forestry and Conservation associa- 
tion during the past year lias conducted practice! experiments on the cut-over 
land of several interested ltunber companies -, f the Pacific C^ast. 

Forestry research is becoming necessary to the logger because of a change 
in conditions, xhs Clarko-McITary reforestation bill, which provides f or a for- 
est taxation study and for greatly increased Federal aid in fire prevention, 
involves most lumbermen directly, and will raise questions about logging meth- 
ods, slash disposal, policy of fire control around camps, and inclusion of cut- 
over land for patrol assessment of fire-fighting expenditure. 

Another development somewhat related is the appropriation secured by 
Senator Mclflary for governmental forest experiment and stud;' in the Pacific 
Horthwest, which trill deal largely with these questions. This should he most 
helpful, hut is added reason for the interest of the lumbering industry in 
the subject and for its cooperation in order to have the right questions. wise- 
ly studied* 

Further is the question of state or Federal acquisition of cut-over 
land. This will be a question of values for future use requiring expert ap- 
praisal on both sides and determination of how far it pays to go to enhance 
these values. 

And, finally, there should be attempt at least to have taxation pred- 
icated on actual earning value instead of upon m-r demand that cannot long 
be met. 

The company that proc< ids only individually, no matter ho^ sine rely, 
is traveling a' dangerous highrray. Teamwork for a few years, until public 
reciprocity is clarified and' depondabl , is an ss ntiai that must be added 
to investigation. 

The investigation's fall in three distinct divisions; timber problems, 
operating problems, and cut-over land problems. But the three ~o hand in hand, 
f}r the prospects of cut-over land are affected by logging p:licy, in turn 
affected by timber conditions. 

First is apprai-sal of cut-over land and its possibilities. This goes 
net only into the condition of the land and its treatment, "ith its possible 
uses and costs to the DWner, but also into th chances of xchen.a ana self, 
with the fullest knowledge of public trends and requirements. 

Second, the checking of- growth and yield estimates, which can be used 
reliably and can also be astonishingly tricky. 

Third, the handling of fire from the straight protective angle, the re- 
forestation angle, and the cost angle. This touche's slash disposal and lag- 
ging camp fire organization, as well as general patrol policy and cut-over lend 

Fourth, in many cases, the situation rel .ting to well-advanced second, 
growth in the neighborhood which is about ready for cutting. Often this 
should be purchased in connection with plans for legging, railroad building 
and fire protection. 

Fifth, mature timber and logging studies, including age of timber, and 
its bearing on management. Especially important problems are loss through dis- 
ease, and the prospects of use for low grade material ., mixed woods, and unusual 
species. In some regions diseases and their habits are highly important in 
connection both with the time to cut a tract and with utilization in cutting. 


Before any owner of forest land knot's what to do with it, there are 
certainly four tilings ho mast learn; how tc value it; how. to improve its value; 
how it might he used; how it might he disposed of, The first .step is land 
classification. Is it more useful for agricultural or forest producr.ipri? In 
forestry calculations, what are the climatic and other advantages for forest ■ 
growing? Iufhat species will you get and where will they stand in future mar- 
kets? How good fill the restocking he and how coon will it he assuredly es- 
tahlished? How fast ^ill it grow? When will there he a usable crop • Qi' what 
products? What are the protection r,rotlems and costs, nrolably greater in 
the future accessibility and transportation* perhaps setter or worse than 
now? Are there any by-product possibilities, like gracing or thinnings? The • 
latter night increase production besides paying carrying costs. What are the 
tax prospects? 

There is a place in this for allc^roi mod. The Government, the States, 
the forest schools, and the private foresters have each their responsibility 
and there is plenty for each to do> It is obvious, however, that loggers and 
landowners have equa.1 interest and that unless they also take part individually 
and collectively they will suffer, both individually and collectively. 

This is the nature ^f the service that the Research Department of the 
'Western forestry and Conservation association is trying to give you. — American 
Lumberman. (Condensed from address of S. T. Allen, Forester in Charge, "est- 
ern Forestry and Conservation Association.) 

Burned and charred stumps' will never contribute toward the building of 
grea.t c onrricnwealth. --Frank H. L«^b. 

Louisiana Mill jianagers ^doot Recommendations on Fire Prevention 

Th^. Louisiana Mill Managers* association adopted unanimously the fol- 
lowing recommendations submitted by the fire prevention committee of that 

(1) The full cooperation of the Louisiana Mill Managers' Association 
be extended to the State forestry division, Department of Conservation, in 
their efforts to prevent forest and cut-over land fires. 

(2) That properly wordpd si^ns be placed at all crossroads, and prom- 
inent places along the public highways, as well as at county fairs, public 
meetings, etc., asking the cooperation of the general public in the prevention 
of forest fires, these signs to be supplied by the State forestry division. 

(3) To work with the police jury in their efforts for the pretention of 
forest fires. 


(4) To solicit the cooperation cf the juds-es of the various districts 
and suggest that they charge the grand juries with reference to forest fires. 

(5) n o take up with the superintendent of education and superintend- 
ents of the various school districts with reference to teaching the children 

the hazards and dest Taction of forest fires, asking their help in the preven- 
tion of same, and also suggest that the forestry division take up the proposi- 
tion with the superintendents of the various schools, asking that the children 
prepare essays on the subject of forest fir-, s, the damage caused, and methods 
of prevention, offering, if necessary, prizes for the best papers* 

(6) Solicit the cooperation of the press in the printing of articles on 
the destruction and prevention of forest fires. 

(7) Request all civic "bodies, to help in the prevention of forest fires. 

(8) That papers be prepared covering the destruction of young trees, 
damage to growing timber and land ^j for. st fires, same to beread before 
schools, civic bodies, etc. 

(9) Solicit the cooperation of all traveling salesmen, who travel by 
auto, in the prevention of forest fires, asking that they report any fires 
they may see to the proper authorities. 

(10) Secure the cooperation of all ministers, especially those in the 
rural districts. — Southern Lumberman, 

footprints on the Snows of Time 

An old Chinaman working around a lumber camp heard a noise and espied 
a huge brown bear sniffing his tracks in the newly-fallen snow, 

"Huhi'- : he gasped, "you likee my tlacks? I makee some more.'' — Amer- 
ican Forester and Forest Life. 

As Others Utilize the Squeal of Livestock, So Lumbermen Plan to 7 "se 

the squeak of Lumber I 

The Great Southern 'Lumber Company, whose mill at Bogalusa, La., cuts 
? 50,000 feet of lumber a day, is now utilizing the product of the tree so 
closely that wood for fuel is no longer available to the people of the town. 
This is made possible by the manufacture of paper and other by-products, al- 
though waste in lumber manufacture at the mill proper has been reduced to a 
minimum. >jot much more than limbs goes to the paper mill, 


Men 'Those opinion is authoritative have said that the time may cone 
when the products of the tree now inaccurat ly terned "waste" may prove to he 
more valuable than the present primary uroctuct - lumber. 

There is much that is inspiring about an industry that is making the 
progress that is being registered from day tc day in lumbering. It may well 
be that lumbermen themselves do not realize the number and significance of 
the advancements being made in forestry, in closet utilization at sawmill and 
by-products plants and in wood— consuming factories. It is not too much to 
say that every manufacturer of lumber and every user of wood is concentrating 
his efforts upen economic production and utilization. — American Lumberman, 

Test of th>. Durability of Treated Ties 

prom 1904 to 1313 inclusive ^ the Atchison, Topeka and oanta j?e Railway 
inserted in special test tracks at 16 stations and on branch lines in four 
states a total of 135,345 creosoted crogsties. Of these test ties 112,560 or 
82.56$ were pine, 15,529 or 11.38^ gam, 7,461 or 5.47$ red oak, and 795 or 0.59^ 
beech ties. 

An official inspection "between January 2o and April 1, 1924 - 13 years 
after the fire^ ties ^--re. laid - showed that 130,338 ties or over 9o$ were etill 
in track and thf t of the 5,4c7 ti- s removed only 110 ^r less than 0.1 ; 5 of the 
total number of ties originally laid were removed because of decay. 

Of the 130,933 creosoted ties still in service 24,356 or 18.60 c/ have been 
in track for 15 to 19 years, 78,125 or 59.66$ for 10 to 15 years, and 23,457 ^ r 
21.74$ for less than 10 years. — !! '7ood Preserving Hews" In the N. J. Forestry 

T ew .aneroid 

Gk paulin, a Swedish engineer, 1ms placed on the market a nov aneroid 
which, according to the Engineering Hews He-cord, is much more efficient than 
any of the present instruments- It covers ranges in altitude fr>r sea level to 
10,000 feet and will register differences in elevations as small as one foot. 
The instrument contains no gears, rivets or chains and it is claimed to be 
extremely accurate and dependable . An instrument of this character?, if it 
proves as efficient as the inventor claims, would be of invaluable assistance 
in preparing topographic maps. 


Saving and R-enowin.? th ?. iwoorl 

A program for th: rof r 5 . tion ' ^ ■ timber h. 

California, is "heir.? actively carried forw rd under the direction ?f t 1 - 

beldt Redwood Reforestation association. This association, in connection 
7,-ith-the Pacific Lumber Company, maintains ■: nursery at Scotia, California, 
embracing an area of five and a half acr* 3 dev t d t( seedbeds, transplant 
beds and experimental sections. ..-.n interesting aeaturj' :"r. coin: cti or, ' ': . Lh 
growing of the young trees is the method employed of poruninf the roots 'a; v^-zc 
them stocky, a four-foot saw blade attached to a rail spreader drawn by two 
horses is employed. It is proposed to olant about 5C0 trei 3 to the acre, a 
planting policy covering the next four years has be a r - >rk< d >ut and the prin- 
cipal species to be grown are redwood, Douglas fir, Port ^rford cedar, and Sit- 
ka sprue. The planting season is restricts.: to th wint r season months. 

The -Board, of °\ro irvisors of Ha-'; ldt C unty k s appropriated c fund of 
$25,000 for the purpose of saving th. redwoods. This amount -as provided for 
in the tax levy by th: borrd for bh nsuing y ar as th "0 ;inning of 
"Save the Redwoods" fund to be utilised as needed in completing the Redwood pari: 
system in Humboldt County. The county lias already appropriated in :ast tl 

sum of 385,000 toward saving redwood timber - in the Humo^ldt St; , . '- - - rk. 
This brings the total sum appropriated by them to over -;1QZ ,0( . This action 
on the part of Humboldt County comes soon after the formal voting by the ■' rd 
of Supervisors of Del Horte County to 3 t aside an annual fund for the saving 
of redwoods along the Stat- highway, ' A' sum of $5,000 'wis appropriated by then 
for 1924-25, — Th- Tirberman. 

H enry jord'-r Htiliz.eti t. project 

Much has be n written lately .boat th f >r o:r~ efforts -f Henry y-rc . 
lie phase of his conservation work appears to be mor> product iv of practical re- 
sults than the closer utilization project now und r way. 

A tre: was taken that gave two irregular logs and scaled 233 board foot. 
Under the old system >f utilization it is estimated that about 127 board feet 
of "auto" parts would have been obtained from these logs. By cutting then re- 
cording to the Ford system 204 board feet were obtained, and in addition 17q 
board feet were also procured from limbs and tons heretofore regarded as worth- 
less except for distillation or fuel. This makes a total of 374 board feet as 
against 127 board feet from the same tree by the old method. — penn Service L< tter, 


Opposed to Increase in Timber Roya lties in Eriti_Bh__C;-J^7Ji^. 

Strenuous efforts arc being put forth by the Timber Industries Coun- 
cil of British Columbia to forestall the increase in timber royalties that 
is scheduled to become effective January 1, 1925. In its arguments against 
the proposed advance, the cottncil points out that British Columbia already 
pays the highest timber taxes in the world. A recent statement issued by 

the council sets forth the reasons why further taxes are undesirable: 

"In no country in the world is the standing timber taxed to such an 
extent as in British Columbia, and yet on January 1, 1925, the present un- 
economic royalty measure that is now in operation will, unless repealed, 
automatically increase the present rate by 300 per cent, making an increase 
of r; 00 per cent since its enactment in 1914. 

"Two facts must be recognised. 7irst: a lar-7;e portion of our timber 
is mature and should be harvested as so :-n as possible. To hold up the log- 
ging of it b'j impossible taxation at this stage is to sanction its deteriora- 
tion. In the second place, British Columbia, although magnificently wooded, 
has by no means a monopoly of the world's softwood, or ever, of the valuable 
species of the Douglas fir area. In marketing its forest products it is in 
severe competition with countries that encourage instead :>f taxing the devel- 
opment of their natural resources." — The Timberman a 

Wool from ?in c ' L' aves 

G-erman scientists are reported to have found a way to manufacture 
material closely resembling wool by chemically treating th ; leaves of the 
Scotch pine. It is said that this new substance can be spun, curled, and 
woven. One of the uses to which it is being put is a stuffing for mat- 
tresses. The aromatic odor makes the mattresses insect proof and agreeable 
and beneficial to sleepers, especially patients in hospitals. 

The fir leaves are gathered every second year while they are still 
green. They are then boiled, and by the use of chemicals the resinous sub- 
stances are removed from them. The remaining fibers are separated and 
cleansed of all foreign matter. The result of this process is artificial 
wool. An oil by-product, differing somewhat from turpentine, but having cany 
of its properties, is also derived. — -penn. °ervice Letter. 

Another Tire? 

Soito rangers blaze a way; others only blaze away. — Six Twenty-Six. 


April 29, 1852 - December 2, 1924 

On Tuesday ni?ht, December 2, at his daughter" s home in Ukiah, 
Charles Howard Shinn passed on. The funeral was h Id th> re Thursday 
afternoon at 2; 30. 

Thus much the bare record. But what it means to the California 
District of the forest Service, and to all foresters and the cars. 
of forestry in our c/untry, ^ords only haltingly express. No one has 
said more in few words for him than did the " iierre Ranger," on that 
Parest to which Mr, Shinn gave longest and most peculiarly his labor 
:f love, when the Shinn place at jjorthfork was off red for sale: 
"That hits - doesnU it? * great love can be crowded into one small 
sentence - resnect, and love, and a tightening of the threat, 
Cabin is for sale, put the high-rriindedness, the fine courage, the 
inspiration that have corn.: from peace Cabin, and that are a part of 
our hearts and puruose, are not in the market. I7e own the real peace 
Cabin, peace Cabin is not for sale ! t! 

And now Mr. Shinn has passed. But, as truly, his world can 
never lose him* Other reen may serve the cause of forestry in posi- 
tions of nore far-flung responsibility, but few more significantly, 
and none ever more truly, to his last ounce of ener 5 ey and life, imd 
to none, we venture, is it given to contribute to ?ais fellows in 
larger measure of these most priceless possessions of men or organi- 
zations, the invisible and eternal foundations of character, spoken 
of hy the Sierra. 

With his nearest £.nd dearest we also grieve. But what a solace 
is the abiding presence of such a life ! "0 death, where is thy sting? 
grave, where is thy victory? 15 — Cal. District pews Letter. 


E. J. Fenby has been appointed Supervisor of the Rainier National 
Forest, » ashington, succeeding G. F. Allen, deceased. Fenby has been on the 
Rainier for the past fifteen years as Forest Assistant, Forest Examiner, 
Deputy Supervisor, and Superintendent of Road Construction. Before coring 
to the Northwest he was engaged in forestry work in Canada, in the Southern 
Appalachians, and in Montana. His technical training was secured at Joins 
Hopkins, and at "3iltinore. 

professor J. Nelson Spaeth lias recently been added to the forestry 
faculty of the New York State College of Agriculture, professor Spaeth was 
graduated from the College of Agriculture at Cornell and had graduate study 
at the Harvard Forest School. lie has been assistant to the director of the 
Harvard Forest. It is expected that Professor Spaeth will establish permanent 
sample plots in typical New York forests. — Cornell Extension Service "'lows. 

Edwin L. Ivlowat, who has boon field assistant on the Douglas fir yield 
study at the Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment station, has taken a position 
as instructor in forestry at the Forest School of Oregon Agricultural College. 
His place is being taken by L. H. Barrett, a Michigan Forest School graduate 
who served as lookout on Mt. Ireland, whitman National Forest, Oregon, last 

Robert Marshall, the field assistant who worked out of the Wind River 
Branch of the Experiment Station most of the summer left on October 1 to take 
a post graduate course in the Harvard forest School. 

Samuel j. Record, professor of Forest products in Talc University, de- 
livered an illustrated lecture on "The w on ders of V»"ood" in the James Simpson 
Theater of the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago recently to an audi- 
ence of 9Q0 people. 

D. C-. Rankin has recently been appointed Blister Rust Control Agent 
to look after Columbia, Greene ar.d Ulster counties, with headquarters at Hud- 
son, N. Y. — :J. Y. Observer. 

Prof. V7. G-. Edwards is on leave of absence for a year from perm. State 
College and is taking post grad uate work in lumbering at the University of 
California. V. E. MacMillan, Penn. State 1923, is taking his place. MacHillan 
was at Cornell last year doing graduate work in Forestry. — penn. State Forestry 
News Letter. 


U .w s^r-'3i?.T in H-raii 

Theo. C. Zscholdce, r-ho recently returned to the United States iron the 
Philippine forest Service, has accept . : position as assistant superintend- 
ent of forestry for Hawaii and has left to take up his duties in Honolulu. — 
P. L Makiling IZcho. 

Student assistants appointed recently to the Southern Forest elsperi- 
ment Station are janes L. Averell and Philip C. Walo ley. 

professor Burr N. prentice resi ;rv d r a ntly as agent in Blister Rust 
Control in New "fork to renew his work in thi Forestry Department of Purdue 
University. — Blister Rust News. 

Professor J. C. DeCarnp of the Michigan Agricultural College has been 
one of the guiding spirits in the Lansin ; •" . ; 3 club and is also secretary 
of the Michigan Forestry Association. He is taking up a study of snail saw- 
mill operations in central Michigan with a vie - ,? to determining th ce rac- 
ter of the product manufactured and a suitable price to charge for cutting 
woodlot timber. 

professor P. a. Herbert of the Michigan Agricultural College is con- 
tinuing his work in forest insurance. He has prepared an extended bibliogra- 
phy on the subject and spent some tine in northern Michigan studying fire 
risks. Professor Herbert believes that forest insurance is essential before 
reforestation is undertaken by private companies on a large scale. 

The following men were appointed recently as Field Assistants in 

Blister Rust Control, Washington; A. C. Darwin, Cecil H. Hatton, Percy E. 
Melis, Carl 0. Peterson, Mack W. Hodner, Guy J. Scholl, Philip S. Sirccoe, 
Clarence c. Strong. — Blister Bust Hews. 

Dow 7. Baxter, who has been in the employ of the Blister Rust Control, 
U. S. Departnent of Agriculture intermittently from 1918 to 1923, is joining 
the staff of the Botanical Departnent of the University of Wisconsin as In- 
structor. — Blister Rust Hews. 

J. a!. Bennett, Forester far tfayne County, Michigan, has a considerable 
force of foresters working under him. He has charge of the parks and road- 
side trees in the county and lias been, doing a great deal to develop interest 
in forestry there. 

C, E« Baker has been appointed' Federal "blister rust agent in Essex 
County, New York, — U. Y. Observer. 

L. C, Palmer, Forester for the IC nt County Board of Supervisors, is in 
charge of the forest experiment station near Grand Rapids. Michigan, main- 
tained by the Kent County Board of Supervisors and the Michigan Agricultural 
College primarily for forest planting. 

if. F; Damtoft, forester for the Champion "fibre Company, and C. P. Kor- 
stian, Associate ailviculturi st at the Appalachian forest Experiment Station, 
are working on plans in connection with the proposed expansion of the com- 
pany' s nursery at Canton, North Carolina. Experiments on the control of 
weeds and of damping off have been started, based upon recommendations of 
the Bureau of Plant Industry. 

Mr. Elmer H. ford, who has been associated with the Office of 3lister 
Rust Control for several years as Assistant pathologist, resigned recently 
to accept an appointment as Valuation Engineer in the Treasury j>epartraent , 
Income Tax Unit, Timber Section. —Blister Rust Hews. 

During the past season the members of the staff of the Roosevelt Uild 
Life forest Experiment Station of the New York State College of Forestry at 
Syracuse, has-been engaged in field studies an follows- Dr. Charles f . John- 
son continued his etiidy of the Adirondack beaver, Dr. a. 0. Gross has studied 
the status of the Ruffed Grouse in the lower Hudson Valley, and Mr, B. A. 
Scudder has studied the Adirondack deer situation. 

forester 0. U. pflueger, c hief division of Investigation and In Charge 
of the forest School, Philippine Islands, has reported for duty after nine 
months' leave of absence. During his vacation he visited Yale University, 
Cornell, and Syracuse University, tho Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, 
Wisconsin, and the U. S. Forest Service at Washington, P. C. , and Jan Francis* 
co, California. He brought with him a good collection of books and pamphlets 
on forestry which will be used as references in the forest School. — ?;i". 
Makiling Echo, 

Jm. Clave, Ralph 0. Gould, and Ronald 3. Craig have been appointed as 
agents in Blister Rust Control in Massachusetts. — Blister Rust N^ws. 

ARTICLES, 5IBLI0C-?.-:e.xrZ3. ?~^l:c.^ic t s 

Recent Bo oks eg pore stry 

Timbers of Tropical America, "by Samuel ,7. Record, Ivi. A., M. F. , and 
Clayton D. Mali, B. A., M. F. , Yale University Press. 

Caoba - The J&ihogany Tree. Translated "by Walter d. Wilcoz. The Knicker- 
bocker Press* (J. Putnam's Sons. 

Isolation a pactor in the Natural defeneration f Certain Conifers, by 
James W. Tourney and Ernest J. M< :thling. Yale University Press. 

I'.;i s c e 1 1 ane jv. s Publ i ca t ion s 

Simplified Practice Recommendation No. 16, issued "by the Department 
of Commerce, deals with American lumber standards. 

J. 5. Illick, of the Pennsylvania Department of 3 rests and Waters, 
is co-author of a new book "A popular History of American Invention" *• Mch is 
just from the press of Charles Scribncr Sons. Ho contributed the chnpt r on 
"The Story of the American Lumber Industry." 

In Volume 12, New York Botanical Garden Bulletin #45, is a 25-page 
discussion of "Hemlock and Its Environment." 

Manual of Tree and Shrub Insects, compiled by Ephraim porter Felt, Jtr 
Entomologist cf New York, gives a practical summary of the insect problem in 
its relation to forest and sliade trees. 

Valuable information and statistics pertaining to the timber resources 
and lumber trade of Canada are contained in the most recent commerce report 
of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, U, S« Department of Commerce. 
Data for this report were obtained from "Forests of Canada," a publication of 
the Department of the Interior of Canada, issued in 1S23. 

Map of Natural Vegetation. Son and Shantz, 


The Seventh Biennial Report of the. State Forester, State -of Montana, 
for the Short period jjscember 1, 1320, to June 30, 1921, and the Fiscal Years 
1922 and 1923, has been published and is now ready for distribution "oy that 

Farmers Bulletin' #1184, "Currents and Gooseberries, Their Culture and 
Relation to White Pine Blister Rust,," 

Articl es from the F ^- r e ?,t Service in Current Per iodicals 

Benson, A. C. Greater Yield from Logs. Southern Lumberman, October 18, 1924. 

Bonner, P. P. The Forest Road System of California. California Highways, 
September, 1924« 

Bruce, Donald, a New Technique for Growth Studies by Stem Analyses, Journal 
of Forestry, October, 1924, 

Behre, C. F. Computation of Total Contents of 'Trees, Journal of -"'or- stry, 
October, 1924. 

Cleator, P. W. Recreation Objectives in Rational Forest, Administration, 
University of Washington Forest Club Quarterly, June, 1924. 

Curren, C. T., and Bairi, B. K. Bleaching 'of W 00 d Pulp, III, The Effect of 
Temperature on the Bleaching of Sulphite Pulp. Faper Trade Journal, 
September 11, 1924. 

Bain, B. L. Weed Trees and Sawmill Profits. _ The Timberman, October, 1924. 

Frothingham, E. H. Forestry and Forest Investigations in. the s -ut hern Appa- 
lachians. Ashcville (Sunday) Citizen, September 21, .-19.24. 

Greeley, V.'. B. Fire Season en the National Forests. American Forests and 
Forest Life, November, 1324. ... ... - ■- 

^on-caused Fires Make Staggering Total. Lumber World Review, October 

10, 1924. 

Griffin, G. J. 'Further 'Note on the Position of the Tori in Bordered pits in 
Relation to penetration of preservatives. Journal of forestry, October, 

Griffith, G. P. Fighting Fire with Posters. . Timberman, September, 1924. 

Guthrie, J, P. Development of New Oregon pine Section. The Timbermah a October, 

Forest people: Albert of Eagle Creek. American Forests and ^'orest Life, 
November, 1924. 

-70- . . 

Krauch, H. Acceleration of Growth in Western Y< How pine Stands after Cutting 
Journal ox Forestry, October, 1924. 

L^rsen, J. ^. , and W. C. Lowder mi Ik. Slash Disposal in pine Forests of 
Idaho. West Coast Lumberman, October 15, 1924. 

Leopold, *>.. Grass, Brush, Timber, and Tire in Southern Arizona. Jovxi^ 1 of 
F Testry, October, 1924, 

Miller., R* N., and T7. H. Swanson. Pressure in Sulphite Cooks. Paper, 
October 16, 1924. 

Munger, T. T. Lumber from 43-year-old Forest- The Tirfoerman, September, 


McCarthy, F. F. The Record th Tr K vs. ■ " : fuming, August, 192-1. 

pincetl, M. F% The -ire at Plum Bar. American ? r s 3 nd Forest Life, 
November, 1924. 

Preston, JFno. ?. Forest Practice and possibility a in north Idaho. The 
Timberman, IvSay, 1924. 

Redington, p. £. Highways Needed to ^evelop Californis 's Fon sts. Califor- 
nia Highways, September, 1924. 

Hue, J. D., Wells, S. D., and Schafer, Z. R. Study of Flas " aw for papor 
Taking, paper Hill, September 27, 1924. paper Trade Journal, _• ~ .:, 
25, 1924. Paper, "Sept. 25, 1924. 

Sherman, E. .a. Military Reservations ".Till Produce Timber. Foreign Service, 
October, 1924. 

Stockbridge, Miss H. F. Bibliography of Douglas Fir. Mimeographed. 

11 on Erosion. " 

.Veils, S. D. Cooperation in Obtaining .end Using Raw Materials. 
Paper Mill and Wood Pulp News, October IS, 1924. 

Wahlenburr, 17. G-. Stimulating Growth of Fngelmann Spruce in the Nursery. 

The Timberman, AUgast, 1924. 

Wyraan, L. How Fast Should a Face be Raised in Chipping limber? Southern Lum- 
ber Journal, October 15, 1924. 

Weidman, R. h. Forest Experiments in Idaho. The Timberman, September, 1924. 


publications Issued by the potest Service from October 1, 1924, 

to JlOTeraber 30, 1924 

Rept. 138 - The Influence of the form of a wooden "beam on its stiffness 
and strength* III. - Stresses in Wood Members, etc, 
(Reprint from national .advisory Committee for Aeronautics) 

Unnurnb. Pub. Vacation in the National Forests. (Reprint.) 
D-l r-lontanaij Largest Big-Same Refuge. 

D-3 Apache National forest - Map F older. 

California's ^creation Grounds - Litho Map- only. 

Forest Regions of the United States - Map only* 


MARCH 1925, 




Liarch, 1925 

Published bimonthly by thj 9brast S3rviC3, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, V/ashington, D. J. 

c o :: i.' i] :i t j 

P ag a 

Announcements ............. 3-4 

State forestry departments and organizations 5-16 

Education and axtansion 17-26 

Fbrjst Service not3s . 27-3^ 

Uiseallaneous .......... 35-46 

Personals 47-50 

ArtieiDS, bibliographies, and publications . . . 51-55 


* * * 

* * 

•*•••••• • 

c t < 

* * 

• • • » • 


• • • 


ident Joolidge has ; 



Am jric - i 


_•_ m 

. 3St 


to be held this ye' 

rr A 

1 15 

-2b, incl 

.-. ! 

\ . 

. Amerio n 

3brest Week is the 

:c es 


of Forest 


. tec 


,7eek, which for t .-. 

ist four 

years has 


3 on 

. proc] 

vi by the President 


Th 3 

changing of name has r 


from oh j 


1 en- . 

. ing 

interest in various pha 

503 ' .' 

stry an J 


i h 

. the 

ho; e 

of • iking a wee 


le in ic t 


. regions 

in the u T ni - id St tte 

i lj rr 


. L 


nan . 

. the 


week which contemplated protei 

tion (■-.. y 



31 v- .'3 1 Servic i is a" 

. r jady 

. plans 



. mak 

Lng American Forest We •/ 


. t so 


th3 . 

. Hat ion. 

Pores t jrrod 'J.ct s Labc rat or y Announces ?Jew Jo urs es 

Co promote the Les': and most economical use of the products of our 
forests and thus help to t "petuate the forests themselves, the ?brest Serv- 
ice maintains at ; . , Wiscc sin, ir cooperation with the University of 
V/isconsin, the Sbrest Products Laboratory. 

Although primarily an institution for research, the 3brest Products 
Laboratory has also as one- of its primary functions ths task of getting into 
use the knowledge and the processes it discovers. It has gathered much use- 
ful information on the properties of wood and on the manufacture and use of 
wood products, a large part of the fiolJ for the practical application of 
this knowledge is in the Demons tra'c ion courses in kiln drying 
of lumber, boxing and crating, gluing of wood, and wood properties and uses 
have been arranged to give not only basic knowledge but its practical appli- 
cation to everyday problems. 

The courses announced for the spring a 

as lOiiOwS: 

Kiln Drying _-__-___ April 27 to Llay 6, 1925. 
Boxing and Jrating - - - - il3y 4-9, 1925. 
Gluing of Wood _..__-- April 20-25, 1925. 


Unpublished Pape rs and Manu scrip ts a re Av ail able 

At the i-brest School Conference held in T/ashington on December 29, 
a question was brought up regarding unpublished papers and manuscripts on 
file in the Sorest Service offices that could be made available for dis- 
tribution to faculty members of UOrest Schools and State 30resters. Ehe 
following may be obtained upon application; 

Instructions for Grazing Reconnaissance. (.Mimeographed) 

Grazing Investigations Program, 1924. (Typed) 

Representative Grazing Management Plan. (Mimeographed) 

(Y/ould require extra map to be made in District from which sent.) 

Report, Great Basin Sxperiment Station. (.Typed) 

Report, Jornada Experiment Station, (Typed) 

Report, Santa lita Dxperiment Station. (Typed) 

Range Appraisal Report. 

Index Map of National Jbrests of the United States. 

Area Tables of I-Tatiohal Pores ts. 

Specifications for Horizontal and Vertical Control, as approved 
by the Board of Surveys and Maps on January II, 1921. 

Instructions for Leveling, as prepared by the Geological Survey 
and adopted by the Be arc' of Surveys and Maps. 

Requests for copies of silvicultural management plans cannot" be met 
in full at present. A bulletin containing selected plans for widely scat- 
tered National Peres to is now in preparation, and should be available in 
the fall. A selected list of available unpublished research manuscripts 
will be published later. All mimeographed manuscripts will b3 sent out 
without charge as long as the supply lasts. All typed manuscripts will 
be furnished with the understanding that the applicant hear the cost of 

Al legheny Sec tion, Society of Am eri can ibresters, A.'inounces Meeting 

I. S. illicit, Secretary 

A meeting of the Allegheny Section of the Society of American JOr- ■ 
esters will be held in the Senate Caucus .loom, Capitol Building, Harris- 
burg, Pennsylvania, on March 6 anl 7. ine of the features of the program 
will be a talk by Br. C. A. Sehenek, who is no--- spending seve'ral months in 
this country studying the forest conditions and lecturing at some of the 
forest schools. 


is florestry Important? 

The first obstacle encountered in a discussion of forestry with the 
averag3 man who has not given any thought to the subject is that if this 
subject is so important, if it is so necessary to protect the forests we 
have and to provide for more forests in the future, if it is really prof- 
itable to practice forestry, if it is real La profitable to actually plant 
some of our soil- in trees, why has this not been done i 1 the oast^ "/hv 
have v;e be^n neglecting a thin,*, which holds out such bright prospects of 
financial returns? The answer is simply this: we havs reached the stage 
in our economic development when we are looking elsewhere for some of 
our timber, and other parts of the countrj are looking to us for timber. 
The point has been reached. where it .ill be profitable to grow trees. 
This has not been the case in the past. 

Also, our viewpoint as to the proper use of a large part of our 
lands is changing. The old viewpoint was that all of our lands were suit- 
ed to agriculture; that agriculture .vould eventually use all of cur lands 
and that they would be more profitable when devoted to agriculture than 
when devoted to timber. Svery section of the South has worked, through 
all kinds of agencies, to get .past as much of its land settled with far- 
mers as possible, and we have in some cases destroyed a valuable crop, 
timber; that is, we have cut it down and burned it up in order to prepare 
the land for agriculture when it was not then and is not now suited to 
agriculture, he are beginning to learn that we have some lands which are 
suited to growing Limber, but are not suited to agriculture. 

Let it be understood . -i ht here that reforestation, that is prac- 
tical and profitable reforestation or tree "owin . would not contemplate 
taking one dij.v^ of lands on *yhich crops can be grown profitably. 

Georgia has an s.r3&. of about 38 million acres. Of this less than 
12 million acres ire ixor. : being cultivated. a1 Lbama has he million acres 
of land and of this about 10 million acres are classed as improved farm 
land. With two- thirds or more of our acres not in improved farms., we can 
readily see that reforestation is not a project opposed to agricultural 
development but in reality is a very important phase cf agricultural devel- 
opment which will enable us to make .'.ore of our lands return a profit. 

deforestation will not interfere with any plan for diversified 
agriculture in any section of our territory, tn the other hand; any eco- 
nomic plan of diversified agriculture will include the growing of trees 
for timber. deforestation will not interfere with any plan for land set- 
tlement or immigration in general, and Georgia and Alabama in particular 
have millions of acres of land which could grow crops at more profit to 
their owners than would be realized if these lands were in timber. There 
are other millior&of acres which will return a profit to their owners in 
any other crop except timber. --Agricultural Bulletin., Atlanta & "//est 
Point il. a. Go., '.Yes tern ."Jail way of Alabama, Georgia lailroad. 

New_.Pt>rest Experiment sta tion Bill, Introduced by S enator P epper 

Another step toward winning back Pennsylvania' 5 timber heritage 
was taken when Senator George V/harto.n Pepper introduced Senate Bill 3877 
to establish a Federal forest experiment station for his own and surround- 
ing States. 

The bill would appropriate &50,OO0 to enable the Secretary of 
Agriculture to establish and maintain in cooperation with Pennsylvania 
and surrounding States, a forest experiment station. The station, either 
independently or in cooperation with State, county, municipal and univer- 
sity agencies, business organisations, and individuals, will conduct ex- 
periments and investigations of timber growing, protection against forest 
fires, and other forest problems. 

Federal forest experiment stations have been established in recent 
years covering New England and New York, the Lake State?, the southern 
pine belt, the Southern -Appalachian Mountains, the Pacific Northwest, 
and the Northern .-Cocky fountain region. Senator Pepper's bill has as its 
object closing the gap between the Northeastern and the Southern Appalach- 
ian station territories. 2he region covered would be Pennsylvania, south- 
ern New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and eastern Ohio. 

The forest experiment stations, under the direction of the Forest 
.Service, United States Department of Agriculture, will carry on studies of 
the different forist regions and types to determine the best methods of 
growing timber as a arop. They have the same relation to timber crops 
that agricultural experiment stations have to farm crops. 

Pennsylvania, the center of the territory for tha proposed station, 
originally had over 26 -nillicn acres of forest, land containing 500 billion 
board feet of timber. These forests have been reduced to 13 million acres 
in area and to only 11 % billion board fest of timber'. 

Lumber production in Pennsylvania reached its high level in 1900, 
when 2x billion boarc feet were cut. In 1921 the production had sunk to 
only about half a billion feet while consumption reached 2- n billion feet. 
In I860 Pennsylvania stood first in lumber production; she now stands 
about twentieth. 

By proper management it is estimated that Pennsylvania's forests 
can be made to yield ultimately nearly 2h billion feet of sawtimber a year, 
greater even than the banner cut for 1900. 

Pennsylvania forest conditions are typical of those of the rest of 
the region to be covered by the proposed experiment station. The purpose 
of the station is to r tudy the measures necessary to restore the original 
high productivity of these forest lands. Most of them are now growing 
only small amounts of timber of inferior quality. 

Fores tr.v as an Investment 

1/0 -W-T3S of "Vhite Pine 


?. T. McLean of the {'node Island State Jollege 

. j&cperim 

mt Station, estimates that 100 acres of land set 

. out to ' 

fait -j Pin j would call for the following invest- 

. rnjnt: 

Land. ; t.(u per acr; 

Pine trees 6.00 " 

To ta'i outlay o f i 2 , 3o .0 L 


jr deducting interest at 5/o and taxes at it? 

per acre compounded, the returns in 


years would show a net profit of <j>7,0'X).CC . 


years would show a net fro fit of 33, 614. 


years would show a net profit of 65,560.00 


years would show a net profit of 99,95( .00 

100 Acres Mixed Oak Sprout Land 


same authority estimates that on 100 acres of 

. mix3d Oak Sprout ] .■■Iu:v £.00 per acre, after 

. deduct ij 

ig interest at 6;j and ^axes at It f ear acre com- ; 

. pound ed 

, the net profit at th.3 end of 

30 years would be c-1,180.00 

If allowed 1 ' • .v to & pears. 

the net profit would be i- 10, 135.00 

Hi^a Li ghts of Mon tana A ^port 

In the recent report of the State 3orester of Montana (7th Biennial 
Report, 1920-1922), which is distributed by the office of the State forester, 
Missoula, Montana, some interesting points are brought out; 

1. ^ho total area of Montana's State-owned forests is more than 
500,000 acres. iough surveys indicate that the area is about 566, 72o acres. 
Montana ranks next to New York and Pennsylvania in State-owned forests. 


2. The estimated stand of timber- on the State forests is 3 billion 
board feet - an average of somewhat lass than 7,000 board feet par aero. 
Its value, according to law, is set at v oar thousand. 

'3. The racaipts from tha State forests .during the past 14 years have 
been more than double the total expenditures upon them. ieceipts from sales 
Of timber on the State, forests from 1910, to 19.23 totalled £.631,924.66, while 
expenditures during, the same period were i 30l,766..44.« 

* ±. More than one- fourth of Montana' s total area of 94,383,0 KJ acres 
is mountainous and forested. Of the total forest area of 21,332 v 000 acres, 
the federal Government owns 1.7,832, lOO acres and the State approximately 
500,000 acres, leaving but 3*01 >,00O acres in private hands. In spite 
of this fact one of the four recommendations of the report is the exten- 
sion of the State forests by acquiring cut-over lands suitable to forest 



5. The total present annual growth of Montana' s forests is- estimated 
at 859,000,000 board feet, whila the rati of cutting (as of 1920) was 
410,000,000 board feet. The total average annual depletion at present is. 
however, 660,000>,pOO board feet, classified as follows; 

Jutting - - 4u0, 000,00 ) B. ?. 

Plre 16B,o n,i 00 " " 

Insects - - 72 ,000,0 p( " " 

Shis shows that almost half as much, wood is removed by fire as by lumbering. 

6. Estimated expenditures needed for forest protection to cover the 
normal' year, with a reasonably ideal system average 4 cents an a^re. 

"Since 233,273 acres of the State forests comprise interior holdings 
within National 5brest boundaries, funds are paid by the Stata to tha U.S. 
Ftrest Service for protection of these areas. ,?ov the patrol and protec- 
tion of those State forests situated, in eastern Montana, she pays at the 
rat3 of l/lO of a cent per aera; in western Montana she pays for patrol only 
at the rate of 2-1 /i5 cents par -^v*.. jlra suppression in western I>I ntana is 
an additional charge, paid for on the basis Of actual cost. 

fire protection, not including losses, now costs private owners from 
1-3/4 to 3 cents a year per acre, according to location and seasonal hazard. 

7. Present taxes oh merchantable timber range from .0207 average min- 
imum to .0.493 per thousand feajfc, average maximum oer year by counties. In 
10 years they have advanced 91,j on an average and seem to be -advancing about 
iO/o a year at the present. 

Present taxes on cut- oyer lands valuable chiefly for forest growing 
range by counties from .057 5" average minimum to. «2C average maximum an acre, 
averaging approximately 10 cents oe,r aer e per year, the land is assess 3d. at 
from 3 to 15 dollars per acra. Jut-over land ta:c3S s^dm to be advancing 
about lLvj per year. 

-6- " 

8. Montana's principal forest typss are four in number and all conif- 
erous: (I) larch-fir, (~) yellow pine, (3) white pine, (4) spruce. 

9. The mining industry es of Montana alone use nearly 100,000,000 
board feet, or one-fourth of the annual output of Montana's forests. 

;ak ing of Resolutions 

Tha Vermont Forest Service suggests, the following New Year 1 s Resolu- 
tion: "Realizing that the present and future prosperity depends in a large 
measure upon the forest, 1 resolve to do all possible toward making the 
idle forest land of the State productive of valuable forest trees. I fur- 
ther resolve to reforest at least one acre each year until all the idle 
land which I own is reforested." Maryland adds: "and further to do all 
in my power to prevent the starting of any forest fires, and should any 
occur to do my utmost in helping to extinguish it promptly and "before it 
covers a large area."- -Md. Forest 7ardens [Jews Letter. 

■tesolutions of Jali f o rn ia Fo r e s try Boa rd 

At a recent meeting. of the Jalifornia S1 I Board of forestry, reso- 
lutions were adopted condemning light burning, declaring that both theory 
and praetica are unsatisfactory as i aea lS of. fire protection, since it is 
destructive to watershed cover aiic! to reproduction. The board also called 
upon the Secretaries of 7ar m : i{ 'iculture to cooperate in establishing 

permanent summer camps within ths boi i • nal forests for troops, 

making them available f ;• . . , forest fires. Resolutions were passed 

requesting cooperation of the State ?ish ... i j Commission in enacting 
legislation giving the Governor power to shorten or close the fishing and 
hunting season "when in his Judgment it becomes nee sssary for the public 
welfare," and asking introduction r j^' a bij.1 at the next legislature provid- 
ing for disposal of slashings on ail privately-owned timberlands, where tim- 
ber is being removed. 

Ifow Tax, Lay; Prop osed for. Oregon 

A A. Jliiott, State '^o^est^r, Oregon 

a bill aimed to relieve the burden of taxation on cut-ever or other- 
wise denuded lands will be introduced in the State legislature. A bill of 
this character was passed two years ago but was vetoed by the Governor on 
the ground that it would throw an unjust burden of taxation on other tax- 
payers by reduced taxes on the eut-ov.?r land, The bill is patterned after 
laws existing in other States and similarly its purpose is to relieve the 
major burden of the taxation on growing timber until the .crop is harvested, 


Denuded land, upon application of the owner and examination and approval by , 
the State ^rester may be classed as "reforestation land," and a contract 
drawn up with tha State specifying what conditions must be mat in order that 
a future stand of timber may be assured upon the land so contracted. These 
contracts are for a period of not to exceed sixty years. Upon approval of 
the contracts, assessors are notified and the property is then to be as- 
sessed upon the value of the land alone, and to be reassessed at periods of 
not to exceed ten years. Jifty pjr cent of the annual tax is to be a de- 
ferred tax and is payable at the termination of the contract with interest 
at four per cent, compounded annually, Merchantable timber when removed 
from the land is taxed as other property is taxad. 

in contracting thj land with the State, owners agree to comply with 
all fire and patrol laws and, if it is considered necessary, to take steps 
in order to establish a forest artificially. It is also possible under the 
proposed law to examine timber before cutting and specify what conditions 
must be met in logging the area in order that proper reforestation may be ■ 
assured. "i'a3r± this is done the land may be subject to separate classifica- 
tion one year following the removal of the timber. 

Oregon, like many other States, is sadly in need of a reform in the 
taxation of cut-over lands. It is almost universal practice among assessors 
to place the assessed valuation on cut-over lands far ?bova any price that 
could be secured from a sale, ilany of the timber owners pay this tax, argu- 
ing that if they allow cut-over lands to revert for taxes, the loss in revenu; 
to the county will be made up simply by additional assessments against the 

However, following up this same line of thought, thera must come a 
time, as the virgin timber area is reduced, when this same timber and over- 
assessed cut-over lands, under this system, will be unable to carry the tax 
burden. Then it must be shifted to other property,' This is the problem 
that some of the counties are now facing and it must be worked out in the 
near future. 'Then this work is undertaken cut-over lands must receive duss 
consideration, for any tax that is in any way confiscatory will not be paid 
and the lands, will revert to the county, on the other hand, owners could 
contract their lands with the State under the reforestation bill and there- 
by escape any excessive taxation. 

Just how the law will work out, in case it is passed, is a question 
and its operation will be watched with interest. 

4 Uniq ue Project in Vermont 

The first number of the "Green Llountain State barest News" of the 
Vermont Jbrest Service tells of an unusual experiment in reforestation. 


In 1922 Mr. Guy 7/ilson of Bethel, Terraont, purchased an area of 
120 acres of forest land known as the "Parker Lot." The cost was #360.00. 
It was deeded to three trustees to o 3 held in trust, and dedicated to the 
purpose of timber growing b,v boys, .^.y bo;; interested in reforestation 
nay plant an aor3 or more of t Le land upon registration with the trustees. 
The boy pays for the crses, to. cost t>6»5i a thousand, and aftei it is plant- 
ed he is given a certificate to that effect. At the time of Maturity it is 
his right to cut them. He then pays to the trustees 1 per cent oi che ex- 
pense incurred by them, including the original erica 0:" 1':; lard, the year- 
ly rental and the cost of protection, figured at 5 per cent interest. 

Initial investmant of the boys per icre, plus the cost of setting 
trees an.i the payment to the trustees, will amount at the end of 50 years 
to about £.41 .00. It is estimate! that the plantation should the.: be Worth 
approximately C 30 3 per acre. ftfte n boys have availed themsjlv^s of the 
plan and have planted 30,000 trc-s.--Penn. Service Letter. 

California ..d~oo a te s Paid Care p mire Permits, 

at the coming meeting of the California legislatura, the Jalifornia 
State Board of Forestry will introduce a bill provi iin for a paid camp 
fire parrait law. ^eoording to the board's announcement, oh ;a ip fire per- 
mit bill provides that every p.rscn in the State of California, who, between 
May lo and Octobjr 31, inclusive, ' iy \ far, builas a camp fire on land 
other than his own, without first procuring a State therefor, is 
guilty of a misdemeanor, "he bill provides that camp fire permits for the 
period stipulated can be obtained for on; collar v in the same manner in 
which fishing and hunting licenses ar 3 now secured. It is also stipulated 
in the bill that all moruys collected from thj sal 3 of camp fire permits 
shall be deposited in the Stats Board of torestry ?orast xToteetion Fund, 
and shall be used for forest protection purpose--, the improv3ment of public 
camp grounds, and for the purchase of lands for the creation of State for- 
ests. — N. «J . Forestry News. 

Fire Prey ^ntion Absorbs the Interest of Tennessee Foresters 

The subject of forest fire pravention was given almost exclusive con- 
sideration at the recent conference of district patroxraen of the Tennessee 
division of forestry, ivhich was held in "noxville, Tennessee, and was attend- 
ed by seventy-five delegates. 

The possibilities of cooperation in preventing fires on both nation- 
al Forests and private lands were discussed by II. is., liattoon. Supervisor 
of the Cherokee National Forest, who referred to the work of the dcrth Caro- 
lina and Tennessee departments of forestry, of the Pisgah, Unaka and Chero- 
kee National Forests and private timber land owners as examples of what i^n 


be accomplished in the way of fire prevention through coox^aration. To se- 
cure more efficient protection he advocated that representatives ox* the 
two States meet with members of tha iforest Service to work out a definite 
program for fire prevention, and that telephone lines and lookout towers b3 
provided along the borders of North Jarolina and Tennessee and also ^n pri- 
vata lands bordering National Crests. 

J. B- York discuss 3d the relation of fire prevention to the grazing 
business on public and private lands, showing that crops matured at least 
two weeks earlier on unburnt timber areas, and that cattle subsequently 
grazed on this land fattened more quickly because they could be placed on 
these ranges two weeks earlier and left there at least three weeks later 
than on burnt districts, 7ild vegetation destroyed by fires takes at least 
three years to recover. 

i. S. Uaddox, State jftrester of Tennessee, and Prof. Charles Keffer 
of the University of Tennessee, dwelt upon the preservation of the farm 
woodlot. Mr- Maddox, in stressing the part which the forests play in the 
financial and ethical development of the country, said that the maintenance 
of the productivity of our forests is the personal obligation of every citi- 

J. S. Holmes, State Pbrester of North Jarolina, spoke on 'Obstacles 
to overcome in Fire Prevention.' 1 

jTour important suggestions for lore afficiently curbing the forest 
fire menace were offered by Patrolman D. B. Grinstaff in discussing the 
need of State laws for district patrolmen. They ware; (i) to admonish 
sawmill owners to exercise groat care in starting fires near their mills; 
^2) to prohibit landowners' from burning branches' and rubbish without a per- 
mit from their patrolman; (3) to forbid back-firing without a permit from 
the patrolman; and ( ) to report all fires as soon as discovered. 

J. H. Henderson, district forester of Tennessee, explained Virginia's 
fir --fighting organization and the financial handicap under which the Tennes- 
see organization is laboring. out of the one hundred counties in 
Virginia are organized, while in Tennessee the organization has reached an 
impasse du± to the fact that the State appropriation which, along with e^ual 
Federal and county appropriations, makes up the patrolmen's salary, has been 
exhausted. 3ach organized county in Virginia has a chief warden with eight 
to twelve district wardens under him. Their duty is to post fire notices, 
visit schools, inspect mills, and enlist the aid of citizens in campaigns 
against forest fires. This arrangement is further divided, with local ward- 
ens taking their orders from the district wardens and receiving remunera- 
tion only for the actual time they engage in the work* corporations are 
being urged to cooperate with the. State in its campaign against forest fires.. 

The rinal address of th ■>, conferene 3 was given by L. ?. Voodloe, 
one of th.- oldest district patrolmen in point of service, on 'dhe Necessity 
of Persistent Education in Jlrj Prevention. " — American Lumberman. 

Plans to Jombpit jorjst ?ir; Jdenac .,- 

To combat the menace of forest fires, the Lijhi* n State Jonservation 
commission has formula t 3d a tentative program including plans to patrol the 
wooded sections of the State, the intension of the observation tower system, 
and the purchase of othjr equipment to bj used in this connection, a plan 
of scouting for fires with the aid of four airplanes will be tried out by 
the chief fire warden at the request of the commission with a view :>f es- 
tablishing this system of detecti lg 'or^st blades during five months of 
next year, xhe State's tower system, which now includes 122 stations , will 
be extended by the erection of <cO additional ! avers. la addition, 1^7 spe- 
cial wardens besides the 14 district wardens have been proposed. — American 
Lumb erman. 

Ohio ^dds to St ite j orests 

The enactment of the Tor est 3 isndment to the state ?orest Acqui- 

sition Law has jnabled the Depa tra ' forestry to take over four forest 

parks of approximately 1,6 Jo acres o ' thj most outs tanding scenic features 
of Ohio. These four areas are located in locking- Jounty and will eventu- 
ally be included in the Hocking State forest. The tracts include sandstone 
caves and cliffs of unusual interest, and the gorges contain splendid stands 
of virgin forest and a flora od great variety. The forest and flora in the 
gorgjs will, of course, be maintained in their natural condition, but the 
old fields adjacent will be reforested, so that the tree plantations may be 
available to the people .vho visit the parks. 

uhio's State forests, including th3 game and forest preserve, now 
contain approximately 25, bob acres. — american forests and forest Life. 

Growt i and Jut, in 7ev.;_ d amp shire 

In New Hampshire 750 million feot of timber ire used annually within 
the State, of which million feet are cut in the State and 30'f> million 
feet are shipped in. The annual growth is estimated at 3o0 million feet 
so that we are cutting 100 million feet more each year than we are growing. 
At the same time there are H,JOO,00'o acr_s of unproductive forest land that 
could be growing useful trees. ?ive square miles of burned lands seriously 
reduces our much needed growing stock. Jvery million trees taken out of the 
State nursery and planted, and every square mile cleared of currant and 
gooseberry bushes means an increase in the growing stock. --N. H, dews Letter. 

Statistics of jlre Losses on Pacific .Coast 

The V/estarn forastry and Conservation Association has eompilad a 
statement giving eompl ate ' statistics of fire losses for the Pacific Coast 
during 1924. 

According to this statement in California, Oregon, "/ashington, Idaho, 
Montana, and British Columbia, 294 million acres are under patrol; 162 mil- 
lion by the British Columbia ?or3St o^rvica, 90 million by the U. S. for- 
est Service in National forasts, and 41,?b4,000 by cooparativa agencies on 
private and Qthar lands in tha five States outside the National forests. 

In this antira territory there wara 12,57S fires, which burn ad over 
i,929,00C acres. About 71 par cant of them, S, 912 to be exact, wera man 
caused. Of tha lav; violators, 1,111 werj convict 3d. 

Tha cost of tha regular protective organizations was (,3,599 ,6uO. 
Satra labor, supplies, ate, cost ^2,13.3,00 0. Logging camp protection cost 
about : 5l ) f uuO more, making ( 6, 232,6c >. 

^.dd to this sum ;p 321,500 for timbar lost beyond salvage, $423,000 
for logs burned on tha ground, [ V.i ,t5c for logging aquipmant, and t 9 10, 740 
for g.-naral community improv aments and wa find that this year's fira hazard, 
mostly man caused, cost £ 6,827,870. But we hava not included National for- 
est timbar nor any California timber becausa while this is raported at 800 
million feat, we do not yet know its salvage oaanc;-. Certainly it is safe 
to put tha bill at ten million collars. 

Merchantable timber reportad killed -vas 1,125 million feet, practically 
inexpressible in percentage of tha vast amount safeguarded, and 6lO million 
feet or 70 pjr'cent of this .vas in jaliforaia, with tha salvage, estimate un- 
report ad. In Oregon, "./ashington, Idaho, and Montana, 325,l62,l0l feet 'vas 
killed, of /hich 217, 676, n. - faet is reported salvabx.; and absolute loss only 
io7,187,uOu feet. On th i other hand, thasa four States lost O7,577,o00 feat 
of down log-, logging aopuipmant orth ^6ol,b63, and othar improvements 
amounting to , 615,152. And it all cama from i,S3b fires, of -hich all but 
5o4 ware man caused and therefore preventable. — Ama'rican Lumberman. 

Jo ta r ia r.s to T r e b , ?1 : ± n t i ng. Clearfield, Pennsylvania, iOtarv Club has taken over 100 acras 
of barren waste land which 'thjy intend to reforest and develop undar proper 
supervision. They ar? combining that great civic movarhent known as "Boys' 
7eek" with tha reforestation movement, and. hava applied to tha Department 
of forests and fetors for fiva thousand traes izr next spring's planting by 
boys of high school age. This interest in r jforastation is in no bat- 
tar display ad than in tha c "antral part of tha Li lata, where at one time mag- 
nificent forests of /hit a pin. and hemlock covared vastaraas of land which 
nava been, during tha lifa-tima of many of our citizens, transformed into 
barren wastes. — ?^nn. Service Latter. 

'/ • . 

on Idle Land 

In an address before tha Ghamb ar of Jommarae at a racent malting 
in Atlantic Gity, J. P. V/ilbur, State forester for New Jersey, statad 
that New Jersay has ample acraaga to raise ail tha lumbar necessary for its 
own usis, although nine-tenths of tha timber used is now imported. How- 
ever, there arj 600'jbOO acres in tha Stata, no- mora or lass idla, that are 
suitable for growing traos. L"h 3 Stata forestry . ro> ram, .vhich would in- 
volve spending about vlOO,OUO- annually, would provide 2tO,oo6 acres of 
woodlands within tan years. iuilure to carry out the program would re- 
sult in a still more acuta shrinkage in tha timber output.— American Lum- 

..lich i fran Go varno r to Jail Jonfarenca 

Governor Alex. J. Groasbeck, of Michigan, is making plans to call a 
confaranca of govarnors of tha central States to discuss conservation prob- 
lams within a short tima. Govarnor Groasbeck has indicated that hj in- 
tends to ask tha legislature to provida funds for a forest planting and 
fire control program of such unprec adantad scopa that the naxt two yaars 
will mark tha beginning of tha first serious attempt to reforest cut-over 
lands in Llichigan. — Amarican Lumberman. 

Town 3b rests 

The Liassachusetts forestry association, which introducad town for- 
ests to Pilgrim soil, has offered to plant tha first o,OU treas (five 
acras) for avary town that sats asida luO acras of land for forast plant- 
ing. Once astablishad, a town may turn its forasts over to tha expert 
ma na gem an t of th a Stata f r a s r 3 r . 

r Jha town forast can b; not only a profitable community v 3nture but 
demonstration to private landowners of how to turn their idla acras to ac- 
count, as civilizations grow oldar tha complicated problams of an adult 
Stata demand a higher ordar or" citizenship from 2 people who would cope 
with them, uur town forasts /ill ba at least one answer to tha challen* ; 
that a democracy cannot take thought for its future. 2he town forast rep- 
resents an investment in the substance, the beauty, the pride and the com- 
petence of tha future community. — Blister /lust '.laws. 

During 1923 over nine per cant of the total revenue of the first- 
class railroads of the country was received from forest products. Tha 
total revenue received from this source was (.419,807,000. — lid. ?orest 
Wardens -Jews Letter. 

j^.r_3.. Prot ec tion in the Jontra G osta Hills 

Both Professors V/oodbridge Lletcaif and Smanujl Fritz of the University 
of California havj boon active in furthering tha work .of the Contra Gosta Hill 
Fire Protection Commit tee, which was organize?!, by th-3 former in 1924 in coop- 
eration with State Forester ■!.':. 3. Pratt, to prevent and sxtinguish f ires in 
the hill country adjacent to the cities on the east side -of San 'Francisco 
Bay. Apathy towards the early efforts of. this committee culminated in the 
disastrous Berkeley fire of September, 1923, following which a systematic, 
plan of protection was drawn up and a tentative budget adopted. What is 
probably the most substantial and completely equipped lookout tower and 
watchman's residence in the United States now crowns the summit of -Grizzly 
Peak, from which notification of fires is immediately broadcast by telephone 
and the warning shriek of a large electric siren. Twelve local firewardens 
under the direction of a District Ranger from Sacramento are constantly 
on duty during the dry season. Several fires which might easily have as- 
sumed dangerous proportions were extinguished last summer with only nomi- 
nal losses. One in October threatened San Leandro and the Lake Jhabot 
filter plant, destroyed several thousand acres di' valuable plantations and 
was extinguished only after hours of fighting by several hundred men. 

If the matter of right of way can be settled, alameda Jounty,will 
this year adopt the suggestion of .the committee and build a skyline boulevard 
from the west entrance of the tunnel north along the face Of the hills to 
Suclid ^venue, Berkeley. Contra Costa County proposes to erect a second 
lookout tower on Round Too Peak to complete the detection service, over 
thirteen thousand dollars have been expended in furthering the work of the 
committee this year, and it is hoped that an annual budget of about ten 
thousand dollars will be provided by the cooperating agencies in order to 
put the work on a permanent basis. 



International Relations in Fore_5_try_ 

The International Institute of Agriculture at Roma now undertakes 
to compile and disseminate current statistics on the status of agriculture 
throughout the world and has already made a start to include forest sta- 
tistics in the sphere of its activities. The International Education 
Board is, among other things, providing for the exchange of personnel in 
agricultural research batwaen this country and Rurope with the object of 
securing the benefit of the bast .European experience in working out Amer- 
ica's problem and in giving our men first-hand contact with the problems 
and methods of agricultural research in 3urope. Th'3 board has expressed 
an interest in forestry as a field of agriculture which might wall be in- 
cluded in its activities. 

In order to provide for consideration of the subject of interna- 
tional relations in forestry by a representative group of foresters and 
to formulate so far as possible a definite program for discussion with 
the International Education Board, the International Institute of Agri- 
culture, and any other interested agencies, the U. 3. Forest Service, 
through S. T. Dana, Director, Northeastern ^rest Jxperiment Station, 
called a conference in Tew York tha latter part of October. This confer- 
ence was attended by the following foresters: H. P. Bakar, P. J. Craig- 
head, S. 2. Dana, 7/. 0. Riley, R. T. Fisher, H. S. Graves, R. S. Hosraer, 
R. S. Kellogg, R. IT. Lunas, Parley Spaulding, and 3. Y. Stuart. Dr. V/hit- 
ney H. Shepardson of the International Education Board was also present 
throughout most of the conference. 

The conference voted to recommend to the Society of American for- 
esters the appointment of a standing committee on international relations, 
and to secure discussion of the subject at the annual meeting of the soci- 
aty in Decamber. (At the December meeting of the Society of American For- 
esters a standing committee on International Relations in Forestry was 
established with S. T. Dana, Chairman, to work in cooperation with the 
National Research Council, the International Institute of Agriculture, 
the Tropical Plant Research Foundation, and other organizations having 
foreign contacts.) 

The conference regarded, thoroughgoing research as essential to ad- 
vancement in forestry and felt that forest research in this country was 
greatly in need of the direction and stimulus which can be obtained by 
direct contact with European experience. The fields in which such contact 
would be of especial value were classed as forest production, forest eco- 
nomics and policy, and forest and wood utilization. The exchange of workers 

between the United States and other countries was regarded as the most 
effective means of taking advantage of European experience along these 

In addition, the conference suggested two other ways in which in- 
ternational education in forestry could be promoted, namely, lecture tours 
in this country by pron1in3.1t 3uropean foresters or African foresters who 
have acquired information in research work abroad, especially in the field 
of forest economics, and short lecture courses in the various forest schools 
by prominent European fores tars. 

An interim committee, composed of S. T. Dana, ,H. P. Baker and 
a, T. Fisher was select3d to giv3 further consideration to the matter, to 
present a general program to the International Sduc'at'idn Eonrd, and later 
to formulate concrete projects with specific suggestions as to objscts, 
urgency, personnel, costs, cooperation, and other details. — Yal3 'forest 
School "Mews. 

Cornell For 33 try Department Holds Census 

In a statistical study made by Prof. J. H. Guise of the Department 
of Forestry at Cornell University, with regard to the present status of the 
graduates and students of the former TTow York State College of Forestry at 
Cornell University, 1690-1905, and the present Department of Forestry at 
Cornell, 1911-192*:, many inter 3S ting" facts are disclosed. Without .attempt- 
ing a detailed analysis of thj figur3S, it is worth while noting that of 
those who took the degree of F 1 . 3. from the former College of Forestry at 
Cornell and who are still living, ioO per cent are making direct use of 
their training, the majority being engaged in lines of private sndeavor. 

It is also significant that among the graduates of the present Depart- 
ment of Forestry at Cornell, about one-half of those, who have completed the 
regular undergraduate course ar; engaged in their profession, as compared 
with three-quarters of thos^ who have completed post graduate study and 
taken the 1.1. F. degree. — J. H. Guise, Cornell. 

Conference of Fo rest School lien 
C. _S. Carter, U. 3. Forest Service 

Representatives of 19 colleges and universities giving instruction 
in forestry met with the Forjster on December 29, before the annual meeting 
of the Society of American Foresters in '.yashihgton. The. discussion centered 
on the employment of technically trained men by the Forest Service, espe- 
cially as rangers. The forest school representatives were practically unan- 
imous in stating that the entrance salary of c 1660 and assignment to work as 


rangers on the relational Crests should attract a sufficient r.umb er of capa- 
ble trained men, if the opportunities for advancement in the Service wera 
bettered. They recommended that passage of the Junior Forester ( Forest 
Assistant or Grazing Assistant) Civil Service examination be made a pre- 
requisite to promotion to Supervisor or to some other rank: as a means of 
stimulating the influx of trained men. They also advised against any 
substantial changes in the form of the Junior Forester examination, al- 
though urging care in the preparation of questions. 

The meeting was widely representative of forestry education in the 
United States, as may be seen from the following list of institutions 
which had faculty members in attendance: Ames, California, Colorado College, 
Cornell, Georgia Agricultural College, Idaho, Maine, Michigan University, 
Michigan Agricultural College, Minnesota, Montana, ITew Hampshire Agricul- 
tural College, Oregon Agricultural College, Pennsylvania Forest Academy, 
Penii State, Syracuse, Washington, Washington Agricultural College, Yale. y of California Plans Lumber Laboratory 

The rapid growth of the lumber industry of California has made great- 
er demands upon the division of forestry of the University of California 
than its present equipment can take care of. An enlarged lumbering and 
wood technology laboratory is therefore needed, and tentative plans have 
be^n prepared to submit to the next legislature. Professor Emmanuel Fritz 
will have charge of the new laboratory in which such studies as methods of 
sawing, design of saw teeth, the kiln drying of lumber, and determination 
of properties of woods native to California will be carried on. The new 
equipment will include a small sawmill to handle logs up to three and four 
feet in diameter, a resaw, a planer, and other related machinery and a dry 
kiln. The investigative work to be conducted will have as its principal 
objective the better utilization and handling of forest products. It is 
recognized that no forest and sawmill product can be produced without cer- 
tain unavoidable wastes. The University hopes to have another laboratory 
adjoining the lumber laboratory in which to carry on a series of studies 
to determine the possibility of utilizing the wastes through chemical means, 
either for paper pulp or products derived by distillation. Here, also, 
would be conducted experiments in the preservative treatment of wood prod- 
ucts to protect them against decay. — American Lumberman. 

The Cruis e of the Jhaain e state 

Following the close of the summer term at Milford, Pennsylvania, 
all available members of the Yale Forestry Class of 19C6 were jmployed on a 
timber cruise covering the estate of Chester V/. Jhapin, near Port Jervis, 
New York, which had to be completed in two weeks. This project presented 
many novel and interesting features. 

The original owner, Chester '7. Chapin, had in thirty years acquired 
a solid block of land surrounding Lebanon Lake, west of the Mongaup River, 
in Sullivan County, N. Y. Part of this tract was purchased from the es- 
tate by the Rockland Light and Power Company, which desired an estimate 

The timber on the area was tha typical hardwood and pitch pine mixture 
characteristic of the hills back of iVdlford, Pa. , but the tract' was- located 
within striking distanea of the 3rie Railroad and the demand' for mining 
timbers in the Seranton-v/ilkas Barre hard coal district gave a value to 
ail hardwood speeias, except ."popple," no mactar how small. The chestnut 
was dead, but still sound, and thare was considerable white pine in places. 
The ordinary board foot estimata would not do. This tract had to ba esti- 
mated in terras of mining timbars, giving the linaar fsat of timber for each 
class of product. 

To do this, tapar tables ware used which had be ?n constructad at 
liilford, Pa. Thase tapars -.vara plotted and for traes of aach diamatar 
and height the linear feet of prop material was read up to tha givan di- 
ameter in six classes of props, 12", 10", 6", 6", 4" and under 4", which 
ware classed as lagging. These data were combinad into a volume table for 
linaar fact by diametars and haights. 7oIuma tables for cubic faet wera 
also available. 

The company raquested that a saparata tally be mada of poles suit- 
able for electric line's. To soi7a this problem and also to devisa a rapid 
and practical method of measuring haights, an adaptation of the Biltmore 
stick was perfected. • iach cruisar had graduatad his own stick at Milford 
to read diamatars. On tha back of tha stick a scale was placad raading 
5-foot gradations at fixed intervals, to a total of 80 faet. This was used 
on tha Jhristen principle, but instaad of a 10-foot ppla, 5 feet was the 
measure, and this was supplied by a sacond man standing by tha traa to bj 
measurad. Jare in determining a 5-foot length on this individual, and in 
holding the stick vertically, permits of reading heights without measuring 
distance from the traa. as each of two cruisers on. a strip estimata is 
armad with a Biltmore stick they can at any tima stop and each read the 
height of the traa singled out by the other. Tna plan worked well in 
practice. ('or the poias, each man wora, pinned on his chest, a white sheet 
of paper (tally blanks) having the diameter of the top of a raerchantabla pole 
marked upon it. The straight sides of tha stick held by the other man per- 
mitted him to determine the point of equal diameter on the pole whose height 
ha then maasured with tha same stick. 

The craws consisted of aight man in two a-man craws, one foraman, 
ona extra man to fill in, end Prof. Chapman. The plan of survey was to 
chain a base line, staking point at one-quarter mile intarvals, and run 
chainad strips 4 rods wide, tal x ying all diameters by spacias, and taking 
enough heights to plot curvas for each spacias and type. 

Three miles was to be a day's run. On the first day out it was demon- 
strated that tha basa map was badly in arror, and that tha topographic map 
of tha U. 3. G. S. was not much better. Strips plannad on the map ran 
unexpectadly into lakas that should ba somewhere elsa or jumped off the 
property altogether. It became nacessary to construct a map showing tha 
property lines and lakes, and to keep ahaad of tha strip estimates, if tha 
job was to be claanad up in th i tima allotted. There was no tima or men 


available to conduct chained road or boundary surveys, or to plot them. 
So the work was dona individually by'Prof. Chapman with the use of a 
'traverse board and pacing, covering all the roads and a large part of 
the boundaries within th-3 .requirements of the job. 

Tho chaired strips at one-quarter mile, or 5/i survey, served to 
complete the type map over most of the area, "/here it was found insuf- 
ficient because of old fields and other irregularities, one man was sent 
to run a strip midway between and map types without estimating timber. 

In the middle of the job the company wired a request for a separate 
total estimate of the area which would be flooded by raising Lebanon Lake 
seven feati To obtain this information a 20 per cent cruise was made by 
running a strip back at right angles to the shore at every five chains 
and doubling up at the corners. The 7-foot contour was located on each 
strip with an ADney level wielded by an extra man. 2iS the undergrowth 
was dense, concealing the ground, the method used was to pin a piece of 
white paper on the back of the compassman, at a height just 2-l/3 feet 
below the eye of the Abney man. V/hen the former had attained an elevation 
of 2-1/3 feet the «.bney man came up and the process was repeated twice 
more, the last, stretch locating the contour. Y/ater levels in bays, swampy 
stretches or streams supplemented the process. 

After ten days and when most of the valuable timber was covered, 
the four -man crews were split into two-man parties, a compassman and esti- 
mator who tallied his own trees by eye. The immediate effect of this was 
to speed up the work of a crew at least one-third. In other words, two 
men found they could cover four miles in less time by pacing and ocular 
tally than four men took to cover three miles in th3 same country. The 
speed and efficiency were therefore increased, not 100,-j, but 166,4. Ac- 
companying this was a loss of accuracy, first, in measuring distances, 
which could be controlled by tying in both ends of the paced line, and 
second, in estimating diameters by eyj, which could hot be affectively 
controlled short of careful and difficult check estimating. 

"The character of the country, while not mountainous, presanted the 
maximum difficulties for travel. The surface was frequently composed of 
angular rocks, half the area has been recently burned, one fourth of the 
remainder was scrub oak thickets, and in the unbarred area dense laurel 
was encountered, which was particularly bad in one or two of the spruce 
swamps. In spite of this, and due to the shift to two-man crews, the sur- 
vey was completed within the time scheduled, ^'m total cost appraising 
the time of Prof, dhapman on a wage basis of .; 2a0 was &.G8 P- 1 * acre, in- 
cluding both field and office work, map and report, and all expenses for 
supplies, board and travel. Wages were £,3.00 per day and expenses. 

In computing tha estimates the stand of mine timbers was arrived 
at in two ways, by linear feat of different products, and by total weight. 
These timbers are purchased now largely by weight per car or on a tonnage 
basis. The weights constituted the check in the computations. The average 

weight par linear foot was used for each class of timbers to got the total. 
Then the weight per cubic foot was applied to the total cubic estimate and 
the two results compared. This revealed any large error in calculations. 
Very lit+le computation was done in the field, as the crews had done a 
full day'-s v;ork when they had run their strips. 

The data secured seemed to indicate that the company by conservative 
cutting could immediately go onto a sustained yield basis. Recommendations 
were made to this effect and the employment of a forester was advocated. 
The company officials adopted these suggestions and engaged Allen II. Tucker, 
who on Uovember 20 resigned his position with the U. S. Dept. of Agricul- 
ture in Blister Rust work and took up his residence on the Chapin 3stata to 
work out the problem of forastry for miming timbers on this tract. Combin- 
ing as it does the three features of game conservation, water storage and 
power, and forestry with a permanent steady market for low grade products, 
the opportunities for successful forestry are very promising. — H. H. Chapman 
iri the Yale Forest School News. 

Gro wth Study in Redwood 

A block recently cut from a redwood tree 46 inches in diameter which 
stood on the Albion tliver near Jomptche and which was left by the loggers 
of 167«i shows some interesting growt?i figures. Evidently this tree was 
suppressed and of small size at the time of logging, although even at that 
early date it was several hundred years of age, since ring counts show that 
it made only 3 inches of growth in a hundred years. Following the opening 
up of the stand, however, the rate of growth was accelerated to 7 inches 
in 42 years, but of this total the sapwood amounted to 4> inches. The 
specimen shows emphatically that while redwood will endure long periods of 
suppression, the lumbermen are passing up much in the way of a nucleus of 
future stands of clear lumber, '/hen second growth redwood is depended on 
for the future, thjre will be a very small proportion of clear lumber, 
while the presjnt suppressed trees of low merchantable value left standing 
would furnish a large percentage of such grades, although, of course, the 
wood would be of different character than the present clear lumber. 

N ew Courses Add ed to Ida ho Fore st Sch ool 

a new course, Recreational Uses of the Forest, will be given for the 
first time during the second semester. The use of forests for recreation 
has increased tremendously during the last three or four^years, and it is 
generally recognized that as a legitimate and valuable forest use plans must 
be made for it. The new course will attempt to cover th^ broad field in an 
efficient manner. 


The Idaho School o^" Forestry has an enrollment of ninety-nine 
students, represent-' >.-^r twenty-three States', and one from Ca;:ada, 
two from tho Philippine islands, Oiic q one "roc India. 

The new Hanger Course, of twelve weeks, began on January 5. — The 
Idaho Forester. Prelum for the Pennsylvania Fo rest Scho ^.1 

St. Bernard said: "Trees will "teach what. thou canst not learn from 
a master." This expi jsses the primary reason for establishing an arbore- 
tum at th3 State Forest School at Jiont Alto, Perm; namely, to ajd in 
teaching dendrology. 

Four students are developing this project. These men have already 
listed the tree species which are now pr os ent and those r/hi-h are needed. 
The trees are listed by habitats. The . ". i c-s are drawing up a plan and 
arranging for shipments of stock for plane; ier.t sprang, iha plan, 
when completed, will be submitted to a committee of Foresters for consid- 
eration and -suggestions. 

When tho project was first mentioned, it was thought best to group' 
the trees along systematic litres, arraij - them by genera. Since then 
it has been learned that better resul cs are obtainec i/hrongh natural 
grouping, placing each i.ra< 3p£Cie3 in jt/j j r-red habitat. It' is prob- 

able that this method will be adopted. — T. Shav;. 

job in Hpn-j Oaks Brought to .Syracu se University 

The growing of Jtotin Hood oaks from seed of the trees that have 
made Sherwood Fores c famous in scng and story will be attempted by the 
New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University. Prof. ITelson 
d. Brown, who recently returned from 3r gland., brought with him a supply o: 
acorns garnered from che famous oaks in Sherworui Forest where Robin Hood 
and his banditti held forth. Sane of the oak? now standing in Sherwood 
Forest are said to be more than 1,500 years of age c.r>& a number of them 
are 15 feet in diameter. Sneoial oaks like Robin Hood's Larder, the 
Major Oak, and the queen's Oak, were selected by Prof. Brown. 

Some of these accms will be planted about the campiis. Others will 
be used in a plot at one of the college experiment stations, where a scien- 
tific study can be made of their development. This riot will form the nu- 
cleus of an historical arboretum. to which will be added from time to time 
the offspring of other, famous trees. 


Tha acorns were made available through the courtesy of the British 
Forestry Commission and the rfederal Horticultural Board at Washington 
which has tha power to restrict the importation of traes and peads, in 
order to protect the country from tha possibility of destructive tr. 


How the Pacific Logg ing Congress Jan Assist Jpr a s t Schools 

Tha Logging Congress a few years ago formally requested tha various 
collages and universities of tha West to provide courses in logging engi- 
neering. The educational institutions responded* In Montana, Idaho, 
Washington, Oregon, California, and British Columbia colleges and univer- 
sities grant degrees in logging engineering. The srabjact matte 1 .' in the 
courses in logging engineering was agreed to in conference between practical 
oparators and tha forest school faculties. Young men have been graduated 
from these courses and are now being tried out in the woods. Some have 
made a decided success in their work. From the time of the establishment 
of the courses in logging engineering in the colleges, the congress has 
evincad but little active interest in the lores t schools of the status of 
the work. It is my feeling that it would ba wall for the parant to show a 
little livelier interest in its progeny. 

Here are the ways in which, in my judgment, tha Logging Congress can 
be of real help to the logging engineering departments of the forest schools. 

Tha Congress can create in each State represented in the Congress 
a committee consisting of three practical, up-to-date loggers, whose func- 
tions should bo to serve ir an advisory Capacity to the departments of log- 
ging engineering of tha respective States. These committees should hold 
conferences with tha faculties of the forest schools at least ore a each 
year. These conferences will serve to keep tha school man thoroughly in 
touch with tha field men and tha field man with tha school man. In this 
way the forest schools would be constantly checked up on tha requirements 
in the field and tha field men would get an idea of the limitations of the 
schools. While the schools should, and do, mahe their instruction decidedly 
practical, yat it must be understood after all that the technical courses 
must have a solid basis in theory and that the practical application of the 
theory must ba made on. tha job. T13 committees which are recommended in 
this connection should be standing committees of thu- congress. 

The Congress through its members can establish a definite plan by 
means of which students in legging mginae ring ma? sbtai.n practical woods 
experience during summer vacation. Under normal conditions thase studants 
have no difficulty ; .n securing employment of some jort in the camps. But 
mere employment is not ths iniportanc thing. It is highly desirable that tha 
right sc:t of employment be obtained, in order that those embryo logging engi 
neers may have the best opportunity of studyilig the operation as a whole. 
In other words, this summer work should ba made to connect up with the col- 
lege work. It can be made as valuable as any laboratory work in school. 

It is fully appreciated that this n y entail some little at t ant ion on the 
part of the operator and of his woods bom;. Teverthaless , ib ; fj should 
bi, and I think there is, sufficient professional spirit on the part of 
operators to assist in this small vvaj m helping to raise the standard 
of the'i'ogging j: ineering profession.. It should b, distinctly under- 
stood that azi easy job is not the thing desi "ed. The young c j mts 
to learn. The operators arj goi fg to us 3 these nun. The operators should 
assist in developing them. 

Through the Jongress a real u: : 'Standi i; c is be reached relative 
to the status of th3 recently graduated lo fin ngin r. In the past 
too rauch has been impacted or" him, by operators and woods bosses, when 
he has first gone out on the job. £ trictij speaking , he is not a logging 
engineer at that stag3 of his development, and will not be until 'n is 
seasoned by woods experience. Those of us vho have, for several years, 
beea interested in the development of the 1 a i teer, realize fully 

his limitations at the ti-. .- h ■ finishes collage. !e know that his train- 
ing in the : woods on the job is just as imports .; ... his tec .1 training 
■ in the schools. Sfr el . •;■ sngineer Id be promoted Lowly. [3 
should not have responsibilities olac iim until he is able to carry 
them. All of us in the forest schools *esv set . ; iiities of t'13 men 
in the logging gam 3 ..ho have bear, trai .3d in the schoo] . .' trd knocks. 
You who have been trained in that , : d >h il c tciprocat3 by giving due 
consideration to the training of the collej i an, 

The Jongr-jss can create among its < *s a helpful attitude toward 

the forest schools. Th 3 schools reco aiz t ie '■ tlue of laiowledge possessed 
by the practical operators. The schools can not if ford to buy that type of 
experience for us 3 in the lecture .-00m. Th ■.. who are prist masters in 
the logging game eaj afford', 1 think, to take in occasional day off to dis- 
cuss before the young men in the forest schools subjects which they know, 
because of their many years of experience. 

The "Logging Jongress can help the forest schools and through the 
schools the entire industry by promoting research work to be prosecuted 
by the faculties of the forest schools. 

In these ways the Pacific log; ing Congress can render very material 
assistance to the forest schools.— Taken from an address by g. './. Peavy, 
Dean. School of forestry, Oregon Agricultural dollege, Jorvallis, ire., be- 
fore the Tifteenta Pacific Logging Jongress fho Timbernan. 

xJa "y js tab 1 j s h J ommun j ty Purest 

New York dity may acquire a community forest or plant one by recom- 
mendation of Prof. Hugh ?indlay of Jolumbia University, who is directing 
work along lines of reforestation and tree conservation ?ur university ex- 
tension students. The fores try 'situation is dangerous to the national 
welfare, Professor Pins lay contends, and he insists it is the duty of the 

city, town or village to cops with conditions. Jantral park and the Haw 
York Botanical Gardens will be used by his students as laboratories in 
experimental work. A special investigation will b^ made of the impor- 
tant a of birds to forests and home trees, and of the use of trees in in- 
dus try. — American Lumberman. 

i»rominant Pores tars Speak at Jo rnell 

The studants of the Department of forestry of the New York State 
Jollege of Agriculture at Jornell have been fortunate of late in having 
many prominent foresters visit Ithaca and tall them a little about their 
work in forestry. Mr. 8. i. Pettis and Mr. 3. 2. Dana both made visits 
before Jhristmas and spoke at meetings of tha 30restry Jlub. After the 
holidays Mr. ?. G. Miller, the head of the School of Forestry at the Uni- 
versity of Idaho, spoke on forestry in the western white pine country. 
Dr. Schanck made a brief visit to the department arid spoke on many phases 
of present-day forastry. As a result of the interest which he aroused it 
is very likely that soma of tha graduate studants will make arrangements 
to accompany the students of the Mt. Alto School of Pennsylvania on the 
proposed six weeks trip through prominent European forasts. — J. H. Guise, 

Plan to E stabl is h Jhair i n Jollege 

Plans for the establishment of a university department for special- 
ization in their line was discussed by directors of tha Clio Association 
of Retail Lumbar Dealers at Jolumbus, Ohio, recently, a committee to* 
develop tha plans was appointed consisting of G. II, Barnes, head of tha 
commercial department of the Technical School at Ohio 7eslayan Univer- 
sity; Dean Philip }Jash of Antioch Jollege, and four members of tha associ- 
ation. — Lumber r/orld teview. 

The profession of forestry is only in its infancy, it is tha finest 
profession in the world, full of continuous investigation and research. 
Y/e have made a very ^ooi beginning, but there is much more to be done- 
and for those who work, there is that wonderful reward - the joy of ac- 
complishment. — Louis J. Loetzar, Penn. State forest School in Penn. Serv- 
ice Letter. 


A/ » 2J-J-L J j/.^iy ^ 111 J 3 

L- b.ya cti"es of in;- T )v; P^ral ^ras t_3>cp^rimant Jtatio:: 
3y Thornton T Plunger, Dirjotor Pacific P'orthwest Jtpari .ant Station 

appear a calamity howler and predict its aarly exhaustion, It will last 
a long tiraa yet, but it takes a long time to grow a slow crop like tim- 

The forest Service of the ? id >ral Government has foreseen that 
logy int without forest replacement is industrial suicide. It has sensed 
the changing sconomic conditions which ars paving the way for the much 
more general practice of forestry or timber gro - ing. Taturally it is a 
matter of public policy to help this movement along that tha lumber in- 
dustry and the public may suffer in t! . / ;ars to come as little as .jossi- 
ble from timber depletion ^nd land ldler.jss. 

Bafora forest lands can bj put on a basis of continuous production 
soma questions must bo studied inc answered, /a are very ignorant in this 
country of the methods of cutting forest traas to pro iota new crops, of 
mathods of brush disposal which ira iractics LI] favor raforestation, 

of the rates of growth of our several types, of tha pasts and enamias of 
our forests whose control is assantial to profitable industry, The tach- 
nical details of how to grow crops o f timber must be work 3d out. tesearch 
has done much for agriculture, '/ithout systematic study of agricultural 
problems, farming would have ban: as cruda no-, as a century ago. rfera 
again thara is a resemblance between tha evolution of tha art of agriculture 
and of forestry, what the research scientists are doing at tha agricul- 
tural experiment stations has been assantial to i farming; likewisa resaarch 
is fundamental to putting timber growing on in economic inc. successful basis. 

In tha realm of forestry research is doubly important because tha 
growing end tandiiig of timber ero^s is relatively a nav, thing in this coun- 
try, tesj^rch is laying the foundation dor forast practice. This must be 
a good foundation if the business of growing timber crops is to ba stable 
and profitable. 

It has been thi plan of the rtorest Sarvic.; to astablish in each of 
tha important forest regions of V, 3 country a forest experiment station 
where the local problems could ba wore id out by systematic observation and 
experimentation. a.s fast as funds have been made 'vailable by Jongress 
this program has been followed. This year it has been possible to estab- 
lish what is called the Pacific Porta-, .-st Porest i.parirnent Station, -..hose 
job it is to find out by scientific res sarch all thara is worth knowing about 
growing and protecting tha forests of the Touglas fir region and of the north- 
ern yellow pine region. This is by no means the beginning of forest re- 
search in this territory. Tae Por^st Service has always carried on some 
technical investigations in connection with its administrative duties. 


The progress that has marked the care of ih; National ?orests during the 
last 15 years would not have b 3-311 possible otherwise. The research work 
to dats h^s bjjn centered chiefly at what has been called the v/ind River 
Sxperimjnt Station. The naw organization is a material enlargement of 
the aarlier work; it absorbs and continues the V/iad -liver projects. 
Studies will be carried on throughout the Northwest wherever the prob- 
lems lead. Though Portland is the office headquarters, the forest land 
of the whole region is our laboratory. 

•This past field season we have been trying to answer the question, 
V/hat is the growth per acre of Douglas fir for every soil and climate of 
the region? A party has been in the f i jid all summer measuring typical 
so-called second-growth stands from 40 to 140 years of age on all types 
of soil and in the various climatic zones of western Oregon and Washing- 
ton. This project will be continued another 5 3ason at lsast; and will 
not be closed until we are in a position to say with a good deal of assur- 
ance how much timber the several soil types of the Douglas fir region are 
capable of producing under proper carj, how many tr3^s jj3r acre there should 
be for maximum results and what their sizes will be at every agj during the 
rapid growth period. '.Vith this information landowners can figure in a 
businesslike way what gross returns timber growing will bring. — The Timber- 
man. . • 

S trategy 

Supervisor Billings of the '/allowa national tares t, Oregon, has 
found the secret of getting the attention of the visitors at the County 
jair. The [forest exhibit includ 3s a fire finder, and the visitors think 
it is a roulette wheel, and crowds gather around wanting to bet on it. 

'/ashing ton 

on December 15 the Bureau of the Census released a preliminary 
statement showing the results of the lumber census for 1923, compiled in 
cooperation with the 3brest Service. The canvass in all western States 
was carried on by the District ex'fices. 

The total cut of 37,165,640,000 feet B, .1. is the largest recorded 
since 1916, and serves as onj of the evidences of the return of prosperous 
conditions following the Vorld 'Jar. 

United States per capita consumption of lumber, which decreased to 
245 feet in 1921, is computed as 330 ~ jet in 1325, an inereas3 Of 35 per 
cent. The increase of consumption was by no means evenly distributed over 
the United states. _imong the nine t States showing, actual decreases are 
North Dakota, South Dakota., Nebraska, Colorado, Oklahoma, and Viscous in. 
Louth Carolina, the State of lowest per capita, decreased still further. 

The great States of the industrial region show moderat3 increases. Che 
most striking increases appear on the Pacific Joast, wbere Oregon, 7ash- 
ington, and Jalifornia together consumed 28 per cjiiL mora than in 1922. 
Their consumption was n3arly one- fifth of the amount used in the United 

"hi consumption ox Jalifornia is th3 peak of record for my State, 
being 4,269 , boa, 1 01 feat, or practically one-eighth of thj total 1 -timber 
us3d. Of the lumbar consumed in Jalifomia about one-third was cut within 
th3 State, while practically all the remainder came from '/ashington and 

Q.uestion : In building a lookout station on a high peak above timber 
line, what ,/ould be the determining factor .vhether lumb er 
or logs would b) us^d? 

answir : The ?brest Supervisor. 

Question ; '.'/ho created the first Jational A-r^ot? 

a nswer : The first National forest v. as created by G-od, but was afterwards 

enlarged by Theodore ctoosevelt. 

Tw o ' T e\v 'Jat iona l "or ests E stablish 3 d in the South 

3stablishment of two new National forests in tha South is announced 
by the ijbrest Service, United States Depart ent of agriculture, bringing 
the total number of national Crests u 1 to 149. 

One of the new forests, known as the Jackson, is located about six 
miles southeast of Jolumbia, S. f., on the site of Jarnj. Jackson. This for- 
est embraces about 20,1.00 acres and was created by president Joolidge un- 
der authority of the dlarke-friciTary La-; which provides, among other things, 
for National forests to be established on military reservations subject 
to regulations agreed upon by the w:rjt.r of 7ar and the Secretary of 

The second new National fbrest is known as the ZeJlellan and con- 
sists of about 15,C-a>u aeras adjoining the city of _-.nrLi.ston, Ala., on the 
site of JJamp McOlellan. This :'or ec t -Isc created by the President 
under the provisions of the Jiarke-IfeLar;, Law. 

Both the Jackson ?urest and the 1.1c Jl el Ian surest will continue to be 
used for all necessary military purposes "under plans agreed upon by the De- 
partments of far and agriculture. 

These new forests will serve for the present principally as demon- 
strations of forestry praotic'a, as many: years must pass before the timber 
stands grown und jr the jbrast Service system will b 3 ready for th3 market. 
All timber on th 3 areas will be managed on tha perpetual supply plan which 
provides for new tree crops to take tha place of tha matured trjes. 

Bo tter Util ization 

"'.That to do with Alpina fir has bean mora or l3ss of a stiek3r in a 
good many Jbrast Servica timber sales. 

After being accustomed to ho './is from timbjr operators and aftsr 
putting Alpina fir in with tha djad timbjr at $i.CO' per HL 4 it laaves a 
pleasant tast3 in tha mouth when an operator comes in and wants 75,o0<> 
feat of Alpina fir, wants you to be sur3 and mark it h;avy, and is willing 
to £jay t per M for it. 

?or the purposa of bracing fruit cars 3ngalmann sprue 3, Douglas fir, 
etc., wera forrr.3riy usad and ara to a certain axtjnt still used in this 
locality, 2 x 4s ar 3 us 3d ~.nd it has been found that Alpine fir 2 x4s ara 
just as good for this purposa as highar pricad material. Alpina fir 2x4s 
can ba bought at tha local mills for £-20.0'. par II, whereas ling a imann spruca 
or Douglas fir material costs \ 25.00 par M. Th3 manager of a Sruit 3xchang3 
informed me this summer that during a fair fruit season they used about 
20,000 feet 01 2 x t material. 

lalf a Loaf is Better than No Loaf, But- 

By Thornton T , Hunger, facific Northwest 3xp. Sta. 

A full stand of trees is battar than half a stand. Yet how many of 
our forasts are but half stock 3d or irregularly stocked; hera a dense thick- 
it of young tr3es, and there a blank spaca; a single open-grown knotty tree 
where th3r3 might be a half dozan thrifty poles; or waed traas occupying 
the ground that might be filled with desired species. A pi3C3 of cut-ovjr 
land or an old burn may look graon and tree clad and g03S as "r _; for 3s ting" 
or "satisfactory sacond growth, ' whan perhaps ciosi analysis would show- 
that it wasn't producing sithsr thj quality or the quantity it should. 
Of cours3 it is a lot bitt.r to hava 3Van such a stand than nona at all. 

The xeublic and the timber frat3rnity should b3 3ducated to under- 
stand that foresters are not satisfi3d with such half stands as Nature may 
produce accidentally. To get the maximum quality and quantity of wood 
crops per acrj is whera tha art of forestry conns in. That is whare for- 
esters can "improve on Nature." 

Good farmers are not content with fields that have but one spear of 

grass whera ther3 should bj two, or with h ^rds whose increase is half of 

tha possible, it is tha half crops that fail to pay expenses and only th3 
full crops that yield th3 dividends. 

Just because there are 500 or 1000 little seedlings per acre on a 
cut-over area or an old born doss not mean that all is well. It is a 
great satisfaction to find them, "but do not forget that it- is not 100 per 
cent good forestry unless they are well spaced, of the right species, are 
established, and are in number sufficient to yield the maximum wood vol- 
ume compatible with quality. In selection cuttings in ye]. low pine are we 
not prone to look with admiration at the dense clumps cf thrifty advance 
reproduction and overlook the intervening gaps of a quarter acre laid bare 
by ax, hoof, wheels, or brush pile fires? 

how to Foil Mountain Lions 

For the benefit of foresters who may find themselves in a similar pre- 
dicament, the following incident is related; 

One of the grazing men of the Forest Service working in an especially 
wild portion of the west not long ago found himself pursued by a large moun- 
tain lion, which followed him stealthily at a distance, presumably waiting 
until nightfall before making an attack. The grazing man noted the animal, 
tried to elude him by doubling on his tracks, but it would not be shaken off.. 
Fortunately, the Forest officer was not very familiar with the local flora 
in the place where he was working, and had with him a copy of Coulter and 
kelson's botany. Opening the book, he turned to page ^2o - the mint family - 
and read down the list of plants until he came to Uepeta Cataria. He tore 
the page out and threw it behind him on the trail. When the mountain lion 
came along it discovered this unusual object ani started to investigate. 
Very naturally i* became highly interested in the description of catnip 
given there and while engaged in this perusal was eluded by the wily Forest 

An £:ccerim-jnt in Competi tio n 

An experiment is being carried on at the Coastal p?.ain Experiment 
Station at McNeill, Mississippi, to determine whether cattle and trees can 
be raised successfully on the same acres, and also to demonstrate whether, 
as is believed, fire is almost as much of an enemy zq the stockmen as to the 
timber grower. In this study the Southern Forest Experiment Station, with 
headquarters in Hew Orleans and field stations in various forest areas of 
the South, is cooperating with other Bureaus .of the Department of Agricul- 

"It is not expected," stated one of the Forest Service men during a 
recent inspection trip, "that trees will ev~r be any advantage to an im- 
proved pasture; but the Forest Service believes that on hundreds of thousands 
of acres of cut— over piney-woods land there is excellent grazing for beef 
stock, Y/ithout harm to a fine growth of longleaf pine, and perhaps other 
pines, provided fire protection is maintained." 

- 31 - 

In the recent ranger examination for 1924., a few of the bright 
spots ar3: 

Back-firing: ,ar) whirling back by foros of wind. 

Saw Kerf: Is the thing of no usa for lumbar. 

Geographic location: ISational Crests ar: located in tha north- 
v.est and southwest e::cept the forests located in 7/ashington, D. J. 

O-na applicant stated that he would like to become a ?orest ganger 
because he would look well in tha 30rest Service uniform. 

St rengt h Jont jst Between Douglas ?ir and S outhern P ine 

Twenty Douglas fir timbers almost 12 inches sopuara and 24 feet long 
were recently tested for their strength as a column in the million-pound 
testing machine in the timber mechanics s actios of tha Sorest Products Labor- 

These columns have been air seasoning since they were received from 
the Douglas fir region on the coast two years ago* Twenty columns were 
tested when green shortly after their receipt. 

Similar tests have also been made of southern yellow pine timbers 
in a green and air seasoned state. In general, comparatively little differ- 
ence in strength properties has developed batwaan the two species. 

fore st Ins ects in Mot ion Picture s_ 

The Branch of ?brest Insects, Bureau of Entomology, hashing ton, E.G., 
has just completed the filming of insects at work in the forjsts, showing 
them destroying the green timber after th-e trees have baeh felled; also in- 
jury to lead cables and seasoned wood products. Scenes depicting methods 
of control have also been included. 

In a former picture, "Fighting Was tarn Pine Beetles," the insects 
are shown at work killing the living western yellow pine trees and the meth- 
ods which the Department is using in its control. 

Films relating to entomology and allied subjects may be obtained 
without cost other than that of transportation through the Motion Picture 
Laboratory, Dapartmant of Agriculture, "/ashington, D. J. 


Be tter Jrates 

The universal usa of crates is indicated by an estimate made by one 
writer thit th^r; are in common us; to-day ■.'. styles of cabbage crates, Si 
varieties of lettuce erat;s, iC differ ant kinds ox ^Ij^ crates, and 15 
styles tnd si;:es of round-st.a-3 baskets. More than 316 million crates 
were shipped over American railways in iy£S and nor a Lhan 4f- billion board 
feet of lumber are us id annually in th i i anufacture of boxas and cratas. 

Losses ixi failures of crates during shipment now eo: t the railroads 
in the United States not lass than (3,800,000, it is estimated; and this 
includes only claims actually paid. 

Great as these losses .a, improved crating raethods through batter 
nailing, better design, and improved packing methods have lon3 much to re- 
duce losses. A largs share of the saving as a si] as . .".ruction in size 
of crate members has bean possible through tha 3-way corner construction 
and diagonal bracing. 

Po rt o .tico ,a. s ks Jl arke -LlcIIary Jooper i tion 

A request for ccoperatior under the Jlarke-i e . .g, Law has been re- 
ceived from the Commissioner of Agriculture of Porto 3ieo. The appropria- 
tion by Porto Rico for forestry .,- >rk is ■ Z b,( i, of which : 10,000 is de- 
voted to nursery and pi Ltin act cities. The Commissioner is much inter- 
ested in the possibilities for planting on a ^ a . sc _e. There is a sur- 
prising amount of land on the Island which bao bjjn denuded and has failed 
to coma back to tree growth, on the ot . r ' nd, plantations of all sorts 
of sari's a: _ or to have been v;g successful, ^u proposed cooperative 
work under the CJlarke-ilcTTary law would bj carried out under the direction 
of the Supervisor of thj Lu^uillo National forest. 

No Pi ne Ha s Bumper Jrop of Jo nas 

a bumper crop of Jorway pine cones this fall has kept the seed ex- 
traction plant of the Jioeguet Tores t 3>:parimei:t 3 tat ion busy ever since 
the cones came piling in to a total of over 5t >j bushels. In the Lake 
States, Jorway pine has rrovad itself tc be an e^cellint tree when plant- 
ed oa a large scale for forest purposes, She main difficulty with rais- 
ing the tree in the nursery has bej;i the high cost of the seed due to its 
scarcity, for the Norway pina bs^rs cones only at irregular intervals of 
several years. The present large crop is therefore a matter of consider- 
able interest to all engaged in reforestation projects. Most of the cones 
sent in for extraction it Jloquat came from the Liinnesota State ?orest Serv- 
ice and the seed produced ..ill be used in the State nurseries. 


a bushel o,* Norway pine aonas yields roughly a pound of saad. r fhj 
seeds are small and light, and run from o5,ooC to 7o,uOO to the pound, of 
which, in thj casa of good average seed, about 65 to 9i par asnt can bj 
counted on to garminata undar normal conditions. Shis means something like 
3l',COG,uuO littla lTo rv; iy pinjs growing up ca th-3 Llinnesota State jbrests in 
the next few seasons iron- thj sj:-d axtractad this year at Jloquot. 

.jail ilant inEr as j.n jconom.v in Raising _73 st 3 r n_'_/h i ta __Pin 3. 

*rora 4i to 7u p3r Jent of the expanse of raising western ..hite pine 
seedlings from the time of planting until th> s iodlings coma up and are 
r^ady tor transplanting, can bj savjti bj planting tha seeds in tha fall 
instead of in tha spring, according to Porest Sxaminar "/. li. V/ahleribarg of 
tha \/ind 3iver ?brast ikparimont Station at IJissoula. 

Spring-sown western white pine- is vary liable not to garminata un- 
til thj second saason aftjr sowing, from ona-half to nina-tanths of tha seed 
failing to coma uj. the first saason, Ihose that do. coma up tha first year 
ara of tan too young by tha time hot dry weather comas to withstand thase 
trying conditions. Losses of stoc 1 : in this way, as wall as thj expense of 
maintaining shada f rami's, mulching' operations for an additional saason, and 
all thj other ctr-j that saed-bads must "03 given until the seedlings ara wall 
established, can bj saved by the simple means of fall sowing. 

r.t tha Savenac Sursery, whara the -experiments were conducted, $-250 
was savid in on) season on shade frames and mulch alone. This and other 
savings are of consid srabl-e importance in this nursary, where o,(jU0,0uC 
plants' are ready annually for forest planting aid thj growing stock on hand 
amounts to H/,uOi,OG0 plants. 


Meeting of t'ij ttajricv.-i fj^stry ^ss^ ior. 
ohirley LI- »l.ljn. '6 lODia ■; 

On January 22nd The American ?or t ■• association celebr t ;ed its 
Fiftieth .anniversary by b^ing back to Jhicago, thj city v;Lr.; it was 
started in 1675. The Illinois ?or strj 5 sedation, the .. l ton and 
tii3 union League 31ub aji;& :s hosts, Prominent on the ; *og™ : werj 
Jolonel Villiam 3, Greeley, J. T. All jn of thj /estern forestry and Con- 
servation Association, and 2x-Govemor Traak G. Lowden oi Illinois. 

Among thj interesting addrjSojo was that if ^jorge D. t*ratt, Presi- 
dint of the association, in which hi sketched briefly i he hist, •;. of this 
organization, l.ii incident recounted touched an enthusiastic .:.. ting t 

the association held in Quebec in 189o. Darin; this { ■ laring . : Lie Dr. 
B. 3. Fernow was reading 3, paper, th : aid . ., Chief Th is Siouhi, 

entered the hall with his son, clad in full Indiin c . tume. in :' . paper 

was ended the Chief ros; and said, ''.j -re thj c lildreu of thj Forest and 
are come to welcome thj friends of thj Jor^st, sj .... I as .. . i > ..' ^- : "3 
old the Forest has been my country. I h; . .- lived in it md I hoj ..• ; ;o aj 
in it. V/e are not numerous. V/j .vill gr iu-llj lisappear likj the gr>at 
trees of our Sbrests. Protect us uid our *or3; ts ;r.d : ; ^u will have thj 
prayers of the tiurons and the gratitude of hearts." 

Thj first notable accomplishment of rhe forestry Associa- 
tion was s icuring the passage of;, law giving thj President authority to 
establish jbrjst Reserves from thj public domain. This took plr>ce in 1691. 
LIr. Pratt madj e stron ppe il for iggressivj support of thj association's 
Forty Million Dollar Pro; ram .' v : itio.i-i forest purchase now before Con- 
gress in thj Lic>7ary-7oodruff bill. 

Colonel Greeley's address took thj for i n exposition of thj 
Clark e-llcNary Law, in .vhich he pointed out that the principle of coopera- 
tion was paramount: "The schei: ; of coop3ration must recognize thj individ- 
ual sovereignty of the L'tate. Thj problem of each ith; is to develop its 
forest protection policy in accordance with its own ideas and e>q jrience. 
7a want this schxa to bring federal aid and e'ori'structiv i sympathetic Fed- 
eral help including the educational features, as on i of its most important 

•I jr. Lowden , who spoke it the b-.npet in the evening, nade a state- 
ment .which .vill go down in history as a great utterance in conservation 
literature. It was: ''.To man holds a good enough title to jn acre of land 
anywhere that hj has the right to bequeath it it the end of his life in 
less fruitful condition than when it came into his possession. ' 

..•j.morg the other spjakers on the program were Henry d. Jowles, Presi- 
dent, Illinois forestry association, Alexander iyfe, i resident, Hamilton 
Jlub, V/illiam L. Hall of the Union League Jlub, Stephen a. Forbes, Chief 


State Laboratory of Natural History, Lirs.'Theron Jolton, Chicago 7omaa' s 
Club, George 3. Stephenson, Scout Ssecuti've, Boy Scouts of America, Chair- 
man, Henry S Graves, Provost, Yale University, P. 3. Lovjjoy, Michigan 
Forestry association, J. Li. Conzet, State Jorester 0/ Minnesota, Wilson 
Compton, Secretary, rational Lumber Manufacturers association, Herman 
Lunden, Chairman, Michigan Conservation Commission, George ; / Sisson, Amer- 
ican i^ulp and raper association, Chauncy J. 3amiin, Chairman, National 
Conference on outdoor Recreation, C, He McDowell, Chairman, deforestation 
Committee, American jnginaering Council, Raphael Jon, Director, Lake State 
forest Sxperiraent Station, Mrs. ?rancis £ V/hitley, General federation of 
7omen ? s Clubs and Richard H, Little, Chicago Tribune. 

Resolutions .vjre adopted favoring increased appropriations under 
the Clarke-LIciJary Lav.-, re-affirming the faith of the association in the en- 
larged program for the .acquisition of National forest i^.nd, urging the passag* 
01 the rublic Shooting Grounds bill, urging provision for Recreational use 
of public forests, expressing regret at the death of David L.Cfoo&villi?, 
Chicago, who passed away after his election as one of the Directors of the 
association, and a final resolution expressing the thanks of the associa- 
tion to its hosts. 

There were more than two hundred in attendance. 

S outi ern Pin e Lo s ses 

h.% the request of several lumber companies and turpentine operators 
an investigation was made by L ... St. George, November 2.Z to Dec amber 20, 
to determine the cause 0:* the death of some 70 ,.000,000 feet of pine timber 
extending over a territory from Alabama to Texas. Host of the dead and dy- 
ing timber is located in western Texas, Centered about Angelina County, but 
a considerable portion is in Louisiana. It was found that the various spa- 
des of pine trees (longleaf, shortleaf, loblolly a .id slash pine) were dying 
from the combined effect.: of such agencies as drought,, fire and turpentin- 
ing. Bark beetles, usually of secondary importance I 1 pa avulsus . jU, calii- 
graghus., tind !<■ grand ic oil is ) T attacked the trees while their tops were 
still green, a lit He later the trees turned brown ^.iC. died, a prelimi- 
nary study indicated that probably little summerwood had been added this 
year and that the drought was the primary caube of the death of the trees. 
Host of the trees appear to have died within the last three months. --Bureau 
of Entomology, Monthly -jtter. 

— «j6 — 

^iii.u al Mee ting of the Society of ,i;ii;riJ -n ' forest jrs 
*. V. .i^ynolds, Secretary 

Che twenty-fourth annual meeting of the Society of American ?or- 
estjrs was held or. December 5l and SI, in the Library of Jentra] rligh 
School, Washington, D. ^. 

The general plan of the program was - rjvij- of the d ev jlopment 
of forestry in the United ot-tjo, - o a -,c ;..-.: t ; :< ;.' ia.- ^resarc stand- 
ing ind achievements of the prof ession, *nd - forward glance at thj ways 
and means of future accomplishment .darted to American needs. 7ith this 
plan i.i mind i ozen spea] -rs covered so:^ of the principal subjects in 
the wide fijic g of for 3S try, bile others commented brijfl} and amplified 
the ideas of the pri 10 if Is. 

The audience consisted of , : hat is -robablv thj largest issemblage 
of professional foresters ■• cc a'... ' in th: United Strtes, including 
federal inci State officials, for^st^rs in _ ; "i7it; &u i : .• ratj employ, 
and thj leading educators from thj foremost technical schools. 1'o.i reg- 
istered itteadance was 182, repr - nti ..: 12 >f t u 14 Sections composing 
the society, j.nd cur:.j :';• _.., States, thj District of JolUuibia, md dan 

s ev. 


>uts ." ic 'jcurred or - er - ported she.- that the 

society has develo; ed fro small organization .\hici b jg^n within the lim- 

its of the present './nshi i, ton a cti; n to :, tee?n.ic i society of national 
and international scope. Ih . b ,-rship has tripled since 1917, and no-. 
amounts to l,i$4 members in six grades. 3;."or; the iinnual Heating the 
1 icutiv3 douncil held session for t a days, '. t which it was decided to em- 
ploy en eaejutivj Sjerjtary on part tin., is - ^r e^ivoinary step to an even- 
tual increase of dues md thj -'..I: lent of a full-time secretary. The coun- 
cil is unanimous in considering this project essential to thj 
ment of thj incr. 
b ers . 

id business and desirable intensions of service to mem- 

The Journal of forestry, previously issued ;ight times yearly, will 
be published montnly in 1S25. 

-i standing committee on International nations in forestry, with 
S* T. Dana, Jhairm n, —js to function, in accordance with its 
title, in cooperation with the rational *es jarch Jouncil, the Internation- 
al Institute of agriculture, the Tropical Lesearch -foundation, : '"d 
other organizations having foreign contacts. 

One of the most enjoyable events of the meeting" was a smoker held t 
the Josmos Jiub on the evening of December ^0, it -vhich all visiting and 
local foresters were the guests of the '/ashington Section and an Entertain- 
ment Jommittea organized by the United States .forest Service, Over 200 
men attended, heard short addressees and music, .vatehed motion pictures re- 
lated to forestry and conservation, sang the son;;s of undergraduate days, 
and consumed vast quantities of refreshments . nd tobacco, Here the com- 
radeships of camp Lid field were renewed. Lid friends met after years of 
separation, and new attachments -/ere formed. 


Thj jieecion of officers for 1925 r33ultjd in; 3. T. Dana, Pres- 
ident; i. T. illshar, re-el jc tad Vic j President; J, G. Smith, Secretary; 
J. R. Tillotscn, Treasurer. 

x'i j Bridge Builder 

An old man, traveling a lone highway, 

Jama at thj jvjning cold ana gray, 

Co a chasm vast and deep and wide. 

The old man crossed In thj twilight dim, 

for th3 sial ljn stream hjld no fear for him. 

But ha turned whan ha reached thj other side 

«.nd builded a bridge to span thj tide. 

"oid man, * orijd a fallow pilgrim near, 

"You are wasting your strength with building here. 

Your journey will and with tha ending day 

And you never igain will [.ass this way; 

You have crossed thj chasm deep and v/ide, 

'.Thy build you this bridga at eventide?" 

A-id thj buildar raised his old gray head, 

"Good friend, on tha path I hava coma," ha said, 

"There foil owe th iftar ma to-day 

a youth whose feat will pass this way. 

This stream, which has b ;;-n as naught to ma, 

To that fair-hair ad boy may a pitfall be, 

Hj, too, must cross in thj twilight dim; 

Good friend, I am building this bridge for him.-* — 

'x'i j T imb jrraan. 

£T_£S i ian t Na tipnaliz es Living Jhr istrnas Tr jj 

'Then President da] via Joolidgj turnad on thj lights of thj Nation's 
Jhristmas tree, in '/ashington, on Jhristmas 3r?, thj symbol of thj mjssage 
of good will and ,;hjjr s.nt far and wide ovar thj country became, for tha 
first time, a living trao. Instaad of thj cut trao, whose speedy destiny 
following Jhristmas festivities is thj wast a h^ap, a thirty- fiv a- foot iiv- 
ing spruce was planted on thi.s occasion on a spot just..south of thj Treas- 
ury Building, whara it will r amain for use in Jhristmas js to coma. Un- 
der tha direction of thj Jommunity Jjnter Department of thj Public Schools 
of thj District of. Jolumbia, this tree was dedicated to tha nation and 
addad to thj other nationally owned treasures of thj country's capital. 
The tree was a gift of Thj American forestry Association to thj people of 
Vashington and thj Nation. 

Tha American forestry Association has inaugurated thj campaign 
urging the. use of living Jhristmas braes as a conservation measure and 


or.; in harmony with the aarly significancs of th3 Jhristmas trjc- - "The 
sign of endless life, for its ljavjs rr^ evergreen." TI13 transporting of 
this monster tr 20 from Ainawalk, dew York, d Ninons tratad conclusiv ely that 
living 1 trec-s, evjn of great siae, ixiay be practicably dedicated to Jhrist- 
mas and. preserved for this use from year to year. — American doresos and 
Pores t Life. 

D on' t ";.;cok th e /ea th 3r 

a lookout watcher sitting in his tower on a damp day took out his 
knife, put a fina point on his pencil md commenced to figure or: - jujj 
of wrapping paper which was on his .. \ bij. '.'his is .vhat he found out. 
If we have l,cOO fir 3s 1 y 3 ■. • ...2 it is only dry jnough to start "■ fire 
about 7 hours a day on 120 days of thj yj--r, or on 6hI hours out of the 
total of b,7bt hoa~o )£ th3 year, t 1 - ;n in the same ratio t!nr: L ht br:.' 
been -:■,<■ 1 fires altogether, if ;hieh 9, St L firas s-ara put out by th3 
weathar oefor3 thay st ;. sd. If i,Ouo fires burn ok .ii-v xcres a j jar 
than thj weather saves 479,050 ^cres of forest ya ■. — IT. J . forestry Maws. 

In an issue f th. l>c i ? n t i f i a An j r i n .. rticl 5 statjs that 1 
Tor - .. in sciantist has succ ?ed 3d is .. nxv kind of artificial wood. 

A mixture of sawdust .ntb oh 1 .- ch etsicals is usea for chis purposa. 
The wood contains fcout it p jr J ... s ..a. ta lh; . l.ta.-. is subjected to 
high prassure, aa .a iuet is thus jbt-iaad ,hie sc .-osjs -.11 thj qual. 

ities of genuine timb ,r. Ihe specific gravity of th . ;ood is thj same as 
that 0:' real ,-ood; its hardness is 11 ■ that of thj oak. — P.I.i.lakiling 
2c ho. 

P olicies pf La^-. ^nf^rcam^nt a i '-:> xr jv. -i Cion 
Jo /. Jerguso^, L-regon Jo r -1st a:a .-issooi Lion 

Records compiled from this year's reports from the States of Cali- 
fornia, Oregon as hi a, ton, Ld..ho, and i-lontana show that out of, total 0: 
4,90o fires, <t,£>9S a- 89 per cent w-jra man caus3&. 

37ary one of thase firjs i: due to somaona' s violation of the V~a» 

he cannot hope to control thj us.j .._' firj or -jlicviiuta the chief 
cause of our disastrous .vithout resorting to jar courts. 

Jhili it is imperative that changes b; made in the fire laws wj 
cannot a::pjct to gain any desired results, irr js^ jg Civ ^ of how applicable 
revised Siavrs may be, ,/ithout a forast constabulary to roe that thesa laws 
«rj strictly enforced. 

If. through our sducational. and; advertising campaign we gain nine 
out ji' every ten'eitizdns 'as "isro-v/oriiVrs add this one disregards the firs 
laws without being wide to pay a just penalty, we oan only 3xpsct doser- 
t ions : from the ranks, certainly hot the snlisttnent ox' the violator. 

Leniency to the criminal, in either prosecution or penalty, has 
always promoted rather thin discouraged crime, 

The logging operator, the" settler and the forest visitor not only 
use fire for different purposes, but are different themselves in every 
way. They talk different languages." The officer eminently fitted to 
deal with anyone will njt be the best to deal with the oth^r two. I 
would then develop three types of officers and assign them accordingly. 

Thjse officers should have no responsibility in the suppression 
.of fire-, but be in a position to devote their antire time to cases after 
arrjst is made. It is spljndid praetiee to arraign a violator and -secure 
a plej to the crir.j charged, when the evidence of his violation is still 

^r?st ^roteetion agencies must mak.; balane3d provision for law 
enforcement forcjs as systematically trained and strong as are tha forces 
for detecting and suppressing fires. This can be done only by training 
specialists to do it. .To amount of instruction, moreover, will make the 
man of the type most useful as a warden or ranger equally good as detec- 
tive, prosecutor and agent to obtain law abs ^rv-.nce. They are different 
types, it is h ird to find the right type who is also a woodsman, but they 
must be found and probably employed 'separately from the fire suppression 
fore -;s. 

There is something wrong . ith a- system that employs thousands of 
men to deal .vita the consequences of la-., violation but has not produced 
twenty men peculiarly fitted to deal ,yith the inveterate violator,, or 
put these twenty on that job unaamp;r3d by other duty. 

In selecting men for th3 onforcement of our fire laws, we should 
be suri that they possess sufficient ability and diplomacy to enforc 3 
the laws and prosecute violators,- at the same time holding or even in- 
cr3asiag the favorable opinion held by the citizens of the community. 
In doiag this it is essential that citizens be made to realize the S3ri- 
ousness of violations, that they may regard violators of the fire laws 
as they now regard other criminals. Phis cannot be aceomjlish3d -without 
also establishing this same regard in the minds of prosecuters and judges. 

No doubt the public mind generally is against the forsst fire evil, 
but public propaganda, besides its customary appeal for care ay normal 
citizens, must demand of them, in court as well as out, the same attitude 
toward those who continue careless with fire In the woods- that decent 
people have toward the deliberate incendiary or thief. This is the case 
m some countries. ?hey have mighty little fire. !l — Taken from adcress de- 
livered before the .fourteenth annual iieotmg of the /estern Forestry and 
conservation association in /ancouver, 3. J., in the Lu.ab 3r a'orld .leview. 

-4C - 

.1 .11- s of Vest r : :-. ■■:,- 

• Petrified logs of ancient yellow x in. Vve been found ajir Torroy 
Pines Parle, just outside of Sir. Di .'. J lifornia. Scientists claim the 
fossils - i*j remnants of pre- 1 :ini Torroy Lines, ; - c . - l id to ther 
scientific discoveries. £ the fossil io{s are a: lirge as 18 inches 

in diameter and ^ feet ion,-. They w;re discovered iccidentaily. Jrcava- 
tion of the site will bj carried on with the hope of discovering other 
fossil remains. 'Jhj logs uo s Lc to be in a fine st te . / res^rv tion, 
with the grcii) md t .. cm .1 rings distinct. —American Lumb rman. 

?or many years it has b^-on the policy of inthr cite operators to us 3 
massive oak and chestnut b:.. t .-_. *t thj ;.; :• s . < 'it ef thj roofs 
in Lnthracite mines. In ths last .'.•- . •. f- .. ssivj timbers " . - b s - 

comj so expensive that steel belies j\e b si u . s 3d ii place of wood. Ste^l 
wo-rk is not only more satisfactory than wood, but It is more durable. 
To-day pit props ;re selling -t -imost pronibitivj price, and mine owners 
arj substituting snail sioed beams or using second- ho i 'aiiroad rails to 
'timber" their mines. The mil inj i . j try of £ n i nylvnni - ;ill come nor 3 
and more tc the us 3 of ste 1 mine su_ rt is wood ii^ar eases in price. 
dome companies are far-sighted enough to see that the supply of ivnilable 
wood for mine timbering ts rapidly b ; i ... .•:'..;-. ted ,r; mhrjs'i 

their land, in twenty to thirty years they 'ill bagi i to harvest their 
first crop of mine timbers'.— J. D. Sisier, ?enn. Service Letter. 

nny Lady T ourists L I loSi.if? 

The foil ivring xc v. lor from thj fish . ,\r . report submitted by 
one of the forest (ante ,ro : 

'■'The dear hid j /as loo 1, but it r.s :i f one -hich had 1 -in 
in thj willows through th \ ,'inter .. ' [ rob Lbiy c .'., from t 1 ^ j earoass of 
a dear -which di id natural i , . th during th, .inter of h^..-i;c)," — tacky 
Mountain District Bulietxn. 

3brty-five per cent of .11 the lumber in the United States is as 3d 
in States which produce less th n ten per j ■i.e. Thirty-three of our States 
are dependent upon other St t 30 for wood. 


Portable P umps for* Ji : ' it inp; 3Tores b jar j_s_ 

Possibilities in th3 usa of portable pumping units for fighting 
forest fires loom larger than ever before as a result of 1924 experience* 
The value of water in quenching fir 3 is, of course, universally known, but 
actually employing it on forest fires has been impeded until recently by 
lajck of suitable iquipraent and the baliaf that watar is lass available than 
it raally is. 

-^t present thara ara four makes of portabla units on the market. 
laast 100 outfits were sold bafora and during the past fire season. Thjse 
saijs havj had the valuable effect of awakjning manufacturars and spurring 
them to improving their products. Three major qualities are sjt up as de- 
sirable in a pumping unit: (Ij Reliability: (2j portability; (i>) durabil- 
ity. Important also are first cost and aas'a vith which repairs and parts 
may be obtained. Actual running expense (gas and oil) is almost nagligible. 

':To company has succead3d in embodying in its machine all of the major 
qualities to the extent dasirabla. Internal combustion anginas are temper- 
amental, and light, two-cycle ones ara espacially so. failure to start, 
burned-out bearings and magneto trouble are all too common. 

as to water supply, it is truly surprising how many places there 
ara from which a few hours of steady pumping can be had. A notable instance 
of this occurred last summer 0.. the Columbia ITational ?orest, Oregon. A 
tiny stream, which it first seemed too small to warrant consideration, was 
damned and found capable of supplying a pump about six hours out of every 
eleven. FTom this source watar was pumped against a low head a distance 
Of about 5, ill feet, whence it 'was relayed by a second pump an additional 
5, ill fact and usjd to most excellent advantage. 

In the preparation of fire plans pump settings should be worked out 
in advanca as ara the other features of successful fire fighting. — Taken 
from an articla by Shirley Buck, U. S. Porast Service, in Ihe ximberman. 

Almost everyone knows what excelsior is, although a v^ry small per- 
centage indeed of the lumberman of the United States are in personal touch 
with - its manufacture from wood. E'hey will probably ba surprised to know 
that thj Jensus Bureau estimates thj annual production at !y5,561,830, of 
which amount a little over one million dollars represents thj product furthar 
manufactured into excelsior pads and wrappings. There ware 75 establish- 
ments reporting in 1923. Lf these IS were in 7irginia, 12 in New York, 7 
in Wisconsin, b in "Jaw Hampshire, 4 each in Georgia and Michigan, and the 
remaining 25 plants scattered in nineteen States, only three of which - 
California, Oregon and Washington - were on the Pacific Joast. — Lumber 
Vorld leview. 


«. firewarden's wife asks tha question-. Is a log jam a forast pra- 
serva? — Jorra. 7/oodan Nutmjg.. 

;?a-„a i i a n ^/jsc 1 3 s a r v a Ini : - r g ad 

dimes t B. J lark, baeretary, Honolulu Jh mb ar .a' Jommerce, cab lad 
the Buraau of Boraign and Domestic Jomm ire a, Washington, I). J., on Janu- 
ary 17 that thj ^1 ricultural Bo srd had approved >xpanding th3 Oahu Tor as t 
teserve forty-seven square raiijs to include t.ha mountain r 1 3 conserv- 
ing th-3 water supply, 'laj forest resarvas of thi Territory 0:* iawaii 
total aight hundred thousand acres. This includes a half million acres 
of Government land and XL thousand aeras of private) ov.nership surrendered. 
Tha question 0:* water conservation is a vital 0113, sine,- irrigation and tha 
supply for domastic mraoses ara involvad. 

U or3 'hrluta' Jb r 3b try 

In 'Jiaport upon eJorastry 1 ' b;., ?. 3. Hough in iU:, which is a raport on 
his studios in tha '.Vast ml? tc thj Unitad btntas Dapartmant of .agriculture, 
I find tha following account by 'Villiam Phillips, a pionaor of Jlackamas, 

"Y/han I era;; to this country in 1846, it was almost parfact in all 
its wildness, V/ith a few jxceptions, not a tree or a shrub had "03311 touohad 
by tha hand of man. Thousands of aiid ludians roved over thj prairies or 
hunted gam i in th,e almost inmnaatrabi j forasts. .'0 fires had run in these 
forasts for hundreds of yaars, tha Indians bj^ng careful .iot to iat fire 
gat out, l)st the grass should ba burnad from their horses, of which thay 
had thousands, or lost tha gam- should be driven from tha forest in th3ir 
section of the country, Larga tr;js, 3 or 4 feat in diameter, stood in 
these forests, with thj accumulated debris of hundreds of years lying thick 
around their base, with not a sign of fira about th.m. But early in the 
summer of 1647, whan the immigrants , who had sat out to sack homesteads for 
themselves began to arriva, firas got startad in thj forasts, and tha sum- 
mar being dry thay burnad through thj whola summer. Millions of acres of 
aa fine forast timb ic as can bj found on earth to-day wjre burnad over and 
killjd. Whole forasts of red and y allow fir, of the giant arbor-vita a, and 
of hemlock ana tamarack were dasoroyad by thasa raging firas. aha smoka 
was so thiol: that we could scare aly see tha sun at midday, and people com- 
plained of sore ayes and oppressed breathing. The ashes cam 3d by tha 
winds became a nuisance in and about our housas. But at length tha fall 
rains came, put out tha fires and drove away tha smoka, so that tha people 
could breath fraaly again and gat a viaw of the country, and of tha ruins 
of the forests which had been her. greatest boast, .-;. million of dollars 
would not repair the damages done by fire during that saason, • — L.^.B. 


Ratio nal forestry frog-ra m Jornmit tja .,,'Vorks on Stat a Le gi slation 
bhiriay LI. Allan-, Auurican forestry Association 

f fha subconir.itt3 3 .vhioh ',;?.& appointed by tha "National forestry pro- 
gram Joramitt ao to cooparats with other agencies interested in furthering 
Statj forestry Legislation mat recently in tha offica of tha Chsianoen, 
>7ilson Jomptori, -/ho represents: thj .1,110 i 1 Lumbar Manufacturers Associa- 
tion. r fha othar mambers are Philip V. Ayr as 0;" tha Society for tha Protac- 
tion of Raw Sampshirj forests, Jharles L-athrop 1 ujk, of the American Natura 
Association wd; jhiriay L". Allan of tha American forestry Association. 
?hj committee is busy drawing up sat of broad* principles -which it believas 
aiay help to guid 3 .a d i .•• Lslation. It is preparing to cooperate with 
tha Associ' tjd Advertising Jlubs of t'13 Vorld uid other agencies ih stimu- 
lating State ctivity. 

Gray Squirrel in dol j_ 2± .aZaa -t?lant ar 

'Th 3 gray squirrel is t'- • ;:•;;: -st plantar of nut-baring tr>js in 
tha world. In storing up nuts for tha winter hj bun js hundreds mora than 
ha ever digs up. Shase nu fcs germinate .:nd make tha seedling trees of tha 
forast. .v company of grey squirrels a n cover barren hillsides with trass. 
They bury tha nuts de-p nd aovar thera all. Tha nuts gat a firm hold and 
tha tr ; js grow strongly suraly. furious what ignoranca wj sho - regard- 
ing our littla halpars of tha anim;l kingdom, '/a need moi-j natural history 
taught in tha schools :nd mora consistancy in our so-callac 1 conservation 
work. •■' — La. Jonservation Haws. 

— -.d ^- -ay i r i n die .vr-^'u > 

Gaorge A a.Iia.s, of t' . Ricar gu \ Consular Sar vie a, who is in 'Tav 
York on a visit, ^prassad surprise t th, growing scarcity of mahogany 
furniture in tha Unit ad Jt tas. He .lea siaprassed ^;;.';£ that Nioar-gu'a 
xS so fur i,v;*y from th3 Unitad jir,ZjS is 00 tv. h - 1 general supi-lj of mahog- 
any at reasonablj priC3S impractic ble, for mahogany, rad roods and hard 

:s make up 2 large part of Nicaragua's natural vealta, end even tha 
:>00rest homes ire stocked wit 5] amazingly fine pieces 01 furniture made of 
tha richly coIj^jI «ood. do durahl a ire tha ioods that they last for gen- 
erations, and tha furniture is massivj, solid v/ood through ^n& through, 
id for thj most ; rt hund carved. — Americ .aa tumbarman. 


Tr i_j_ f^/anting iu thj H:uv L x ig 

Taj traalass siopas md vaiiays o:' r\lastina -r j gradually baing 
raforastad, '^cording to -in official a t... - ..;t which statas that :na?rly 
3,000,000 traes '.nd l,COO,uOl viajs "r.vj b;..,: plant ad in tha rloly Laud 
batwaan 192C. aid 1S2<±. Paiastina b;j.r.j d mud .1 of its forasts owing to 
Turkish rnisrula and naglact, which rasultad iu tha ibrision of soma f 
thj bjst soil from thj hillsidas .nd i.i thj ic cumulation of malaria swamps 
in th i vallays. 

x k )^ work of afforastation bjgan forty " igc uhan thj first Jawish 
s jtti jmants wara found 3d, out rjcjivad a graat impatus aftar thj war whan, 
undar thj British mandata, graatar rpportunitias for davjlopmant wara opanad 
for Jews, d'-j govjrnmant department .' ricultur3 plantad 1, 265, u62 traas 
during tha past four yaars; thj palasti.u foundation fund, affiliated igjn- 
cijs of thj ",'orid Zionist c{ mization, 672,9.52 traas; tha suprama ::oslam 
council, 14,7uO; vhiia thj b.i.rj ,• -;;j planted by individuals, mostly s Jt- 
ti jrs on thj «j jv/ish agricultural coi ... ;s. 

Hardwood uawsprint has b . uc ■ it tha united Lit' t ;s FOrast 

Products Labor; tory in . . iiso.., /i scons 2 .. 2h . t >eass, h v •, has not 
yet boon trijd on a practicad so la, but . . thj ;xp r ire ants a. ton . >f uaws- 
print .vis producad from r.iua-tjuths of c cord of hardwood. 31aolc gum, pop- 
lar and birch havj bea I with aqual succass. Jommarcial nawsprint is 
mada from spruca, tha supply of • hich Ls said t b. rapidly dimmishin< . — 
^maricaxi Lumberman. 

dott^i , f oo;: lisai for ■r'oli s hi: a ? - r h'a t ch flirts 
,-. , . tacord 

J.H mt.jr jstiiig us j of rottan wood is in tha po^ishim; of thj fina 
parts af tha ni^ gruda Jv.iss and branch watchas. Tomarly this matarial 
was mora jxtansivaly amployad than c.t prasant, baing largely sup^lantjd by 
machinery ■ nd bjnzina. fhe jscapj parts nod snail scrows ir; stili in largo 
part oolishad by huzd and rot tan vood. Ehj value -j.' tha rottan wood us ad 
annually in Switzariand fjr ^his urposa is .bout .'our thousand dollars, 
thj bast quality bringing 3 prica of Oi a doli'-r par pound. f'hut is want 3d 
is a y^llowish-wnita sii:y natariai, soft 'ind spongy, in ,;hich thj growth 
rings ara still visibla. — Amaricui 7orasts and cUrast Life. 

Nagligenca of our standing timbar dojs mora than dafruud posterity; 
it dastroys one of tha ohia: assats in a c omr onvaaith of magnificant natural 
rasourcjs. — Philadelphia Public Ijdgjr. 

Ilaetina; of tha S outhern Forestry Congrj3S_ 
J. A. .Sherman, J, o» Forest Sorviea 

Thj savanth annual meeting of tha Southern- Tbrestry Congress v;as 
held at the dotal ISarioh,' Little look, Arkansas, January 19--21. 

Tha first session was davotad to State forestry legislation, J. G. 
Pat^rj, Chief of Sorest Management, U. 3, Bbrost Sarvica, presenting tie 
problem and presiding, ^bij addresses were delivered by-Joseph JL Hamlan, 
President of the Arkansas Honorary Forestry Commission; Dr. A. C. Millar, 
Secretary of the Commission; Stat3 Forester Paga S. Bunker of Alabama; 
State Senator Henry 2. Bardther of the Louisiana State Forest Commission; 
and Gaorga 7aughn of tha national xa:: Association. 


The afternoon session was'davotad to "forestry Problams in Short- 
laaf Plnj," Dr. Frederick Dunl'ap of Columbia, Missouri, leading and presid- 
ing. Others on tha program v.jr,;: G. l. Axley of the Arkansas Soft Pins 
Bureau, "/arran, Arkansas; Forest Suparvisor Charles a. Plymale, Arkansas 
National Forest; 17. 1". 7/illiams, ?or3star for tha Crosset Lumber Company 
of Crossatt, Arkansas; and Diractor "_t D. Forbes of tha Southarn Forest 
3xpariment Station, Taw Orleans, Louisiana. 

.» gat-togathar dinnar at the Marion Hotel was the jvant of tha avail- 
ing, short talks bji::j mada by Associate Forastar 3. a, Sherman, U. S,- For- 
est Sarvica, Dr. Herman von 3~hc anek of tha Missouri Botanical Garden, 
St, jjouis, and H. a. VThealer af tha D. S. For as t Service. 

xhe session Tuesday morning was Dpanad with an iddress, 'National 
Forests as a Part of a Southern F^rastry Program, ' by Shirley Allen of tha 
^mariean Forestry Association. She landing subjects takan up by tha Jon- 
grass ware (a) problams in tha production of hardwood timbar, and (b) papar 
and pulp industry of the South, • J. .B. Voods of tha Long-Bell Lumber Com- 
pany presented a paper on Louisiana and Arkansas Hardwoods." 7a no a P. 
3dwards of tha Srosi Products Laboratory, Madison, './isconsin, spcka on 
'Y/hy Not .bra Linds of South, jrn Papar?", and J. H. Allan of tha National 
Tie and Lumber Company spoka on the "Future of Southern Paper Production." 
Soma O'f tha most interesting and valuable points present ad to the Congress 
came out in tha informal discussions. 

The Congress voted to hold its next annual meeting at .Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, iho following officers were alec tad for tha ensuing year: 

President - Horace L. Siigbxaan, Tiighman Lumbar Corporation, Seliars, 

S . ks. 

Vice President - Dr. A, C. Millar, Secretary Arkansas Honorary For- 
estry Commission, Little lock, Ark. 

Secretary - 17, II. Williams, Crosset Lumbar Company, Jrossat, Ark. 

Assistant Sacratary - A- Bo Hastings, Charlottesville, 7a. 

Dr. Jarl .1. Schenck, well known to the American .':r,Gt:;' .■-:: -ssjon 
as th: nder of the Biltmore ^sstry School, is in: - 'irst offi- 

cial a pi 3 / nee in the [halted Stat es hi went to Germany t;a years 
ago. : gave i sj.'ij; of lectures at the LTew York it .te Jollege of for- 
estry, Syracuse University, an tti •.; ! .• I the Jonf re: ice of n.. st Icbools 
in 'V'ashiagtori, D. J. v. lere hj stayed for t rrual ■ ' Ln : £' t .; Soci- 

ety of American irbresterc on December 3b ;nc 31. Durir the .;eek of 
January >-9, Dr. Schenck lectured to th) faculty nd - . " n as at the 
Stcite forest School at i,lo , to, Pe.n . . , nd lot r ; the Dep rt— 

meat of forestry, Jornell University, ^fter x series of lectures in the 
"" .- Sag-land States, h; will sts t ... ■. . ird tri£ v.hich -ill take him 

to th ; Paci fie Joast < ;re h /ill be th 3t of the old Bill nor e bovc . 

rly in Ivl.rch Dr. Schenck v,ili return to Pennsylvania to addrss's 
the Allegheny Section. Society of American fs rjst-jrs. le reports a wonder- 
ful time ond is in .. sei; p] seo . Loi fiich hot be^n given 
him by Ame "ic ... fc r ss ters , non ,'hom he h is 'ri ends. He pi .ns to 
return to Germany ^n latter p.rt of I-'arch -nd may eke with him i small 
group of students on a study tour through the forests of central Jurope. 

Theodore J. Schokke has been electee! - member o: the Society of 
American bresters. 3ohckke is ,- erint indent of ■'.:■.';■ ,s c ' the Hawaiian 


J. A Preston, forest Ins ;t r, has resigned from the U. S. forest 
Service to accept a position -vith the Hammermill fa per Jcmpany, !rie, 


Professor Jarl J, forsoith, Department of /ood Dechnclogy, ftew York 
State Co.lJjge of forestry, Syr:.cur.e University, has accepted an offer from 
the English government through the Imperial forestry Institute at the Uni- 
versity of tnford to organise a department of V7ooc 'fechnoicgy at txford. 
He will leave the college of forestry -it the end of the present semester 
a nd so i I in o un 3 from LIo at real. 

Dr. Jorsaith graduated from Dartmouth in 1913 with the degree A.B. 
Subsequently he won his degrees -t. itl. nod Ph. D at Harvard. 


Charles Lathrcp Ac':, President of the American Tree Association, 
has endowed a Jharles Lathrop Pack foundation Forestry prize at the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Syracuse University, Jornell University, Yal 3 
University, Perm. State College, University of Michigan, University of 
Washington, University of Jalifornia, and the University of Ivlinnesota. 

Henry '/ Hicock his been elected to senior membership in the Soci- 
ety >f American foresters. t&cock is assistant forester at the Jonneeti- 
cut agricultural .&periment Station under V'alter 0. Alley and has charg: 
of the Blister lust work in the state. 

James H. Hull is writing a book for Doubleday, Page end Company, 
to b : entitled 'Trail uid P? ek Horse,'' ad is under contract to do two 
more beys'' books with forjstry settings for the same publishers. He re- 
cently published an article in Soys' Lire on "Opportunities in the forest 
Service" which is a very concise and comprehensive statement of facts re- 
garding the rork of the various grades of officers in the Service and the 
aon itions which surround it. 

Dr. LI. J. Merrill, former Director of forestry Publications for t'r 
forest Service, is nor, assistant Director of Publications, in charge of 
Scientific ... ad Technical Manuscripts ' the Department 0:" agriculture. 

"Franklin " leed resigned as District forester for the Sastern Dis- 
trict,, U. S. for ;S c Service, on ?jj raiber 31, to engage in private profession- 
al forestry in the ]ast aid South. Mr. teed entered the forest Service in 

Ivan ! K ..ll^y, Inspector, U. a, forest Service, was appointed Dis- 
trict forester for the Sa&tern District tc succeed Mr. Led. 

P. L. Buttrick is the author of an interesting pamphlet entitled, 
'The Mountain Laurel, r forest Plant..' would do well to read 
this sane, practical and useful description of the place of mountain laurel 
in forest management in Connecticut. 

— <*8 — 

At the time, of the, Annual Meeting 01' tha Society of American For- 
3Gtjrs at Washington, :,Ir. J. P. Kinney, assisted by his wifa and laughters, 
arranged a reunion luncheon for a number of the former students of hew 
York State College of Forestry at Cornell and. new connected with th.3 De- 
partment of forestry at Cornell- Those present to jn.ioy Mr. Kinney's hos- 
pitality and to tails over old times w^ro: Walter iluiford, Dai 1 Clapp, Clyde 
Leavitt, .lalph Bryant, W. .{. Eat to on, Karl Pfaiffar, ""jlsrn Spaeth, C. H. 
Guise, a. B. Aeeknagel, x?.. :.:. Brown, F. C. Cobb, and the host. 

Wm, Crosby has been elected to senior mambarship in tha Soniaty of 
American Foresters. Crosby has for yaars baen in tha Philippine Forest 
Servica and occupies an important position as Chief of forking Plans. 

Julius A. Larsen, for many years in research 'vork in the U. So For- 
est Service, ilissoula., Montana, has resignad to acca ■• a position at Iowa 
State College at Aiuss, Iowa., Lars i h : had broad crai md *xpe- 

rience in foiestry and has traveled u.d studied in Norway, Denmark, and 

Hon. Francis X. Disney, former Deputy Attorney Gen3ral, IJjw York, 
has been appointed Daputy Conservation Commissioner to succeed 3. Tracey 

Stagg„ resigned. 

Z$r. Georga B. Gordon has been appointed Assistant Fores tar of New 
Jersey, affactiva J .n irj L, 1925. Lir. Gordon, who is a 1920 forestry 
graduate of Cornell University, has worked ij~ the last year and a half 
as Fwr-ist Inspector of tha Pennsylvania Lailrcad Company. Previous to that 
he was in the West for two years, .vith the U. 3. Paras z Service and the 
Fruit Crowtrca Supply Company. He llso o. ;-.t a year wilh the J. A. Llahlstedt 
Lumber Company*-- 

\i. J. Jackson, Jr., has recently been appointed Stat? Forc-ster for 
Kentucky, with headquarters at Frankfort. I.'-. Jackson is a native of Ken- 
tucky and a graduate of tha Biltmora ?or3st School. 

Professor Julian lafalski, professor of forjst anginjering at tha 
Government Forest School at Po-ona, Poland, recently spent a few weeks in 
the United Statjs visiting some of tha forest schools and studying lumbcr- 
ing mjthods in the eastern part of the country. 


Austin ?;'Ha;;o3, Sta i 3 >r j£t 31* of JonSi dc tic ut". has published a 
pamphlet, "The \7ork of a i^jrost Protective Association, 1 * which is a vary 
useful resume of the 'functions which such protective associations can par- 
form in securing more efficient protection or private 'property from fire. 
The various methods of fir'e fighting ire outlined in this \ implilet, which' 
also touches upon protection against insect diseases and theft* 

assistant .Forester IT. T. Eossler of New Jersey was recently 
elected to membership in the Society of American Foresters. 

District Hanger H. a. Teal, New York Conservation Commission, re- 
ports that there is to b 3 a meeting soon of t-he To-/n Board of the town 
of Berlin, Rensselaer County, at which will be appointed a commit tea to 
take care of the reforestation movetasnt for the town. About 50 acres of 
land will be plantedo 



R3cent Boc2rs on gpysst ry 

• Its Place in th^ Si3 viculture or* the Spi: t, ,h3 ,|, "'i 2Tew 2rrr] 'ind__J^jr3St_. 
37 rerry H. lierriilj Liosearoh Fellow, Yale Univerciiy, '. . I . .-. J. 
JKawley, Professor of Forestry, Yaij Univ irsity. Yai3 UniVBrsiby liehool 
of Forestry, Bulletin #12, 1924. 

Fis 'or-c il rrees of t^_3t:itj_oi IJjv: York. New York State College of 
Forestry, Syracuse University, 1923. 

The Fa res t Poetic u: r,v edition), by J. L. Pack, American Tree Associa- 
tion, 132<i, 

Jhemi eal trea s ure s of the For est . By L. 3. Wise, American bbrestry 
Association, 1924. 

Kiln Dry ing of '/astern A-Jistv3lxan ¥. ■' .-•_, with notes on the testing 

of seasoned timber. (Y/3; I - . a >ti ilii ." 1 sts Dept. Bulletin 28.) 

Ti.-p.bers; Thiir structure any-i II -.r, ti fic- r ; 1 3 on. 3y 7. b. Jcnee, Oxford, 

to flaxid , 1924 . 

Frac tic a I . Jn 1 - j s try f r om _u_ "/origins n f s Poin t of V iew, by .1. J - Drumvei e , 
London, G. loutiel^e, 1924c. 

Les Zaux et L 3S Boi s. by H. Lafosse. Paris, ?ayot, 192<±. 

A xli story of thr Public L'md Policies, by Benjamin H. Hibbard, of the 
University of V/isoonsin, has been published by the M^cMilinn Company 
of New York, It is one of a series comprising the "Land Economic 
Series." Jhapter x^ deals with "The [Timber Julture ,ret ! and Chapter 
21 with "Disposal Df Timber snd Tirab ei-lands. " 

£L^B>T3-?.ts__cf_?!J ; Dla-nd^ -i th-3 ii Pore st Resources and .the Oor.ditio n o f the 
i-b res ts, by Y. Ilvessalo, Helsinlci, 1924, 

Timb er and .Timber Produc ts r Inciud ing Pa ^er Slaking,' Mat t ri als : Federa tion 
of British Industries, London, J. 3;nn_. Ltu, , 1924, (The Resources 
of the fijipire series, Vol. 2). 


Ar ticl 3s in Cu rra nt Pa r iod icals_ 

a Contrast in Kiln Results, by -J. ?. Kiinker, Ha^Dv/OOD .ilJuO, TTovamber 
10, 1924. 

An Interesting Fnase of Drying, by A. J. Cross,.- HiHDVJDOB R3C0RD, TJovamber 

Bibliography on ' FArm Forestry, by H. I. Svockbridge (mimeographed, Forest 

3 ;rvie a) . 

Bibliography on Thinning, by H. .5. Stockbridg3 (mimeographed, Forest 
Service) . 

Chestnut Tree Surviving Blight, by A. P. Kellay, SCI&TCS, September 

25, i92<± t 

C^n tha Lower Ldssissippi Valley Pino Lands b^ Made Partnanant Invast- 
mants? by 7. /. «.sha, LIES 33 I'iAHU Fa JTUItiJl ^_-D D3AL3R, December 12, 

Douglas Fir Regeneration, by 3. I.". Lluniis, HSDIAiif FOR-3STi2il, Septombar.^ 

jl. J i— Z e 

Decay in Douglas Fir in delation to Cruising, by J. 3. Boycj, "LXMS'SSL. 
170.-11*2 L3VIJ17, November 10, 1324. 

3conomic '/'as t j in Operating Small Trees, by 7. /. Asha, 3 ••UTKjrT LULlB'li- 
;a::, rja^mbor 20, 1924. 

Forest Students and Forest Schools Need Jooperation and Assistance of 
Lumber Industry, by G. V7. Peavy, rLILi L BULL3TIIT, "7ov)mbar, 1924. 

Forost Fira Prevention on Privat jly-Owued Lands, by 3, 2. Hardtner, 
LlffiflS 33. 'x&iHl JOUxffiAL, Novambsr 1, 1S24. 

Forest ^i-j Prevention in Fr-nej, LU1B i.l AND VJTST333 J0N3tl££t, October 

30, 19.. . 

Fire' Conscious, by 0. J. tioy, V/i£I COAST LIIJBISRLIaN, Nov amber 1, 1924. 

Forest Experiments in Idaho, by 1. H, V/aidman, TILffiaJStiAN, September, 1924. 

Growth or Grayling Pina, by ... 3. V/aclcerman, JOURNaL 0-F FC3'3STRY, 
LTovombar, 1924. 

Growth and laganaration of tha Pina Forests of . California, by 3. 17. Hadley, 
INDIAS lu.Llo33.t, Saptjmbar, 1924. 

Growth on Jut-over and Virgin 7astarn Yellow Pini lands in Central Idaho, 
by 0. ?. Korstian, JolHNAL u F AG3I CULTURAL R3S3ARCH 28. 

How Wood-using Industries ara Askad to Sava Half tha Drain on Forests, 
LULiBii IvIaMIFaCTUR-SR a"JD DEALER, November 14, 1924. 

Hardwood Lands «.ftar Logging, ay p. a. Harbert, QUARTERLY BULL.2DIU OF 

iLlTiYFITfldW li ?T. !TTi \ : ; T : I W .-> .' JT " T ? T" P : ' -'Tf v r ^i-r^-ic.*- 1Q9/] 

Hoy; 7atersheds ar ; riff acted by i^o-jso Jov-r; by 77. '..'. Ashe, 3DH3ST AND 
V/Al'i* SNGdNjE.ttNG, Dec ami 3r '10, 19<J4. 

Irarninen'c istinction of a '>j; S?3Ci3s; Sxpsrt "orsst-ers Pronounce Doom of 
iistjrn snd Southeaster ; istnut. LubiB 7i u!D / T.. J:. 1 ,. JuT'iu'J M, 
October 36 , 1924. 

Notss on 7oody Plants, by ■/. 7. Asha. JoUIINaI LUEJII JLL SOI 3:7?I ?IJ bOJI- 
jty , o j o t emb 3i* , _ ~. <c j- . 

National forests toad j; ; sr,ja, by L. 1„ Havre s, 3"JGIlTE-iI;Tu aND JtN- 
CA-iJaING, November o, 1T24. 

"..■;-.. Growth of Pine T or3sts in Georgia, by , , J. rash. NaVaL ^t!i. i J- 
71 37, :Tj\ j-ijjr- 1, 1924. 

Possible Seductions in lumber Seasoning L sses, by j, s. Keith, LJI2i! 
V/oIBjD -UT/Ij?.'/', November 25, 1 2 . 

Paper, Progress and Prosperity, by J. a. Sherman, .: wl J7 i - 1 '. ;/i 'L, 
Dee ember, LS 

Possible Seductions in Luubir Seasoning L isa is, by J. b. Kaith, LULIB 3.i 
world review, November -j, 1^24. 

Patting . rket .tesearch Information tc 7/ork, by l „ 'I. Swan, LUI.2 3.i A :£LD 
137IJ7, November It, 19<o4. 

rbfores 1 --it ion - What is the n.nsv; re in the L "j l.*:jj? by Joseph Kittredga, 
Jr., LU12 3*i ; ;b:i^ (v/II7, November 10, 1324. 

Some Results of V/inter Slash Disposal, by Q. lL3mpff. PUL-t ~2bb PaP.73 
LIaGaZ IN J, Uc^ober 2, 1924. 

Southern Pina Beetle and Other Insect Snemies of sout! jrn Crests, by 
it. A. St. George, LUIIBJii '2ILAD.3 uLUjNaL, ■■ J ;: b y? I, i.^. 

So.ving an^. Planting Pines Ln the South, oi 7. ."i. olattoon, ;L.7aL Si\ i 2S 
R3VI.ii7, November 2b. 19^4. 

Ihj ?or;3C3 of the Landes, by P. J. Laeosta, 2W\ T ^L S'A-HiS i^VI',, 
November I, 1924. 

Timber Saving by Pointing una Preo jrvation, by y. L. Browns, aIJUIJaN 
LIL.3JXaN, November 6, 1324. 

Che Preservation of Marina Structures, ~o- 7. G. Atv/ood, MILITARY 3TTGIJIK2, 
Nov ember-Dec emb or , 1924 . 

The Nee of Jut-over Lands in Florida, by 7. 7. Asha, SoU r 2H31& T LUIIB 3 t 
JOURNAL, November 15, 1924. 


The Influence of Growth Conditions upon'the of Wood, by 
B. H. Paul, JOURNAL UJ? ?Oil "33 2?l"i" , .November, 19-24. . 

The Behavior of 7ood in Drying, with Sspaoial Reference to Varnish Drying 
Conditions, by H. D. Tiemann, ^Ju.^I/5 INDU3u.RI2iS, October So, 1924. 

Thj Fbrest Products Laboratory, by W. H. Gibbon. TH3 TIMB'3RL1AN, November, 

Waste Eroblsms, by W. 3. Greeley. AM.3RICaN LU13 33E/Li.TT, November 22, 1924. 

Waste Laid Turned into frosts, by J. A. Larsan, AlIERIdAN SCANDINAVIAN 
aawiay. Septmaber, x92^- 

When Jan tha Small Top Log bj Removed at a Profit^ by W. '/. AShe. LUMB33 
WORLD dJJVIiiy, November 10, 1924, and W3ST CoAST 2 ILffi 3JJAN , December 
24, I92±« 

What are the Probable Returns from Growing Tress in tiu Souths NAVAL, S To R3S 
R3VL3W, November- 28, 1924. 

Waste Land Pores try, by B. Lange, LI ;. Ll^ HORTICULTURIST, October, 1924. 

Wood-saving Conference Adopts Program for Rid ing Industry of Wastej by 
W. L. Daley, LUM3J3 LIAFd SACTiI&.3R £83) D3ALJR, November 2b, 1924. 

Wood-using Possibilities of Western North Carolina, by J.. H. Pratt, 
S0UTIL3M LULIBJi&LLN, December 20, 1924. 

Washington's Annual Pbrestry Johference, '2123 3J&LAN, December, 1924. 

What Does It Jost Private '^nd Corporate Interests tc Grow Timber in 
the Northwest? 3y B. ?. Kirkiaad, VST 30AST LUMB 3R110, December 1, 

Miscell aneous Publications 

CPMU-Ssian er s._o f _Wo odjL^Jbjres ts and Land le v m ues - Grea t Britain . 
T v j hundred and second report. London, .1924. 

Pennsylvania State merest School, Mont Alto, Pa., 22ni year, 1924-25. 
larrisburg, Pa., 1924. (Bulletin #34. ) 

Yalj Forest School. Prospectus. 1924-25. New Haven, Jonn. , 1924. 

Why 5b res t ry in Llissouri? Missouri 3bres try Association. Columbia, 

xiissouri, 1924. 

The Ziln Drying of Ti mber; a series ox ten lectures delivered in Melbourne* 
Melbourne Government printer. 


Two leaflets, "How to Plant Forest Tr ee Seedlings ■' md 'The V/hy-Y/hera-'That 
of forest Planting," by assistant Fores tar Scovell of IT aw Jersay, :ire 
now baing distributad by tha .lev, Jarsay Dapartmant of Jons arvat ion and 

The S avantaonth Annual ijport of the Pand d'Orailia Timber Protactive 
Association for the yaar 1924 has recently bjjn published and is now 

being distributed. 

" Fira Prevention and Fira lighting on the 3&rm" is thj titlj of Farmers' 
Bulletin 904, contributed by tha Ufficj of Tara xianagemant, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. 

Public ations Issued b y thj forest Cervi ae from Dec e mb er 1, 192<* . 

tc ^anuiry ox, 19^5 

Department 3ulletin 1294 - Tha Role of Fire in thj California Pine Crests, 

Department Circular 621 - Thj French Turpentining System Appliad to Long- 
leaf Pin j. 

Department Circular 318 - The National forests of Arizona. 

Department Circular 61 3 - Purchase of Laid Under the 7/eaks Law. 

Uap Folder - Grand LJasa National forist, Colorado. 

ilap Polder - Deschutes National Forest, L -r egon. 


An announcement on the first page of this issue 

gives the date of American Forest week as April 19 - 25. 

This date should be changed to April 27 - May 3« 


Clemson Agricultural College 
of South Carolina 

MAY, 1925. 





MAY, 1925 

Published bimpnthly by the Forest Service, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 



Announcements 3-8 

State forestry departments and organizations 0-22 

Education and extension 23-30 

Forest Service notes . . . . 31-38 

General forest news 30-50 

Foreign notes 51-54 

Personals * . . . « 55-50 

Articles, "bibliographies and publications 59-65 

. . 


World 1 s Forestry Congress in Rome 

(May 1926) 

An International Forestry Congress will take place in Rome in 
May, 1926, -under the auspices of the International Institute of Agricul- 
• -ture. It is the intention of the organizing committee to hold the con- 
gress to practical purposes and to treat only questions really of inter- 
national importance'. Special attention will be given to .statistical 
problems and to problems of the forest industries. The congress will 
also discuss technical, economic,, and. legal aspects of forestry. 

At the time of the congress an important collection of forest 
products and of machines used in wood industries will be exhibited. 
Excursions to some of the most interesting forests of Italy and if possi- 
ble to some in other countries will be arranged for the members. 

In addition to- governmental delegates, societies, associations, 
institutions, and private persons can become members of the congress by 
sending to the "Forestry Congress -Committee," c/o Institut International 
-d' Agriculture, Rome, Villa Umberto I, by registered letter, the subscrip- 
tion fee of 50 French francs (approximately $2.50) . The members will re- 
.ceive free of charge all the reports of the congress and may enjoy .fur- 
ther privileges such as reduction of traveling expenses on land and sea 
excursions, admission to receptions, etc. A special program giving full 
particulars in regard to these privileges will be issued later. 

Membership blanks can be obtained from the Forest Service, Wash- 
ington, D. C, or from S. T. Dana, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, 
Amherst, Massachusetts,, 


• -- Cone and. Get It 1 

The sum of $1,000 has "been giver* to the Society of 
American Foresters by Charles Lath'rop Pack, President of 
the American Nature Association, to be avraried in two 
prizes for scientific -and .technical articles on forestry 
written by foresters. The- first award of $500 applies to 
articles prepared not later than January,- li>'26, and the 
second to the prize article selected not later than Jan- 
uary, 1927." The Executive Council' of the Society now has 
under consideration the. details of these' awards and ex- 
pects to make formal announcement of the prize contest 
within the near future. 


} Forest Prize Offered in Georgia 

. A silver loving cup is offered to the club making the best showing 
in advancing forestry in Georgia before the October meeting of the State 
Federation of Somen's Clubs at Atlanta. The cup is the. gift of Mrs. W. W. 
Stark, prominent in club circles and an active leader in the Georgia For- 
estry Association. . It is offerel to stimulate State-wide tree planting, 
.school woodcraft exhibits, and efforts to increase membership in the 
Georgia Forestry Association. 

The cup must be won for three" successive years to become the perma- 
nent prize to any one club district. 


Conference of Oregon Foresters 

The third annual conference of fire wardens and. law-enforcement 
ren in the employ of the State Board of Forestry of Oregon is to he held 
in Salem ah out the middle of May. Representatives of forestry protective 
organizations and others interested in this phase of the work throughout 
the Horthwest will be invited to attend. The program will include addresse 
hy a number of men very prominent in forest activities. Special interest 
will he given to the meeting of this year hy the necessity of talcing up 
the revised forest code passed hy the last session of the legislature, 
thoroughly threshing out the varioiis provisions of the law, and instruct- 
ing the men as to what will he expected of them in its enforcement. Sub- 
jects to he discussed will include slash disp'osal, law enforcement, weather 
"bureau, fires and fire weather, and any other matters which the men may 
care to hring up. An interesting feature of the conference will he the 
banquet held on the evening of the first day. 

Urpubl i_shed Ifeniiscrip t_ Aval lahle 

in addition to the unpublished manuscripts listed xn the March 
issue of the Forest v/orkor, the Forest Service now has available for 
distribution to members of the faculties of forest schools and to State 
foresters an unpublished report on Comparative Forage Values and Distin- 
guishing Characteristics of the More Common Range Plants of District Four, 
by Arthur W. Sampson, Plant Ecologist. Typed copies of this report will 
he furnished to applicants willing to pay for the typing. 

T7ith regard to the previous offer to furnish copies of Grazing In- 
vestigations Program, 1924, it is announced that the 1925 program will proh 
ably he ready for distribution in mimeographed form within two months. 

American Forest Week 

Forest Protection T7eek, which for four years has been observed 
annually in response to Presidential proclamation, this year has become 
American Forest TTeek. It is still true that the greatest possible con- 
tribution to forest economy lies in- the conquest of the 50,000 fires that 
annually devastate the forest wealth of America as no other agency de- 
stroys any other natural or artificial resource of any co:uitry; but many ; 


other phases of the perpetuation and use of the forests have a claim on 
the special interest ■ of -,the public. American Forest Week is a week for 
the consideration and contemplation of the tangible and intangible bene- 
fits of our forests, -for the planning of their creation, care, and in-; 
prove:aent , for tree planting,' for 'the devising' of ' economies .in the prepa- 
ration and ilse of forest products,' and for the -encouragement of the one 
gr»»n.t e'eonomic measure in which all the people can and must cooperate 
if it is to succeed - the perpetual ' for estat ion o.four' forest land. 

Besides feeling that the purposes of the week ought to be broad- 
ened, the Forest Service judged that it could be more effectually admin- 
istered by a non-governmental body. Accordingly, the direction of the 
activities of the week was entrusted to the American Forest Week Committee, 
headed by the Hon. Frank 0. Lowden'and including the following organiza- 
tions: The General Federation of Women' s Clubs, the U. ■ S. Forest Service, 
the American Forestry Association, the National Lumber Manufacturers' 1 As*-. 
sociation, the Izaak Walton league of America, the. American Tree Ass'ocia- • 
tion, American Paper and Pulp Association, American Farm- Bureau Federa- • 
tion, Associated Advertising Clubs .of the World, Western Forestry and . .. 
Conservation Association, American Federation of .Labor, and many other 
national and regional educational, prof essional, and industrial groups. 

The committee proposed as the central event of ■ American Forest Week 
in every community a public meeting with a program of talks',- stereopticcn, 
or moving pictures, and the adoption of resolutions regarding "reforesta- 
tion and., afforestation. It suggested the organization of local and State 
committees representing the women's clubs, business clubs, luncheon clubs, 
the big consumers of forest products, the schools, the press, the whole- 
sale and retail lumber trade, the outdoor societies, the agricultural 
industry, the Boy Scouts, and all other interested groups of citizens, 
which would direct and localize the observance of Forest- Week. .Emphasis 
was placed on the importance of localizing this educational campaign* 
It was urged that wherever possible^ the ©bservance of the ; w^eek include 
the undertaking of some local proj Oct such as the acquisition of land for 
a municipal or State forest and tre'e- planting on local watersheds, in 
parks, and along highways. . Other- activities which claimed place in the 
program of the week were efforts. .to extend the membership of State and 
national associations devoted to the advancement of forestry; special ex- 
cursions of outdoor organizations; the featuring of forest subjects at 
regular or special meetings of all local organizations accustomed to dis- 
cuss piiblic affairs; demonstrations of better ways... of utilizing forest 
products; special forest assemblies in the public schools; and for- 

estry pageants by the Boy and Girl Scouts. 


Bublicity material for Forest T?eek was printed -and distributed 
"cy the Forest Service in great Quantities. 3y April IS the Service load 
-ranted *&M. d." 1 * .st^l'b^ ocl IvOsOCC copies of a sia'-osted program for the 
•observance of .American Forest frerek "by schools, Boy -'Scouts, etc..,- and 

'mimeographed material, "rfas distributed first to the district offices of 
the Forest Service, the eleven Forest Esperinent Stations., and the For- 
est Products .Laboratory.,, . The -State. Forestry-. Departments received large 
quotas, ..Hundr.jis pi r.iisccl lancous* requests received by the Service 
were fill od; next., and" fi;- 1.; in.' cooperation with the American Forest 
T7eeh Committee a- long nailing list, of organisations, and. persons, was cov- 
ered. 'All told., the Forest Service mailed 90,000 copies of the. American 
Forest Ucek booklet prepared by the Committee and 18,000 copies of its 
clip sheet for newspapers. 

!7ise forest protection does not mean the with- 
drawal of forest resources, whether of wood, water, or 
...grass^from- contr-ihuurng their full share to the wel- 
fare .of . the people.; but., i - itrary^ gives the 
r.-j. \ ' r;e of \ . ■:;.'- and myc' r-vadain raoplies. The 
fUTidai a-hal idoo. of f-.i-esara "if, the perp atuation of 
forests by use. Forest protection is not an end of •' 
itself, it is a neons to increase anl sustain the re- 
sources of our country and the industries Which de- 
pend on them. 

. . • ■■• —Theodore Roosevelt. 

A • ' ' ' 

- . - -, 

f . 


Arbor Day 

This year the observance' of Arbor Day falls within American For- 
est Week in at least five States, as follows 1 Massachusetts, Michigan, 
"Vermont, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. 

The first observance of Arbor Day in the United States took place 
in "treeless Nebraska." The Hon. J. Sterling Morton, then a member of the 
Nebraska Board of Agriculture and later United States Secretary of Agri- 
culture, in 1872 introduced at a meeting of the board a resolution by 
which the tenth of April of that year was set apart and consecrated to 
tree planting in the State of Nebraska. Wide publicity was given to the 
plan, and on that first Arbor Day over a million trees were planted in 
the State. A few years later the State legislature passed an act desig- 
nating Mr. Morton's birthday, April 22, as the date of Arbor Day and mak- 
ing it a legal holiday. Originally almost bare of trees, Nebraska has 
become one of the leaders in practical forestry. In 1895 the legislature 
passed a resolution that the State be popularly known as "The Tree Plant- 
ers' State." 

At the present time more than half the States have laws for the 
observance of Arbor Day. In the others and in several of the Territories 
the day is observed by proclamation of the governor, authorization by the 
superintendent of education, or other action. In at least one State be- 
sides Nebraska - Ehode Island - the day has been made a legal holiday. 

All over the United States, Arbor Day has acquired patriotic and 
esthetic associations in addition to its original practical purpose. 
Tree planting furnishes a lasting 1 ' incentive to civic betterment, and car- 
ries with it a realization of the value of community and national fore- 
sight. " 




■ - 

Albert Caplan left Philadelphia Sunday, March. 29, 1925, on a hike 
towards Trenton, N. J., and New York City, and has not returned. He is 1* 
years of age, 5 feet 8 inches tall, weighs 137 pounds, has dark 'hair and 
complexion, good teeth, and large frame, and wears silver-rimmed glasses. 
When he left home he had on khaki knickers, shirt, and knapsack, scout 
shoes and hat, and black-and-white checked flannel lumberman's jacket. 

Since h© %$ in$$restod in forestry, %\ is thought that ha might 
b?v? anpliod for erpl^nr.cnt 5.n z?~v? po - "* of forest rork. If you hr.V3 any 
/ifc^.ti oi this boy, kindly noxify Ms fathor, Joseph Caplan, 2M0 N. Palis 
Avenue , Philadelphia. 



S tate Forestr y 
By C R. Tillotson, U. S. Forest Service 

So mudh proninonco has been given to the aims, efforts, and ac- 
complishments of the Federal Government in forestry matters that the 
less spectacul' ? "but in no wise less effective local efforts of the 
States along similar lines have to a large extent "been lost sight of. 
In their own fields,-, some of the States have initiated forest policies 
and carried on activities of wide scope. In some lines of effort they 
are leading rather than following the Federal .Government. 

Efforts to protect by legislation the property- rights of the com- 
monwealth in its timber land were made as early as the colonial times by 

• Hew Hampshire and Massachusetts. The real need of definite and, sus- 
tained, forestry effort was not evident, however, until a much later date; 
and legislation and endeavor of any real consequence were postponed until 
about 1867. In that year the agricultural and horticultural societies 
of Wisconsin were invited by the legislature -to appoint a committee to 
report on the disastrous effects of forest destruction. In 1869 the 
Maine Board of Agriculture appointed a committee to report on a forest 
policy for the. State, which led to. the Act of 1872 "For. the Encourage- 
ment of the Growth of Trees" granting 20 years exemption from taxation 

"for lands planted to trees. Following the groat influx of settlers to 
the prairie States, laws regarding the trees on highways and for the en- 
couragement of timber planting under either bounty or exemption from taxa- 
tion were passed in Iowa, Kansas, and Wisconsin in 1868; in Nebraska and 
New York in 1869; in Missouri in 1870; in Minnesota in 1871; in Nevada in 
1873; in Illinois in 1874; and in Dakota and Connecticut in 1875. As a 
result nearly one million acres of trees were planted in the prairie re- 
gion alone. As early as 1885 Now York State made provision for the pro- 
tection of the great Adirondack timber preserve against fire; and in 1895 
Minnesota made provision for protection against fire of all timber land in 
the State. 


Developments in recent years in the States have been rapid. Nine- 
teen States now have established State forests, with an area of 5,600,000 
acres; thirty-three States have State forestry departments; twenty-nine 
States are at present giving protection against fire to 175,000,000 

acres of timberland; and sixteen States maintain State forest nurseries 
and are now able each year to distribute 25 or 30 million young trees 
for forest planting within their boundaries. Ninety thousand to one hun- 
dred thousand acres of State-owned lands alone have been planted to for- 
est and fully 1,370,000 acres of privately-owned land. State appropria- 
tions for all forestry purposes have increased from $65,000 in the year 
1890 to about $5,500,000 at the present time. 

Each of the States which maintain forestry departments gives aid 
to timberland owners in the handling of their woodlands and in the dis- 
posal of their forest products. Vermont maintains a clearing house for 
sellers and purchasers of timber. Other States have made intensive sur- 
veys of their forest resources, of the timber products consumed, the 
amount of wood shipped in, the freight charges involved, and other kin- 
dred questions. Many States have taken, a leading part in the introduc- 
tion of the subject of forestry into the public schools. In Tennessee 
and Louisiana the teaching of forestry in all public schools is compul- 
sory. In other States the subject of forest fire prevention is taught 
along with the general subject of fire prevention. 

The States receive cooperation from the Federal Government in the 
protection against fire of. forest lands at the headwaters of navigable 
streams. Federal aid in this respect amounts at present to $400,000 a 
year. The States pi edgo themselves to spend at least an equal amount, 
and have far exceeded this requirement. Today they are spending about 
$1,700,000 yearly. They have not been stingy with either their money 
or their efforts in advancing the forestry program of the United States. 

A field which the States have developed to a marked degree is that 
Of community forests. Towns, cities, and villages have been urged by 
State forestry authorities to buy up or otherwise acquire forest land 
which can be devoted to the purpose of growing timber and of protecting 
the watersheds of streams which furnish municipal water supplies. The 
States have given aid by furnishing young trees for planting, usually 
free of cost. The result of this movement is much wider than is usually 
realized. According to available records about 500,000 acres of land 
have been acquired by municipalities for such forests, and it is more 
than likely that the total exceeds this figure. The comraanal forests 
promise in time to become as important in the United States as they al- 
ready are in several of the European countries. 


F '.-'-~ress in S tate For estr y Le gislation 
By J. C-. Peters, U. S. Forest Service 

• Thus .far at the legislative sessions of 1925, important laws have 
"been onaefcod in Idaho, Indiana, T .LI ssonri , porth Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, 
and Vermont.; Equally important "bills failed 'in Arkansas, Montana, Oregon, 
South Carolina, Texas, and V, on. 
„,,....+ " 

The outntar.diac; pro^isiens -of the new Idaho law include a State 
forestry "board, Srat j .fo:r ester, -compulsory patrol, and reflation of 
slash disposal. • Indiana .establishes a State forestry fund through a 
special state-wide tax en .?,!•!■ property, estimated to yield approximately 
$25,jC00 annually., lor tho pvrc-haso and maintenance of State forests and 
the growing of forest planting? stock. 

Missouri creates a forestry department, with a State forester, 
in the State board of a^ricrdture. IJorth Carolina' elevates its geolog- 
ical and economic survey ; which has heretofore had control over the for- 
estry work of the State, to a department of conservation and development. 
Ohio provides in tho usual type of yield-tax law for the classification 
of forest lands, of a defined character, vihich the owner shall "declare 
to be devoted exclusively to forestry," Oklahoma est-dVli v; ;s a forestry 
commission j and, through the passage of an enabling act, permits tho 
Federal Government to pin-chase lands in the State fcr national forests. 
Vermont' also, •through an enabling act, pori.uts the acquisition of lands 
for national forests, 

Among tho important measures which failed were those in Arkansas 
and South Carolina to establish State forestry departments; in Montana, 
to elevate the present forestry department from a division in the land 
department to a separate State board of forestry; in Oregon, to alloi* 
the State hoard of forestry to establish a v.dtuo en denuded forest land 
for taxation purposes, the assessed value tic a "being "based on the value 
of the land f.u growing timber, or, in other tfor&s,, on the expectation 
value (this parsed the legislature but.- received the governor's veto); 
in Texas, the resolution to amond the constitution so as to empower tho 
legislature ''to -enac^ ,-Tust'lavs for the taxation of lands set z.?.:Ae for 
purposes cf timber and fcr the -supervision -of such lands and 
the administration of rui-h Xirrs 9 ", and in Wa-rhirgton , the bill passed by 
the legislatLU'e but vetoed by the governor which had in view the strength- 
ening of the fire-protective system., 


Reforestation in Hew York State 

The Conservation Commission of Hew York State has given out 
the following figures as a few high lights on the progress of its 
movement for the reclamation of waste land by reforestation: 










First Plantation, 19Q1 • . 5,000 trees 

Planted last year 9,247 ,C©0 

Plantod since 1901 ... 86 ,000 ,000 

Annual output of State nurseries, 1925, 10,000,000 

" " H "«' » hy 1926, 18,000,000 

" " " « " "1930, 35,000,000 

Farmers and individual la'iuowners in 1924 planted 4,639,550 

Municipalities " 

Industrial concerns " 

Farm bureaus " 

State institutions, rural schools, 

Boy Scouts, sportsmen's associations, 

and others • « « » 995,550 " 

The State sells trees for planting on private land at $2 per 
thousand for 2-year-old seedlings, and $4 per thousand for 3-year-old 
transplants. Trees for planting on public land are furnished free. 
Ho trees are furnished for planting outside of Hew York State. 

Plans have just "been completed for the most extensive reforesta- 
tion operations ever undertaken in this country, through the enlarge- 
ment of the commission's nurseries so as to produce "between 35,000,000 
and 40,000,000 2-year-old trees for planting in 1927. This is nearly 
four times the present output of the nurseries and is made possible by 
the appropriation of $120,000 for reforestation by the legislature this 

The number of beds in the nurseries has been increased to 4,568. 
The beds have an average capacity of more than 8,000 young trees. 

The supply of young trees that will be produced by 1927 from the 
seed to be planted this spring would plant about 40,000 acres, an area 
larger than the county of Hew York, Richmond, or the Bronx. 

There will be 1,542 beds sown with white pine seed, which will 
be expected to produce 12,336,000 trees'. The white pine seeds have 
been obtained from Hew York, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and the Province of 
Ontario. ~ ' 

-12- " 

There will "be 1,080 "beds of rod or ITorway pine, expected to 
produce 10,000,000 trees. A portion of r the seeds was collected in 
the" Adirondack s and same. ..have ."been 'purchased- in Minnesota- and in the :: 
Province of Ontario. . .-..:.' . '-■ _■-... 

Two' hundred beds will be sowri'.wlth' Scotch pine, which accord- 
ing to estimate will produce 2,000,000 trees. The seeds- were.-: obtained 

from Germany. , „,.,« -- - . ' . _ ■ • T i:r- 

• " '* -v % ■ ....,,,!-.- ■ .•'""* v ■'■■'- -" • ; ,' 

Smaller plantings ^ill^includb'white-'-sp rue e .seed jfromJDenraa-rk, ,■ 
balsam 'from the Adirondack^, .white "cedar, from New York and "Pennsylvania, 
European larch from Austria, black locust from Austria, -slash, pine from 
Louisiana, r and C.or si-can pine from '"southern Europe. ''.',... • '-.• 

If Weather conditionsrare favorable 'for germination and. .develop- # 
ment , the Conservation Commission expects to : have 30;, 000 ,000 ! more trees .- 
in its nurseries-', on July -4 than:,it:;now.'>haSi ■• "The output of. the. ..nurseries j : 
this "year will be approximately 10,000,000. ' It is 'estimated that about 
17,000,000 will be available in 1926, and under this plan 39,000,000 
2-year-old seedlings will be available for 1927. 

Oregon 1 s forestry gudget ...... . oi: r .--'■ 

Data -compiled .in the '-office of the State Forester- of Oregon' - 
from budgets -submitted by- the various cooperative organisations- show 
that 'over -$250 ,000 -will *be*. spent" this year in ^forest, protection by 
the State, and association and private interests. -■ 'Thi:s--is.exclusiv-e" ; ' ' 
of any fire-suppression costs and does not include any allotments 
which might be received from the. Clark o-McNary ; fund.- , The^pefcsonnel - 
will includ.e.^app'roximat'ely" 300 regularly paidlfixewardens andu lookouts. -'■-" 
Among the items, included in the "budget are^ patrolmen and lookouts,'-; 
$1 30, 000. ;•- equipment and construction work » Jl6.,.Q0O;. rap ervrsing : 'wardens *'■■ '- / 
$22,006;'and publixjity, $7,"000. ". r /. " " .. /-' 

,-.-.- - Connecticut' Holds Thirtieth; Forestry Annual ■:.- . '-- -'i* 

The thirtieth annual meeting of the Connecticut Forestry Asso- 
ciation was held in Hartford on January 31, 1925,. and was attended by 
more than 300 people. An interesting program included addresses ~cy 
Connecticut forestry officials and by Mr. Flavel Shurtleff , a city 
planner attached to the Russell Sage Foundation, Congressman John 
Clarke of New York, and Major R. Y. Stuart of Pennsylvania. Colonel 
T. S. Woolsey, Jr., member of the State Chamber of Commerce Forestry 


Committee,, explained the proposed Tegxslative program for forestry and 
reiterated the demand for more State forests, stating that Connecticut 
should have at least 200,000 acres of publicly-owned forest and recom- 
mending a bond issue as the "best 'means- of obtaining them. He also 
spoke of the need for a State nursery. . r iiu 

Dean H. S. Craves of the Yale School of Forestry was elected 
president for -the year 1925. Resolutions Were adopted declaring that 
■-the State' should appropriate' not; less than $700,000 for the next two- 
year period for State forest and- park purchase-s.-. 

In connection with the meeting of the association was held a 
meeting of the wardens of Hartford and Tolland counties. Addresses 
by E. B. Calvert, meteorologist of the U.- S. Weather Bureau, Warden 
E. P. Bronson, and Mr. Westvelt 'of the Northeastern Forest Experiment 
Station, were followed by a spirited, discussion of the different meth- 
ods of attacking a fire. :'. :■■ ." 

Ohio and Texas Get Increased Appropriations 

In Ohio appropriations for forestry for. the present fiscal year 
have been increased by $37,000 over those of last year. The current 
appropriation provides $.100,000 for the purchase of .State forest lands, 
$15,000 for a new nursery, and an. increase of $3,000 per year in forest 
fire funds. In addition, there are some increases in maintenance for 
both nurseries and State forests... 

.: Texas, also, has been fortunate in its /appropriation bills this 
year. The present annual appropriation for forestry in the State, ex- 
clusive of the money available for the purchase of State forest lands, 
amounts to $29,560. The appropriation for the next biennial period' 
gives the State $49,000 per annum. Specific appropriations for fire 
protection were increased from $15,200 to approximately $28,000, an 80 
per cent increase. The farm forestry item was increased from $4,000 to 
$6,000 per annum, and the general administrative allowance from $6,200 
to $7,580. The Texas legislature. at the. present time is apparently 
quite favorable to- forestry measures. . I ... 

■■■' -14- ''? : 

Telling the Torld \. ," „ . ...,-,'. 

District Forester Harbesori of Milroy ,.. Pennsylvania, has -devel- 
oped a -number of interesting forest demonstration. pl0t-s alon^ the Lewis- 
towh-BelleforiteHighwayf During the winter months his forest rangers- . ' 
have been making improvement cuttings in stands of hardwood trees and 
have done pruning work in evergreen plantations along ...the- highway* 
Travelers', along this 'highway are impressed "with these practical object .'..• 
les-sons in'forest treatment.' At .a commanding place near one of the im- 
proved plantations a double- faced sign, 3x7 feet, has been erected 
with the following inscription: 

. tfHlTE PltfS: - 
, .\ . ' PLANTED 1313 


The letters on the sign are S inches high and can be easily read 
from a fast- moving autpnobile. . 

Another double-faced sign 3x6 feet has been placed near an Im- 
provement cutting. It bears the following inscription: 

- THIS AREA 7TAS .' : .,.. 


; ' .. itature's 1-istj forest ... 

axe Treated 1925 ..■...•■• 

This improvement work and -the display -signs are; the most practical 
kind of 'forest advertisement. , V/.ithout the. sign the value- of the improve- 
ment work would be greatly reduced", and the -educational-- signs without 
the accompanying demonstration plots would have little value. 

These practical forestry advertisements should create a favorable 
sentiment and pay big dividends, for thousands of people will see them 
annually. More such demonstration -plots are needed to show the public 
the practical features of forestry, work. ._. .- ••-.'-•;• • 

; • ' Indiana Takes Pro gressi ve Sto p 

By George R. Phillips, Assistant State Forester 

The Indiana legislature of 1925 In passing the Lafuze Forestry 
Act has taken a definite progressive stepo 


The Lafuze Act provides for a levy of one-half mill on each 
$100 worth of taxable property in the State for the year 1925 and anrru-~ 
ally thereafter for the establishment of a forestry fund. This makes - 
an appropriation of approximately $25,000. This forestry fund is to 
"be expended "by the Department of Conservation in the. purchase, super- • 
vision, and development of State forests and for the growing of forest 
tree seedlings for planting on private and State-owned land. The act 
further provides that all income derived from the sale of State forest 
lands or the products thereof shall be covered into and shall constitute 
a part of the State forestry fund. This will enable. the department to. 
continue its present policy of selling, forest tree seedlings to resi- 
dents of the State for forest planting at a price not to exceed the cost 
of production. 

The southern third of Indiana contains 45 per cent of the pres- 
ent forest area of the State and 48 per cent of the idle and waste land. 
It also contains one-quarter of the present population, but pays only. 
20 per cent of the taxes* 

The population in this part of the State is gradually decreasing, 
because of the impossibility of making a living from the old worn-out 
farms, and each year central d,nd north orn Jndiana pays nearly $2,000,000 
in taxes to help- care for the .school and civic needs of this section of 
the State. ■•"."'. 

The forestry fund will be expended mainly in the purchase of State 
forests in the hill land of southern Indiana- Much of this land is 
adaptable only to growing trees, Experience has shown the futility of 
attempting to use it for agricultural„ : ' By setting aside a certain 
amount of forest land from which a sustained yield of timber will be 
assured, it is hoped to bring additional wood-using industries into this 
part of the State and so give employment to the resident population. 
This, together with truck farming, will eventually constitute the chief 
industry cf the section. ' ... 

The Indiana" hills, .again covered with trees', should prove - at"-'' 
tractive to tourists- and. campers who would form an v additional source of 
revenue for this ne^edy territory. _ ... .- 

Massachusetts Plants Tomorrow 1 s Forests' ' .. . 

Massachusetts has admirably anticipated American "Forestry --Weekv- - 
The State government has. distributed" for fower than .4,000,000 
white pine seedlings, besides a considerable number of spruce. These are 
sufficient for planting 5,000 acres. That, we may say, is a small, 

-16- ~"i£" 

almost an ■ hu;' ; if leant, area. It. would "be, if it were all in one plot. 
But these millions of trees have "been distributed to .practically every 
town and city in the State, so that the "beneficial effect of. the plant- 
ing will ho enjoyed. In all parts of the c'omrhbnw ealth. It is far better 
to have a thousand trees' in each of ten towns than 10,000 in one town 
and none in the other nine. Moreover, the State has 20,000,000 more 
trees which will be ready for distribution and planting next year and 
the year following which will mean 25,000- acres reforested. Massachu- 
setts is in : areaa -sp.all State.- Lot us sajpjraseVal'l other States in the 
.Union to. do .as., well - and -they should-, for there is not a State that 
'n,eods.. it loss than Massachusetts,* while there arc many that need it im- 
measurably more. - 17 ell,, it would-' mean" 'that- In the present year' there 
would be planted. .1,480,000, 000 tr-ees, reforesting a total area of 
1,C5Q,000 acres. : .That, we submit y:-w.ould^£e s W ell' worth while, as a sub- 
stantial stop toward checking ,.the\ denudation ■• of -forest lands. And if in 
the next two years all continued to do as well as Massachusetts, with 
five, times as much sach work. a.^. this year, we should have by 1927 an. 
area of more than 11 V ,G00 ,000 -acres plant '©U with nearly 9,000,000,000 
trees. That would Ue tree, u-1 opting' in' earnest.. ^-The Washington Post. 

Ve rmont Forestry Association Organized 

The Forestry Committee of the Green Mountain Club at a meeting 
on March 31 organised the Vermont Forestry Association. The new associa- 
tion has as its purposes the conservation of Vermont timber, the pur- 
chase and reforestation of State lands, and the education of the people 
to the urgent need of these; things:. Professor K. R. 3, Flint, chairman 
of the Bureau of Mimicipal;. Af f?,ir.s at Norwich' University, Northfield, 
was elected president, -The of'brs.a-nolrue a 1 vice president represent- 
ing each county in the State.*—- The -Green Mburita&i State Forest News. 

H ew York -Forestry cAs s dcraJJlofi-'-Publi sh os 'Yearbook 

As a part -of its .Conservation T7 eek program the New York State • 
Forestry Association haTrprep.eiifed.'itS' ye&rbo'o'kf containing a record •-. 
s 'of the association's ao^iyi oib^' <Iur li'ig-' -i-ho-1-3 months ending with the 
.annual meeting, of January- 2v ; . 1925.. T T'oi^-rublication replaces the 
' association. 1 s quar-ei-Iy magGrJ.r.o', aryi' s^h-ta^n's' addition to the annual 
report an article f romv.ex.v.V.:^yi a liaijad ji-ronp. with fthie-h the association 
has cooperated' during the yoD.r, 


The yearbook contains dno om-o ging svx&encre of cooperation between 
the various interests concerned in New York forestry, and upholds the 
association's claim that it provides a common meeting ground where opin- 
ions may oe frankly expressed, differences adjusted, and understand- 
ings reached. 

The State Forestry Association is now a little more than 10 years 
old. It has doubled its membership three times since 1919; it has con- 
tra buted materially to the municipal forest movement by planting the 
first 5,000 trees for each of several cities without cost to the cities; 
it conducts an annual program of reforestation in six cities and is cre- 
ating" additional city forests every year by instructing local committees 
and helping them to obtain their trees from the Conservation Commission; 
it has established the first Woman's Federation Forest in the country 
and is leading the Federated Women's Clubs in a movement to create a sim- 
ilar forest in each county of the State; it has carried on a successful 
campaign in public education, securing the cooperation of more than 1,000 
business corporations throughout New York. 

The latest achievement of the association is connected with munici- 
pal forests in the Capital district of the State, where city forests are 
being built for Albany, Wat ervliet, and Castleton. The association has 
for several years focused attention upon the need for a forest for the 
city of Albany and has recently been rewarded by the establishment of a 
tract of 600 -acres. 

Perm' s Tree Factory increases Output 

The Pennsylvania Department of Forests. and Waters in 1924 grew 
9,100,000 forest trees on the 35 acres which it has available for this 
purpose - a greater number than was ever before grown in nurseries of 
equal extent in the United States. - This supply goes to meet the needs 
of a State in which 3,000,000 acres of land good only for timber produc-' 
tion await planting. It is believed that by 1928 the annual demand for 
trees in the State will reach 20,000,000. To produce so many will re- 
quire 200 acres of nursery land. 

The State forests of Pennsylvania cover a total area of 1,131,611 
acres, including 23,500 acres on which trees have been planted. The pres- 
ent value of these forests is five times what the State paid for them. 
The bill to authorize a State loan of $25,000,000 for further purchases, 
which has once passed the legislature, will be reini reduced this year 
and if passed will be voted on by the citizens in November. Its provisions 
if put into effect would constitute a long step toward the correction of 
the present situation in which a State capable of producing all the timber 


i u i soy prod-uses. -only IS per. cent of it, importing* the remainder at an 
expense of $25,000,000 for freight alone. • . 

In 1924 the State's fire-fighting "system succeeded in holding 
down the total -number of acrea burned over to less than 75 per cent of 
the lowest figuro previously recorded for the State. < — Forest -Leaves. 

Oregon Studies. Relation Between Humidity and'^Fire s • ■ : . 

Until- the summer of 1924,. efforts to obtain information on the .re- 
lationship of relative humidity and forest fires in Oregon had been con- 
fined mainly to the Douglas fir region. During that season the Oregon 
Department of Forestry made' a 'study of the subject extending over the 
whole State. A cooperative arrangement was made by the State and -the -_-, 
protective organizations for obtaining relative humidity readings from 
widely scattered' sections. ' Hygro-thermographs were install ed-in 10 ;o.f -. 
the patrol districts and sling psychroracters in the remaining "12, either 
at the warden's headquarters or on lookouts. A representative of the 
U. S. Weather Bureau visited all the stations having the automatic re- 
cording instruments and instructed the' men in their use, care.,-; and ad- 
justment. From June 15 on c fairly complete records wer'e secured from. 18 
of the 22 districts. In addition, complete records for the entire/ season 
were available from the U. S, feather Bureau o ffices' at; Portland, Balcer, 
and Roseburg. 

A minimum of four readings "was*, required on- days of normal humidity 
and a minimum of eight on days of low humidity. '--.*.• •.:.:. -•;.-• ■-;•- • ; 

From the reports received it has been determined- that readings 
taken at high elevations,' such as lookouts, are npir always dependable. 
The curves platted from these readings' tend to -go contrary to a curve 
platted from similar data obtained at' a Tower' elevation. However p the 
curve at high ol ovations is at times an excellent. indication of what con- . 
ditions will be at the lower elevations 'later. More nearly uniform read- 
ings were obtained. at- stations located at the lower elevations and a 
study of the curve platted from the data for 5 o'clock p. m, shows that 
the periods of low relative humidity occurred on practically the^ same ,, ; 

days throughout the State. It was noticeable, however, that the humidity 
was consistently from 20 to 30 per cent lower in the .'eastern and southern 
part of the State than in western Oregon* '■*-•* 

• * - 

Field men w.ere instructed'to indicate in reports of all Class C 
fires the dates and the time during-'which the fire burned with the great- 
est degree of intensity. As soon as all the information was available, 


the acreage "burned over and the date was platted separately for the 
two regions. Cn the same sheet was platted relative humidity read- 
ings for 5 p. m. at the Portland and Baker offices of the U. S. Weather 
Bureau, which were taken as being fairly representative of the humidity 
conditions existing throughout the two sections of the State. 

Analysis showed that the fire curve for western Oregon repre- 
sented 115,000 acres, and that of this total 90,000 acres were burned 
over on days when the humidity was below 35 per cent. During the period 
June 27-July 25 the humidity in this section was consistently low, be- 
ing below 45 per cent on all except 2 days and below 25 per cent on 13 
days. During the entire 29-day period more- than 40,000 acres were 
burned over, and on July 23 alone fires covered 1-2,000 acres. An anal-^ 
ysis of the curves for eastern Oregon gave practically the same results 
as in the case of western Oregon. Previous investigations had placed 
the hazardous point at 35 per cent or below, but it now appears that 20 
per -cent can be taken as the danger point for the eastern part of the ?.. 
State. This difference can probably be explained by the fact that in 
the pine region forest growth and underbrush are not nearly so dense, 
and hence not nearly so much inflammable debris is present as in the 
fir region. 

A further investigation into fire causes and damage throughout 
the western part of the State where the major portions of the large op- 
erations are located, is not at all a credit to the operators. Thirty- 
three fires originating in their operations from industrial causes burned 
over 50,000 acres and resulted in losses placed at $452,180. In addi- 
tion, the sum of $118,582 was spent in suppressing these same fires. All 
of this damage was done on days of low humidity, and 23 of the fires 
started during the danger periods from causes directly traceable to the 
industrial activities. Practically all the operators are so located as 
to receive reports of approaching hazardous weather conditions from the 
Weather Bureau, either directly or through the wardens. The experience 
of the past season proves that these reports were 100 per cent correct. 
Such needless disasters as these have convinced many operators of the 
importance of relative humidity and the reports of the Weather Bureau, 
with the result that they close down during the dangerous periods. 

The 1924 study has developed .the fact that reasonably accurate 
predictions of relative humidity conditions can made from 2 to 12 
hours in advance by men who have spent a little time in studying the 
matter and raking observations as to the tendency of the humidity to 
be above or below normal at certain times of the day. With such train- 
ing and the daily advice of the U. S. Weather Bureau as to future fire 
weather, it is very seldom that the field men go wrong in their predic- 
tion of weather conditions. Wardens are thus in a position to distribute 


their field forces to the joints where the fire hazard is greatest, 
advise operators as to approaching conditions, and take other such 
necessary precautionary measures' against-. the start and spread of fire. 

The investigative Wtf*k is to he carried on this year under some- 
what the same plan tut mora, extensively. The' number of hygro thermo- 
graphs in use by the State and patrol associations will be increased 
fromlO to 16, and all instruments will, be placed .in standard shelters 
which have been approved by the U. S. Weather Bureau. The Weather 
Bureau will again have a man stationed at Portland to cooperate with 
the various forest protective organizations, make fire weather predic- 
tions, and carry on research work with the aim of securing additional 
knowledge of fire weather. Duplicates of all hygrothermograph. read- 
ings and sling p sychr r-r readings from stations that do not have 
the self-recording instruments, will be sent to the State Forester. 
Definite information as to the action of fires on all days throughout 
the year will also be obtained. Closer study of this information and 
accurate reports of field conditions will without doubt add consider- 
ably to the knowledge already gained.— From Article on "Relative Humid- 
ity and Forest Fires," by Lynn F. Cronemiller,- Deputy State Forester 
of Oregon, in the Timberman, and correspondence of F. A. Elliott, State 
Forester of Oregon. - 

- . Farm Woodl and Products Bulk Big in Hew York State 

New York State contains an area equal to Massachusetts, Rhode 
island, and Vermont which will grow timber but will not grow farm prod- 
ucts, and it contains an area equal in size to Connecticut and Rhode 
Island, owned in connection with farm properties, which is capable of 
being managed on a profitable basis of forest production, according to 
the statement made by Dean Franklin Moon of the New York State College 
of Forestry, Syracuse University, at the annual Grange Day held under 
the auspices of the College of Agriculture at Syracuse. 

To show the importance of- forestry in New York, Dean Moon called 
attention to the fact that out of 30,000;000 acres in the State 40 per 
cent, or about 12,000,000 acres, is -true forest soil. Four million 
acres are in farm woodlots, and. this area is not being managed on a 
profitable basis. 

"Fifty years ago," said the Dean, "New York State led all the 
States in timber production; but because of devastating methods of lumber- 
ing it is now in twenty-third place producing only 220,000 board feet of 


sawed timber annually. This means that there is a tremendous balance 
of timber trade against us. The people of Hew York are compelled to 
pay 53 million dollars annually for freight on imported stock. More 
than 59 per cent of the spruce pulp wood consumed in New York in 1920 
was imported. 

"There has been a failure to appreciate the value of forest 
products on the part of those who own farm woodiots. In 1919 the prod- 
uct of farm woodiots in New York was worth $19,000,000. Failure to rec- 
ognize- the value of forest management on farm woodiots has brought fail- 
ure to devote any time or thought to the problem of lumber sales in ac- 
cordance with the principles applied to the sale of other farm products. 
The easiest way -has been pursued with regard to the management of farm 
woodiots and for the most part they have become a liability. The sooner 
forestry is adopted by the owner s^ of farm woodiots the sooner this vast 
acreage-,' 4,000,000 acres, will be placed on a paying basis." 

Tennessee District Patrolmen Meet 

The Tennessee District Patrolmen met at Knoxville on December 
11 and 12, 1924, for what State Forester Maddox declared was the best 
and most successful and enthusiastic conference in the history of the 
department. On 'the first day addresses were made by Mr. Maddox, W. A» . 
Mattoon, Supervisor of the Cherokee National Forest, W. H. Stoneburner, 
Supervisor of the Unaka National Forest, and others. The program in- 
cluded an illustrated lecture by Mr. H. N. Wheeler of the U. S. Forest 
Service, whose services had been secured by the Tennessee Division of. 
Forestry for a series of such lectures given in different' parts of the 
State and extending over a period of six weeks. On the second day ad- 
dresses on different points of the work were delivered by fifteen District 
Patrolmen and were followed by interesting discussions. — The Patrolmani s. c 
Forest News, Nashville. 

The New Jersey Forestry Department had orders for approximately 
600,000 seedlings for reforestation work this spring. These .trees were 
shipped early in April. Among the larger orders' were those placed by ; 
the Newark Water Department and the East Orange Water Department for the .. 
reforestation of their watersheds. About 100,000 trees will be' planted 
on the State forest this spring, .- . i '.'•■•' ' ••- 


:-;•; Education in Forestry 

"In" tla e -February number of the Journal of Forestry the. above 
title heads a discussion by Dean Henry S. Graves of the development of 
the profession of forestry in the- United States from its beginnings, 
and of current educational problems, The following is offered as a con- 
densation, of Dean Graves' article: 

The forestry movement in the United States 'originated in the 
seventies and eighties. During that period the di'ff levities encountered 
by the settlers of the prairie region in olb'saining wood for construction,, 
and the exhaustion of local supplies of softwoods in the Northeastern 
States, aroused considerable interest. The Federal Government and 16 
States enacted laws for the encouragement of tree planting. No steps 
were taken, however, to protect and conserve the existing forests. 

In 1831 Congress granted authority for establishing Federal forest 
reserves. In 1897 -provision was made for the administration of these 
properties," suddenly creating a demand for men trained in forestry. At ■ 
that time 22 agricultural colleges in ag many States included in their 
curricula some 'sort of, instruction in forestry, but no institution in 
this country was -of f ering a" course in the subject that approached profes- 
sional grade. The first to do so was Cornell ,. which in 1898 established 
a first-grade school of forestry supported- by the State. Two years later 
a school of forestry off ering a two-year graduate course was organized by 

Within the period 1900-^1910 the net area of the national forests 
was increased to 170 'million, acres ahd'the development cf the Forest. Serv- 
ice gave rise to a demand for technically- trained men far greater than 
could be met by the. .existing forest schools. Qua t e a . numb er of colleges 
and universities -responded.;. to this situation by organizing courses for 
the' t raining of technical, foresters,' in rcos 1 : cases four-year undergrad- 
uate couvsed leading., to a bachelor •s-'degrec. . Post-graduate courses Were 
offered by Yale and Harvard. and later oy several other schools. 

From the first the collegiate schools of forestry sought to give a 
sound scientific foundation rather than- training of a vocational character. 
The early educators looked, beyond 'the Sipmea'icite prebj ems of pioneer for- 
estry to the- i.Tevi table future, demand' for ,'m er. equipped to shape our na- 
tional policies $ to reconstruct .our '-pub lie .Land system, and through re- 
search end "experiment to develop a system .of "foroo'cry adapted 'to .our spe- 
cial condition So The ■schools. •vrere-'g^'^ handicapped, .how ever ; r by lack 
of facilities, and by the difficulty -of. obtaining experienced teachers. 

-23- "^'"- 

Little was known of the life characteristics of American trees and for- 
est; ; J9 and only European-trained instructors and European text-books were 

The strongest element in the early schools was perhaps silvicul- 
: ture. Generally speaking, the graduates of the early period were better 
equipped in dendrology than those of the present time. At first the 
schools were weak in engineering. . They succeeded, however, in attract- 
ing to the profession men of exceptional character and attainments, and 
in setting high professional ideals. 

In 1909 a conference was called by Gifford Pinchot , then Chief 
Forester, for consideration of the aims, scope, grade, and length of 
course of a technical training, in forestry. The report approved at a 
second conference in 1911 established a general agreement regarding the 
scope of an undergraduate course and showed the need for one or two years 
of graduate study for those desiring the best technical training. It 
was revealed at this time that the schools were endeavoring to turn out 
foresters of a rather uniform pattern - the natural result of the fact 
that the graduates looked chiefly to one source of employment. 

About the year 1912 there occurred a rather abrupt falling off in 
the annual demand for technical men- by the Forest Service. Many forest 
schools found their membership seriously diminished and faced the neces- 
sity for readjustments both in the objectives and in the plan of instruc- 
tion. It was popularly supposed that the profession had reached its lim- 
it. As a matter of fact, the Forest Service was increasingly requiring 
men of better equipment, and great enlargement of forestry activities by 
State governments and by private owners Was opening new fields of employ- 
ment. :■ . ...... 

. A conference of forest schools held- in New Haven in 1920 reaf- 
firmed the high educational standards of. the profession. 

Today the forest schools are no longer feeling their way but are 
mature and distinctly individualized institutions. About half of them 
offer graduate work and afford opportunities for research. Each has rec- 
ognized and developed its best opportunities for specialization.- Several 
of the universities offer a wide range of elective subjects for advanced 
students. The western schools have adopted the group plan of specializa- 
tion, offering three or four parallel curricula. While professional and 
industrial demands for specialization are being met, all the schools con- 
tinue to give a thoroughgoing course in general forestry and are strength- 
ening this basic curriculum. 


Theoretically there are now enough forest schools of collegiate 
grade, "but the schools are not distributed to the best advantage* In 
the South, a region of vast extent with unusual conditions for. forest. 
growth, at least one additional school is needed to bring more southern 
boys into the profession and thus develop local leadership* 

Now that the technical training has been adequately provided for, 
educators in the schools of forestry are faced with the responsibility 
of training men not merely to solve problems 'but to discover what the 
problems are. They must seek: to stimulate the imagination of the stu- 
dent,, to prepare him to interpret his environment; they must train men 
not only for staff positions bub for positions of leadership; and they 
must develop the nonprofessional irterests which are necessary for intel- 
l.'V'.V;-al satisfaction. Two features of the present system that call for 
correction are a deficiency in courses of a general educational character. 
and a tendency to try to cover too much ground in the technical courses 
within the time allotted, A possible remedy lies in the simplifying of 
technical courses so as to permit more attention to cultural subjects, 
and recognition of the need for a longer period than four years for 
full training in forestry. 

in the scheme of research in forestry the objective of the schools 
does not' lie wholly in the amount of new knowledge placed before the 
world, A teacher must, do scholarly work in order to keep abreast of 
the times, and independent effort of an original character. by the stu- 
dent is essential as a stimulus to good standards of work in any school. 

.The training of men for secondary positions as rangers, fireward- 
ens, etc., has not been worked out so far as that of technical training 
of collegiate character. This problem and that of the teaching of for- 
estry in the agricultural colleges and schools merit the most serious 
thought of the profession. It is hoped that they may be made the sub- 
ject of thorough study by the Society of American Foresters. 

Syracuse Gives Kiln prying Course 

The short course in dry kiln engineering at the New York State 
College of Forestry, Syracuse University, was held during March, 1P£5' 5 
under the direction of Professor K, L. Henderson of the" Merest Utilisa- 
tion Department, The class received instruction in piling lumber prop- 
erly for kiln drying? making all tests on .'umber, in mo'sture content,, 
shrinkage, and the presence of case hardening; relieving case hardening, 


warping, twisting, checking, and honey- combing; testing the drying 
condition."., .of kiln air; testing and measuring circulation in kilns; 
operating kilns by means of automatic regulators, as well as by hand 
. control I- locating kiln trouble and means of remedying them; keeping 
kilns in repair; preparing kiln layouts for the most efficient handling 
of lumber to and from the kilns; and selecting type and size of kilns 
for a particular drying problem. 

The college has two dry kilns completely equipped with automatic 
regulators, recording thermometers, and other drying equipment; several 
small drying ovens, balance scales, a complete sawmill and woo d- working 
shop, and many laboratory specimens of drying .equipment such as traps, 
valves, automatic and self -contained regulators, and recorders. 

Schenck Tours Europe with Forestry Students . ■ 

Twenty .American forestry students are' making a study tour of the 
forests of western 'Europe under the direction arid leadership of pr. Carl 
A. Schenck. The tour was arranged* by' Doctor Schenck in cooperation Witt 

the Pennsylvania State Forest School. The majority of the students are 
from that school, and Professor J. V. Hofmann of its' faculty is in charg 
The party sailed en March £8° . They .expect od to travel- through the for- 
ests. -of the Rhine region and Switzerland, .... the devastated lands of 
France and Belgium, and the pineries of southern France. 

Each year Dr. Schenck directs American forestry students and stu- 
dents from the University of Oxford through .the .forests of continental 
Eur op e„ 

Last year students from the Pennsylvania State Forest School visi 
ed IS organized* forests of Germany * France,, and Switzerland, and had derc 
onstrated to them' the management of forests in which the annual cut eoua 
exactly the timber growth. -They were also shown how -the logs and wood 
produced from the forests net. the .governments, clear of all expense, fro; 
$2 to $3 annually for each acre of land. .-.,.---•- .... ■ ., 

The Hew York State College of Forestry is planning a similar trip 
for 192S, with Professor Fen ska in charge. Twenty students will leave 
the United States about June for a tour which as now contemplated will 
include the forests of Germany. France, Switzerland, and Scandinavia, 
and if time permits, Auaoria, Sweden, and Finland- It is hoped that thii 
party also will have the services of Dr. Schenck as guide through France 
and Germany. 

New York Senior Canp Open s 

The first Senior Carp to "be conducted by the hew York State Col- 
lege of Forestry, Syracuse Thrlv or si ty,. ".ail open fcr four weeks beginning 
May 4, It will "be "Located on the Charles Lathrop Pack Demonstration 
Tract of .1,000 acres at Barber 5 s Point, Cranberry Lake, in the Adiron- 
dacks. The opening of the ■ Sophomore Camp, on the same tract, will fol- 
low the closing of the Senior Camp. Professor G. H. Lentz will direct 
both camps, The purpose of the Senior Camp is to give, the students, who ■ 
are about to enter the prof Cr.sion of forestry practical contact with 
the field in which they will spo-n be engaged* They- will have an opportu- 
nity to apply principles learned in the classroom in forest management , 
forest "engineering, and silviculture. Final examinations will precede 
the opening of the camp, but the awardi-ng of "diplomas will be cc-ndi.J.on- 
ed on a satisfactory showing in this field work. 

Oregon Spreads the Gospel ' 

A rather extensive canpaign is being carried on in Oregon by the 
State For ester' s .office this spring in presenting the activities of the 
forestry (.epartnent in the schools and to the Boy Scouts and similar or- 
ganizations-. A member of the department has been appearing "ith portable, 
pumps, mess kits., . fire—fighting tools, and other equipment, escribing 
their operation and use and the methods of locating and fighting fires- 
A follow-up lecture -i^ later given with slides, depicting various sub- 
jects of interest relating to forestry work* The work is becoming quite 
popular and will be ex.tenuod as far as the limited personnel of the State 
Forester's office will permit. Several requests for a third lecture have 
been received. 

Forestry Club Banquets at Syr acuse 

The annual banquet of the Forestry Club of the Hew York State Col- 
lege of Forestry, Syracuse University, was held March 24, 1925., The prin- 
cipal speeches were made by J. H, Watarman, Superintendent of Wood Pres- 
ervation for the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad; Arthur Koehler, 
Chief of the Department of Wood Technology. U. S e Forest Products Labora- 
tory, and Hon. <J. S., Whipple, former" IT ew York State Forest Fish and Game 
Commissioner.- Mr. ■Waterman gave a splendid talk on service, Mr. KOehler 
spoke on the type of mind adaptable to research, and Mr. Whipple urged the 
students to raise their voice in behalf of reforestation. In addition, 


student representatives of the Harvard Forest School, the Forestry Club 
of Toronto University, and the Forestry School at Cornell University 
spoke "briefly of their college activities! Dr. Forsaith talked "on his 
contemplated trip to England, where he will organize a school of wood 
technology at oxford r Professor H. P., Francis gave some of his impres- 
sions regarding the recreation forests of Europe; and Paul D. E el-let gr 
discussed the influences that have induced men to enter the field of 
forestry. The "banquet was attended "by nearly 300 persons, and was alto- 
gether the most successful in the history of the Forestry Club. 

A Live School plants Trees 

Antrim, Pennsylvania, ig a small mining village largely surround- 
ed by cut and burned-over areas, located in a township with a total pop- 
ulation of about 900. This spring fctte Antrim School is going to plant 
1..C00 forest trees. A plot of land has "been sot aside for this planting 
"by a local coal company, and the trees will be furnished by the ^enrisyl- 
vania' Department of Forests and Waters. The speciec to be planted are 
redi Scotch, and white pine, Ebrway spruce., and European .-larch, in equal 
proportion. The school boys and girls will be led by the Boy Scouts 
and the Camp Fire Girls in this work and in protecting the area after 
the planting.. Last year the children of the Antrim School made a large 
ornamental planting on their school grounds. 

Yale fforest- i lura ni Meet - 

Alumni Day for Yale University v;-„s held on Monday, February 23, 
this year. Dean Graves addressed the Forest School Alumni Association. 
He stated that it had at present the mo^t effective plan of organiza- 
tion among the lale a3-'.JiLni Svssocia^icns s-nd that he "as interested in 
trying to secure a similar organisation ly groups for the larger body a 
He called, attention to the ra&ergra&imfce " : ^;c: being given at present 
by Professors Bryant, Record. e and 'Graves with gocd attendance and spoke 
of the plans for tropical forestry and the intention to offer an appoint- 
ment to professor George Garratt , ''.' f S3j in Forest Products. 

Professor Record then gave a talk on the •pTosp'&c^'S" ahead in trop- 
ical woodSj the growth of interest in the bi&jfti'J, fcna largo additions to 
the collections, and. the extension of cooperation t/lth various South 
American countries. He' spoke of the plan to start a serial publication 


appearing at irregular interval b on tropical woods. The Council stated 
that Barrington Moore had "been appointed a special committee to coop- 
erate with Dean Graves and Professor Record in working out concrete plans 
for this publication. 

Professor Karl Woodward of the Forestry School of the ITew Hamp- 
shire State College on November 6 and 7 conducted a .group of his stu- 
dents over typical timber— sale areas on the White Mountain Forest. 
Supervisor Yarnall spent one day with the party explaining the marketing 
of the timber and the administration of sale- areas.. Tentative plans 
for the establishment of a summer camp on this forest in the near fu- 
ture were made by Professor YJoodward. 

Revised Volume Tables for Second-Growth Redwood, prepared by 
Donald Bruce and Francis X. Schumacher, have been published "by the Uni- 
versity of California Agricultural Experiment Station. The preliminary 
volume tables, published in Bulletin 334 of this station, have been 
found entirely satisfactory in accuracy but inadequate in the range of 
values included. The new tables have a range approximately twice as 
great. A new table has "been added, giving volumes in cubic feet. The' 
data upon which these revised tahles are based are those of the prelim- 
inary tahles supplemented by 125 trees cut on Big River, Mendocino Coun- 
ty, and on Freshwater Creek, Humholdt County. 

Copies of the tables may be obtained from the Division of For- 
estry, University of California. 

Courses in kiln drying have been conducted in Arkansas by three 
representatives of the Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin. 
Instruction was given to 12 students at the plant of the Long-Bell Lum- 
"ber Company, Pine Bluff, and to 16 at the Crossett Lumber Company, Cros- 


Field Trip for Oregon Forest School 

For several years it has "been the practice at the Oregon Forest 
School to take the majority of the students into., the- woods for a period 
of two weeks as soon as weather conditions in the. spring are reasonably 
settled*' This trip Is in the- nature of ~ intensive laboratory work and 
consists in the main of surveying-, timber estimating,-, and. map making'/ 
In 1924, through a cooperative arrangement with Supervisor Macduff of 
the Cascade National Forest, the students were given .a camp, site within 
the Cascade Forest and a certain amount of" -technical supervision by of- 
ficers of the Forest Service in intensive reconnaissance work. 

The scheme proved so satisfactory that - it is planned, to put the 
project on a'p.ermanent "basis. This spring -Dean Peavy is taking ahout . . 
80 men into a designated area in the Cascade National Forest for two •; 
weeks of intensive reconnaissance work. Hefore going into the field 
the men will be assigned to reconnaissance crews and thoroughly drilled 
in the details of their respective positions... The Forest Service agreed 
to furnish a number of junior foresters to assist the faculty of the. 
forest school in supervising the. work, and to. : run primary control for 
the area to he cruissd/and mapped, "before the forest school men go in. 
The results of the work- will '"be -accepted "by -the forest Service. 

Men from the. district office of the Forest Service will visit the 
camp and give lectures; on their particular lines, of work at the evening. . 
"bonfire sessions. Thus the Service assists in furthering forestry edu~ . . 
cation and policies, and at 'the same time gets a line on men who may he 
useful to it in the future. The forest school men derive an insight into 
the practical field work and develop considerable esprit de corps through 
working together.,. • - ~ '" 

At a recent meeting of dealers in naval stores a committee on per-' 
manent organization presented a report urging the creation of the "Pine 
Institute of. America 11 : to provide an instrumentality for research and serv- 
ice in' the field of naval stores production.. '■" •" ' 

A 100-acre town forest which will serve as a recreation area and 
an adjtoict to the schools is to he "bnu-r.t by the town of Warwick, Massa- 
chusetts. Since the town has only 337 inhabitant a this nc-e-ris a per capita 
tax increase of $1>C3, Advantage will he t a k3n of the offers of the 
Massachusetts Forestry Association and the ilew England 3oz Company to 
give 5,000 trees each to the community setting aside- 100 acres or more. 



Recent Leg;islati on Affect in ."; the Forest Ser<~ i ce 
. .3y W._ Jo Mangan, Washington 

During the latter part of the recent session of Congress,; many 
measures were enacted which affect the work of the Forest Service. In 
fact, it was the.. largest number of statutes of interest to the Service 
which ever came out of a Congressional grist* w*ith the exception of a 
few proposed additions to" national forests most of the legislative pro- 
gram of the Service received the approval of Congress. 

Among the measures which met with approval were acts either mak- 
ing or authorizing additions to 12 national forests and also authoriz- 
ing' land exchanges in territory adjacent to 11 of these forests, which 
will enable the Government to acquire the adjoining parts forming nat- 
ural units for forest administration, A forest experiment station in 
California was authorized to be established* The county officials of 
Lo v s Angeles are authorized to obtain a permit from the Forest Service 
to develop a large recreation area. Under an amendment to Section 2 
of the Clarke-McKary Act moneys may be expended on the southern Cali- 
fornia chaparral forests^ which are not on navigable streams. A joint 
resolution directs the Secretary of Agriculture in his discretion to 
remit grazing fees in certain cases, Section 7 of the weeks Law was 
amended to permit exclianges. on the basis 'of equal value, of lands ac- 
quired under the provisions of that law„ A resolution was adopted by 
the Senate to investigate the grazing situation in the national forests 
and on the public domain. The so-called "Six-Section Act" to simplify 
the work of the Forest Service authorizes the receipt of contributions 
in the cooperative handling by the Forest Service of lands within or 
near the national forests. Another section of the act authorizes the 
Secretary of Agriculture to expend not more than $2' ? 500 annually to ac- 
quire lands for administrative purposes and .to accept donations of land 
for any national forest purpose,/ 

R of or es' tat ion , A Nationa l Pro ble ra 

Excerpts from an addres'S by Associate Forester Sherman before 
the Stc Louis Lumber Convention 9 St„ Louis, Mo, 

As a nation we inherited the richest and most easily worked for- 
ests on the globe, There would be no such thing as a national problem 


of reforestation today had we used our forests with ordinary preoptions 
in the past* Reforestation is today a national necessity because for 
generations deforestation has been a national custom. 

Short and sad is the history of our nation's forests. Our virgin 
forest area of 022 million acres has been reduced to about 138 million 
acres. To supplement this we have about 250 million acres of culled and 
cut-over lands and 01 million acres of lands once forested but now so 
severely cut and burned as to be an unproductive waste. When you corre- 
late these figures' with the fact that each year we consume four and one- 
third times as much timber as our forests grow, you have established the 
inevitability of a primary national economic. disaster unless we change our 
ways - the approaching shortage of a raw material more esoential to prog- 
ress than either coal or steel and almost as essential to human life and 
development as water, light, and air, 

"But," you say, "isn't the Government doing something about this 
forest business? Haven't we Government forests, or wood substitutes, wood 
preservatives, or something to take care' of 'our future needs?" 

Yes, we have Government forests; but they are largely the remnants 
of our public domain* ' t/e have such forests today because Theodore Booso- 
velt and Gifford Pirachot and a few other enthusiasts gat busy about 20 
years ago and put them into so-called "forest reserves," now national 

In our national forests we have a total area of' nearly 158 million 
acres. Under fire protection the old tree3 have "been preserved from de- 
struction, the young trees are- coming on, and the blank spaces are seed- 
ing up. Business on- our Government forests is developing rapidly. Tor 
the year ending June 30, 1906 - the -first full year of national forest 
-administration under the Agricultural Department - the receipts for tim- 
ber actually cut and removed from our Government forests amounted to a 
total of only $242,860.23, For the year ending June 30, 1924, the total 
was $3,036 9 395.75, an increase of 1,151 per cent in 18 years. Even at 
that we cut only slightly, over a. billion foot , which was only about one- 
seventh of our annual growth. I am afraid that the next 10-year period 
may show/percentage' of increase in' the value 'of' ..timber cut even greater 
than in" the past;, I say "afraid"" for I am apprehensive of what such 
conditions may mean in the' way of unfavorable reaction upon our national 
well-being. The Government is in the rather peculiar position of raising 

t for the market a commodity which it hopes will always bo cheap and abundant, 

M ' .'.. 

g -32- _ . 

j • tional forests, -rent and productive as they are, cr.n pro- 
cc only • 11 part of the tiribcr rehired by this caunti\y. 

' no "•ill furnish us • - ■■ • ■-. imual ctittin' bur ;et 
s ven hilli >n f< ot of timber, vhich is some lunbi r pile. On the other 
1, no must reckon with the consmiin ; povor of 2,000,C ore citize: 

ev r 

It ic hard for '' human mind ordinarily ' lizo the ran ;nit " 

of our problem. About tu n1 • y < rs : o I • : s tallcin : vith - friend, on 
fc i streets of Hissoula, ! ton tan,* , about this very probl of the 

■ cj of our nation's biml er -■ ] , ' ;tandc-r interrupted mi , 
saying, "po yov. : :an to tell ; ■ I ' v. this country rill ever 
have a shortage of timber?" I:V nnsver r:* ; ;! I ■ . very much ifr: id of it, 
sir.n rp •••- : ]_ n: _ he rc xicd, "I"uh! That shovs hov little you kno' about 
it; "by, thcr i»s an inexhaustible supply it: the hittcrroot." hoa- Iliad 
been up the saic Bitterroot an." 1 Irncr; that 1 billion f ' vac libera] 
estimate of its timber resources. In ha bible? Folly; less than half 
enough to last Uncle Sam a single >n ! 

ncd conserve tionist ] " n aca ~ of a shiny us to 
save lumber for posterity inst isin 11 rs Ives. Th )icture is 

untrue. The cons cv> tionist vis! es us to cut la n the ri tree ard 

use it; but hi - ?; s us rot to cut dovn more tr s than v need, and not 
J "° 1 '"*■ half the tree in t! vo Is \ cause there ar - f v knots in 

■ lo :. he asks us alsc not to 1 ?': fire: run. ind i: i 1 red throu h th 
forest, for they destroy th - u: t s vhic] ] ' *orn forests ' r 
tl encrations of the fu« r . 3a ; are the fir t 1 innings of oar 
children's homes. T h asks that ~"o vho inherited a land filled vith :iant 
trees ready for the a;: re em 1 r that vocd '"ill also be needed by our 
children and their children even unto the end of time; that as ve obtain 
our voocl from trees, so must they; that unless ""o vish our to end 
like a stream in the sands of the desert "c rust see to it that those xfho 
follov us find also a hand vherein trees cast their shade at the feet of 
man and all things are ordered obedieu: to his needs, he asks that ve in 
our day ana -.aeration observe the Golden Rule and do by those T "ho arc tc 
come after us oven as -r T c vould be dene by. lo the extent that ve, as Amer- 
icans, in deed and spirit live up to this injunction, ve shall prove our- 
selves vorthy of the -Treat sacrifice of our forefathers, he shall also 
prove ourselves vorthy of the love of our descendants. 

hi 1 i t.aay has ervat i ens I 'ah e hat i onal ..■ or e st s 

yii.aht ncv national forests have just been created ''oy executive 
order of the ?r t. This action hoc decn taken under the provisions 

of the ?l-rka-hohary Act for the establishment of national forests on ex- 
isting military and naval reservations. The nev forests are located on 

the sites of the following military reservations: Upton, Long Island, 
"■■-- York; pine Plains, Few York; pjix, Few Jersey; Meade, Maryland; 
Tobyhanna, Pennsylvania; and Eustis, Humphreys, and Lee, Virginia. 
The total area of the eight forests is about 63,725 acres. 

In accordance with the provisions of the Clarke-McFary Act, these 
areas are not withdrawn from military use. n.t the present time all ex- 
c Jpt the Lee reservation arc garrisoned during the summer training sea- 
son. Lines have been drawn delimiting the national forests so as to ex- 
clude those portions of the reservations intensively use", for military 

The si Ivi cultural condition of the different areas varies widely. 
Splendid original stands of white pine on pine Plains and Upton have dis- 
appeared as- a result of lumbering and of reported forest fires; ta.e Toby- 
ma reservation contains little merchantable timber but a most excellent 
stand of young growth 15 to 2C years old; while on the sites of Port 
Humphrey's and Camp pr.stis it will be possible immediately to procure for- 
est products for Federal use raid possibly for sale. ' 

jcial interest attaches to the establishment of the Upton Na- 
tional Forest on account of its proximity to Few York City and the proba- 
bility that in loss than a century the city will have surrounded it. 

Humphreys rational Forest, three' 'miles- -'from' Mount 'Vernon, Pas his- 
toric interest as comprising Beivoi'r, in colonial times the estate of 
7illiam Fairfax, which was frequently visited oy G-eorge Washington. 

Pc~ Fire-pro^. nrntive -eceralation 

Secretary of Agriculture 7. P. gardine ~oy virtue of authority vesi 
cd in him by Congress has issued a new regulation governing the use, pro- 
tection, and administration of national forests which prohibits "the 
throwing or niacin'- of a burning cigarette, cipor, match, pipe heel, 
firecracker, or any ignited substance, or the discharge of any kind of 
fireworks, in any place where it may start a fire. n These acts on a na- 
tional forest constitute misdemeanors and are punishable under Federal 
lav- "jy a fine of not more then 'TOO, or IP months imprisonment, or both. 


■ . T&&— ftfoti-orrpicture Released 

Reasons- for replanting the devastated forest lands of the Coastal 
Plains- areas of- the Southern States 'and .approved methods of planting are 
shown in the new department educational film release, Pines for Profit. 1 

The picture traces the depletion of the forests of the South from 
the establishment of Jamestown. xh 1 So? to the present day, when more than 
30,000,000 acres of cut-over timberlands scar the landscape of the States 
"below the Mason and Dixo^-'.liii©. -'The practicability of reforesting this, 
area and providing permanent prosperity ; by means of a constant timber 
crop are pictured. -'Details of reforestation, such as nursery practices, 
broadcasting. _ : of- pine seed, setting' Out young trees, and wood-dot manage- 
ment, ar r e included. A warning is sounded against fire, the greatest of 
all. menaces to reforestation.' 

The picturization of kinds of . land that should be devoted to re- 
forestation is. : another feature of Pines for Profit. The film was photo- 
graphed,,in the Coastal Plains Statbs from South Carolina to Texas and is 
a Contribution from the- Forest Service cooperating with the Georgia for- 
estry.. Association,- . the Florida Forestry Association, and the State For- 
estry .Commission of Alabama. 1 -. ■ : ~' 1 ' 

• ■ More 'Lands for-Sastern National Forests 
■• ■ -.-- .- r ■'■ ' . •' ; ; v " - r . 1 

'... The Ilational Forest Reservation Commission at a recent meeting au- 
thorized the purchase at an average price of $4.77 an acre of 12,817 acres 
in the Fastorn States, including 6,573 acres in Tennessee, 4,258 acres in 
Pennsylvania, . 905- acres in Virginia, 287 acres in North Carolina, 66 
acres in .-Georgia, 300- acres in Alabama, and 428 acres in Arkansas. These 
purchases bring the total area the' purchase of which has been authorized 
during^the, current fiscal year up : to 247,067 acres, and increase the 
area, acquired in the 14 years during which purchases have been "made-' to 
2, 593, 421' acres.. The average price' for all purchases has been $4.96 an 
acre. Of the area being acquired during the current year more than 30,000 
acres are in Pennsylvania, 17,000 in Virginia, 66,000 in Tennessee, 24,400 
in North. Carolina, 40,000 in- Georgia, 5 C 900 in Alabama, 1,700. in Arkansas, 
3., 800 in jUsi .Virginia, 22,000 in South Carolina, and 21,600 in New ■Hamp- 
r shire; : ,[., . •-.,- . :. - ■ : - -■_■ ■ - 

On account of the -fact that the National Park Commission, appointed 
by the .Secretary of the Interior, has under consideration the location of 
a National.. Park in the Smoky Mountains, the National Forest Reservation 



Commission rescinded its action taken in 1911 for the establishment of 
a Smoky Mountain National Forest. This permits freedom of action by 
fhn park Commission in considering this region for a National Park. 

State Cooperation 

The cost of adequate forest fire protection of State and pri- 
vately-owned lands in' the States has for the most part been submitted 
to the Forest Service. On the basis of these statements it appears 
that with an appropriation of $660,000 the Federal Government will be 
ablest© allot 'to the States for the fiscal year 1926 a sum equal ap- 
proximately to 7.4 per cent of the adequate cost of protection.' No 
arbitrary maximum allotment will be set for any of the States. As in 
previous cooperation under the Weeks Law, no State will under any con- 
dition be allotted a sum greater than it is able to match with State 
and private funds. The agreement form, budget form, and reimbursement 
form covering Clarke-McNary activities in forest fire protection and 
in the distribution of forest planting stock are in the course of prep- 
aration, and it is believed will be in final shape before the last of 
April. The Secretary of Agriculture has not yet rendered an opinion 
as to whether the provisions of Section 5 of the Clarke-McNary Act, which 
has to do with cooperation with farmers in the handling of their timber 
lands, shall be administered by the Forest Service or by the Extension 
Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture- 

During the closing days of the session Congress passed an amend- 
ment to the Clarke-McNary Act which makes the provisions of Section 2 
of that Act apply to"watersheds from which water is secured for domestic- 
use or, irrigation" in addition to forest-producing lands as provided in 
the original act. The Secretary of Agriculture-, of course, still exer- 
cises his discretion as to the extent to which cooperation may be extend- 
ed under this amendment; 1 

The Mississippi Legislature of 1924 passed a concurrent, resolution 
providing for a commission whose duty it will be to learn from- the Nation- 
al Government the terms and conditions under which Mississippi can partic- 
ipate in the Government appropriations and facilities for reforesting the 
denuded lands of the State.' The commission was appointed, and has been 
active in drawing up a proposed forestry bill for Mississippi which it is 
•understood will be presented at the next session of the Mississippi Legis- 
lature. That at least is the intention of the commission. The bill pro- 
vides for a State forestry board and a State forester and for activities 


,,- fixe pj^c^c4i^to^-Jfec*eiaticn, technical investigations and studies, 
ocoporation and assistance to tiriberlar.d owners in the State* education, 
*nd x^tiblicyicion, and for timber contracts between landowners and the 
State 3oai*d of Forestry whereby the landovTier agrees and'' obligates him- 
self to grow timber on his land, in consideration :*f fizred and reason- 
able taxation of theae lands* 

The Bark Beetle Visits lodgepole 

An unusually vivid history of an insect attack upon a flourishing 
stand of lodgepole pine, and a summary of the disastrous effects of the 
onslaught, are given out in a recent report by H. E. Flint, District 
Forest Inspector, of observations made' in a lodgepole stand in the Mis- 
soula National Forest. 1 

According to Mr. Flint the mountain pine beetles, Dendrocjtonus 
monticolae . started work- in 1014 in this stand of 72 per cent, lodgepole 
pine, 2 per cent western yellew pine, and 26 per cent Douglas fir, west- 
ern larch, alpine fir, and ^ngelmann gpruae. They stopped about 1918 - 
apparently because the supply pf lodgepole pine over six inches in diam- 
eter was exhausted and they preferred to migrate to new regions rather 
than to trifle with smaller trees. By 1919 hundreds ef dead trees began 
to fall. By the end of 1923 the majority had. fallen, but many of these 
tall "snagB" are still standing and it is estimated that unless tire 
intervenes some ef them will stand until 1935 or 1940. It may woU be 
14Q years before the green ferest recaptures this area and regains the 
fully stocked cendition existent prior to 1914. . " 

An interesting fact reported by Mr. Flint is that in the present 
stand of green timber on this area ledgepole pine has slipped down frem 
72 per cent to a- bare 40 per cent. While it still holds predominating 
place, Douglas fir has crept up to a close second. > In one tract of 200*- 
year-old timber, indeed, lodgepole pine is about to ' disappear entirely 
as an important component of the forest cover. 

Insect attacks, like fire, in stands of this character present an 
interesting problem to the forester. According to Mr.' Flint, at the pres- 
ent value of this timber operations to control the infestation are net 
justified. Only if such an attack can be nipped in its incipiency is an 
effort to suppress it desirable. A dLevastating insect, attack is consid*» 
ered less harmful than fire, however, a, a it does not injure the soil nor 
take out the young growth, -•* 


• •;•••-> .National Forest Road Funds 

.- •. With the pas-sage o.f the. Agri cult-oral Appropriation Bill Congress 
-• $4,000,000 available for expenditure for, the construction of forest 
v»»<is .and trails. This represents the remainder of the amount authorized 
for appropriation in 1922, practically all of which has "been pledged to 
various road projects. In addition the Second Deficiency Bill passed on 
March 3 gives the Secretary qjf .Agriculture authority to apportion to the 
national forest States an additional $7,500,000. This act, however, does 
not provide for an appropriation. The apportionment to the various States 
from these two amounts as approved by the Secretary are as follows: 

: $4,000.000 Appropriated 


$7 \ 500 ,,'OOQ , Author i z ed 


Forest ; Forest Road : Forest Highway: JForest Road 
Highway : Development : : Development 

. Alabama-';. .; I. 
. .Alaska 
^ Arizona , . 


.Colorado - 
% Florida 

Georgia. .',.... . 

.Idaho .. . 






Nevada " 

Now Hampshire 

New Mexico 

North Carolina 



P ennsylvania 

Porto Rico 
... South Carolina 
K r. South Dakota 

t Utah 


Wa Dn.i ngton 

West Virginia 


....'." l-,350 
231 >755 



.. 342. ,544 

' J. 69 „ 192 


•' 3,215 



■ r,i77 








1 ,300 ' 
291 ,274 
1 ,104 
334 , 
.17 ,68$ ' 








£2 ,049: 
J.00 ,070 
; M,393; 
: 7,450 
" ; 55,309 
257 ,205 
A> - l.;595' 
7,250 . 
' 35,675 
' 4,539 

3,259 \ 



• - 15,293 




• 50.958 













' '2", 350 


'30,523 ■**• 



299 ,459 

' 5,123 v "'' 

■ 1,071 

' 97,249 '•"* 





73 ,-062 

13,455 •"■ 






* 3,-001' ■•. ; 


666 - : \\ 


1,616. '■' 


35,200 4 • 

' f 26,36G 

•X52§ ": 

. 19,454 



; 15,371 '■''' 









2,250,000 1,750,000 4,500,000 




5Q.QQ0 Firebrands 
3y S. T. Allen 

(Excerpts from 'address "before the fiftieth anniversary meeting of the 
American Forestry Association, in Chicago, January 22, 1925.) 

When human distress comes to oiir eyes or oars, we act first and 
argue afterwards. I wish there. were some way to get good, warm human emo- 
tion aroused to its proper place in viewing the forest fire picture. 

To all too many in this land, and all too often, the picture is 
a vivid one, and human above all else. There is no more pitiful thing, 
I think, than the settler's family, after years of privation and incred- 
ible labor, surveying, without food or shelter, the blackened ruin of all 
their hopes, or fleeing in refugee trains they know not whither. X wish 
this association and our lawmakers might see this once. 

There is no more discouarging thing to little pioneer communities 
than to face the winter with crops, schoolhouses, and bridges gone, even 
though they may have saved their homes. ' 

There is no greater hardship and exhaustion, unless in war, or 
sometimes at sea, than that of thousands of sleepless and. smoke-blind 
fire fighters, every year, while the rest of us are seeking summer pleas- 

, We think too much of fire as an abstract force of nature and of 

its results in terms of economic loss; for, although human nature is mer- 
cenary enough, it does not arouse to deal with 'such abstractions as it 
will when it realizes that tho cause of fire is human dereliction, and 
that its consequence is human suffering. 

Suppose that by their own reasoning, or by our .missionary work, 
or by the mandatory laws, that some people propose, there should be cre- 
ated tomorrow a,bo&y-of 50 ,,000 -forest landowners-, well distributed 
throughout the country for the sake of their example, and pledged to 
do all that anyone could ask them to do to perpetuate the forests -jnder 
their control. Suppose, further, that every State legislature has re- 
moved tho obstacle of discouraging taxation. Do' you realize that as long 


as we have 50,000 forest fires a -ear, there is, for every one of these 
owners to engage in forestry, another man with a torch waiting every 
year to destroy his enterprise? .... 

Our present achievement in the forest fire line "being 50,000 fires 
and 10,000, U00 acres "burned over, we are averaging. 2C0 -acr-e-s -to the fire. 
Eaehj, then, averages two-thirds of a mile in diameter. Lining up the 
50 ,000 . r .c they touch, they extend 33,704 miles; so each year we run ten 
lli^a of fire, each two-ohirds of a mile wide, across this country from 
coast to coast; and if ve cut out the prairie and farm country, keeping 
those lings- in the woods, it will not take very strong winds to drop 
sparks anywhere "between them. 

This is the handicap we place on every public and private agency 
we have the effrontery to hold responsible for the perpetuation of Amer- 
ican forcst-s, and to criticize for their negligence. 

My proposal.., is a centering of much nearer nine-tenths of our 
effort, if fire prevention is nine-tenths of forest perpetuation, upon 
the definite task of arousing the American people to fire consciousness... 

We continually overlook what is still more urgent and much harder 
to accomplish - the eradication of a national propensity to set the woods 
on fire. We divert our own and the public's minds from this "by a scat- 
tering campaign for everything else, which is all right in detail, hut 
all wrong in proportion. 

Even in our campaign against fire we do this "by making people visu- 
alize fire itself as their enemy. This is an ineffectual conc^',.pn t 
prohahly leads to support of others' activities; also reduces the sum of 
carelessness; hut, after all, it only sprays and quarantines, as it were, 
indirectly and aimlessly against the fostering of a 'blight. It does not 
operate in time and place to arrest anywhere near enough of the 50,000 
hands that fire the forest every year. 

All that will do this is a consciousness that says to the of- 
fender, "Thou art the man i" Our prohlem is not a fire hunt hut^a man^ 
hunt; "before the fire if possible, hut in no case abandoned until ^he is 
eliminated, Not fire, hut the owner of the hand that lights it, is the 
public 5 s enemy. 

I would, in every hudgct in this land for forest protection, de- 
vote not less than 5 per cent - sometimes more - to education against the 
starting of fire. You need not tell me that $325,000, or this propor- 
tion of our average six and a half million expenditure, would not, if 


skillfully used, cut down the cost "by a far greater amount and save 
tremendous loss "besides. It is an indefensible system that leaves 
preventive education, in a situation such as I have described, to a 
haphazard experiment now and then with what funds it is felt can be 
spared from fire fighting. .. 

Has it ever occurred to you that we are the best fire fighters 
in the world, of which we are inclined to boast, just because we lead 
the world in permitting fires on which to practice? 

In this educational effort I would not abandon other arguments, 
but would for a time, until none has any possible excuse that he never 
realized it, make the campaign center on personal responsibility and 
the crime of, fire setting and fire toleration, whether the form in- 
volved be willful incendiarism or the carelessness with match, ciga- 
rette, camp fire, locomotive, land clearing or logging fire, or main- 
tenance of fire traps, that, has precisely identical results. 

Secondly,. .-.. I would police the woods in a way they have never 
been policed, not leaving the law to be taught and enforced by forest 
firemen, however splendidly chosen and trained for the technique of 
their own prof ession, but providing as many, as need be of men equally 
chossn and trained for the different and equally needed profession of 

law enforcement If their presence and efforts do not forestall iihe 

crime, they must bring in their man and achieve such an uhdeistanding 
in community and court that punishment is a lesson, not a farce. " 

It, is -an indefensible system that -trains thousands of men to 
chase and fight fires, but virtually no men to chase and fight those who 
build the fires. 

■■■-- . v , . • Spruce. Imports Increase 

Baltic spruce is coming into the American market in increasing 
amounts.' A single Now York order for 2,000,000- feet is recorded. This 
movement soems to foreshadow, a situation in which trees grown as a crop 
could compete with virgin forests in the international market. Probably 
in lumber production at the present time the difference in cost between 
American and. ..European ..labor tips the balance in favor of Europe, in spite 
of the fact that in the United States the labor item does not include the 
growing of the trees'." It is hardly' likely that European competition will 

• ... .. .. -., -. . ... • ........ - . -41-. ■.. . 



supplant any wood in any .American market , though it may exert an unfav- 
orable effect -upon values. In the long run it should, however, have a 
salutary effect upon the attitude of the American public toward forestry 
and. rfcjforesta.tioxu — American Lumberman, Jan. 24, 1925. 

Progress of the American Forestry Association 

The appointment of Mr. Shirley W. Allen as forester was the most 
notable step in the broadening' of the American Forestry Association's 
educational and legislative activities during the past year, according 
to the annual report of the secretary. 

The necessity for increased expenditures by the Federal Government 
for forest fire protection will be the subject of one of the association's 
major activities in 1925, as during the past year. 

Important measures and projects actively supported by the associa- 
tion during the past year include the following: 

The Clarke-McNary Act, passed by Congress on June 7, 1924, which 
constitutes the most important forestry legislation in recent years. 

Initiation of a 10-year program for che establishment of national 
forests in the eastern half of the United States .and the drafting of a 
bill, introduced in Congress on December 20 (the McNary-Woodruff Bill), 
to authorize expenditures with which to carry out this program. 

Better game protection in Alaska and the bill providing for an 
Alaskan game commission, which was recently passed by Congress. 

The movement to coordinate industry and the public in a definite 
program to eliminate waste in the use of our forests and to expand re- 
search in forest utilization. 

Stimulating public interest in the practice of forestry by giving 
publicity to outs carding demonstrations of the feasibility of conserva- 
tive forest management. ' ' 

Editorial promotion of forest legislation in different 'States 
and direct assistance whenever facilities permitted; advocacy af more 

town and. State forests. ., . t 

The printing and distribution", practically at cost, of a set of 
t forest fire posters and stuff ers - a total of 34,300 posters and 255 r C00 

staffers. ' .. 


The Highest Logging Operation 
By John F. Preston, in the Four L. Bulletin 

Logging at an elevation of 11,000 feet is getting pretty well 
up in the air, and if it isn't the highest logging job in the country 
it is time for those who have seen higher-ones to come forth and tell 
about them. 

In northern New Mexico, up near Jicarilla Peak, which rises to an 
elevation of 13,500 feet and sticks up high above timber line, is the 
operation of the Santa Barbara Tie and Pole Company, furnishing 300,000 
to 400,000 ties annually to 'the Santa Fe Railroad. 

The logging headquarters are located at Tres Ritos on the Rio 
Pueblo in the center of an operation which has continued for 10 years or 
more. In that time the logging operation "has' moved up stream, cutting . 
in yellow pine at the lowest elevation in Douglas fir at intermediate 
altitudes, until now nothing but high altitude Engelmann spruce and cork- 
bark (balsam) fir is left. The fact that legging does not stop because 
the slopes are steep, the altitude high, or the species less valuable 
than formerly, testifies in no uncertain tones to the growing scarcity of 

The present operations are on the Carson National Forest, and all 
timber is marked for cutting by forest officers. Everything is cut, in- 
cluding a high altitude foxtail pine known locally as' bristle cone pine. 
Trees and logs of the right size are made into hewn ties and those too . 
large are pulled on bummers by horses to circular sawmills- where sawed 
ties are made. Four such mills are in use, cutting as many as. 600 ties . 
per day per mill. --The slab piles would pake ' some lumbermen in more favor- 
able localities weep. There is practically no market for side lumber., so 
anything which isn't capable of making at least a SxC tie is thrown on the 
Transportation from the mills to' the main Rio Pueblo is by flume, 
where ties are banked until the spring floods. As soon as the snow be- 
gins to melt in the spring, -the drive begins, carrying the ties to the 
mouth of the Rio pueblo. Here, thoy are'' held- until the Rio Grande is at 
just the right stage of water, when on they go to Domingo, the loading 
point on the railroad. The total length of the drive is about 95 or 100 

Last year the local foresters systematically set about the job 
cf finding how fast the trees were growing on the Rio pueblc working 
circle in virgin and cut-over stands. It takes a tree at least 12 inches 


in diameter, "breast high, to make a tie, and the average tree cut on 
the national forest is 13§ inches at breast height. This leaves a large 
number of trees standing, from seedlings up to 10, 12, and 13 inches, 
ready to grow bigger and faster as the result of the removal of the 
larger trees. The question the foresters had to determine was the 
length of time required for these trees to grow big enough again to 
justify cutting for ties. 

Cuttings 10 years old were, available, and increment borings were 
taken of a large number of trees of- v various diameters. From these bor- 
ings counts were made of the rings per inch, or rate of growth, before 
and after chinning. It was found that yellow pine trees released by 
cutting grow 62 per cent faster than before cutting, Douglas fir 50 
per cent, and spruce 77 per cent. The upshot of it all was the determi- 
nation that the trees were growing fast enough so that a second cut equal 
to the first could be obtained in 30 years. 

Then as a result of some more figures and tables and type maps 
they found out that at the rate ties have been going out of the Rio 
Pueblo working circle .and with the available virgin stands there would 
be no end to this operation as long as the tie market held out. Fortu- 
nately, the fire danger here is very light, and quick returns of the ax 
should prevent any big loss from bugs or disease. 

The foresters guess from studying the rate of growth in virgin 
stands that it will take from 120 to 150 years to grow a tree from seed 
to tie size, but thoy may beat that. In about 75 or 100 years it will 
be known, but meanwhile it is good to know definitely that every 30 years 
we can cut CO to 100 railroad ties from the average acre of timberland in 
the Rio Pueblo working circle. 

Southern R. R. puts Land Under Management 

To demonstrate the results that can be obtained by applying for- 
estry to timberlands in the South, the Southern Railway System has put 
an expert forester and three assistants in charge of approximately XS,000 
acrer. of standing pine in Dorchester County., South Sarollca, and will 
market the fall-grown timber while preserving the young trees for future 
growth. As one present loblolly stand is cut, slash pines will be plant- 
ed so as to produce turn entire as well as timber in the future. In 
explaining the purpose of the project Lincoln Green, assistant to the 
president of the Southern, said: "The rapid depletion of our forests 


makes reforestation imperative. Timber can "be produced in the South in 
half the time required in more northern latitudes and by ■..introducing 
slash pine we can extend the naval stores' industry .into territory where 
it is new unknown. The Southern- is undertaking a demonstration of what 
can he done in the South, operating on lands wliichtWere originally pur- 
chased as a source of fuel .supply for "the old' South Carolina* railroad, 
now our Charleston division,' le : shall conduct our operations strictly 
as a business enterprise." A ".■ 

Forest E duct ion on. the Pacific. Coast 

John -Rosegard, forest Engineer-;, in an article appearing, in the 
February number of The Timbcrman presents' some personal -observations in 
regard to reproduction- in the forests Of the West Coasts He states that 
there is hardly a place on the 'Coast where* indications of fire are want- 
ing. In some districts those Indications are of groat age, such as 
■Charred cedar snags standing among large trees 400 years old or older' 
which have no sign whatever of 'burns, or grand Old fire showing charred 
bark standing thinly scattered : among a new generation of hemlock and 
cedar "possibly 200 years of age, none of which show, the -scars of a fire. 
Still older signs are pieces r of ^charcoal found under the soil in certain 

Whether there has been a vast fire that swept the West Coast, no 
one can say It is more -probable that there have been many smaller fires 
at various times. The -wettest place on the Coast shows the scars of for- 
est fires, however, and in a season dry enough to burn this district the 
balance of the Coast timber must have been in great danger. 

Fir seed cannot germinate in the damp mantle of mould and moss 
„.-u,- „-u „ always to be found under a heavy stand of any species of timber,, 
lix a. ixo-vy stand of either fir or mixed species, reproduction is consist- 
ently hemlock. • , - ' - 

"A burn will invariably grow a thick stand of young fir - mixed with 
alder -If- the soil is good.- Among alder,. young firs grow tall and clean 
trying "to gain the sunlight, above the tops of the "alder, which grow? 
faster," E\ r cntually the alder is smothered, out, leaving a thick stand of 
fir -or* 'medium size and grade,- If there is no alder the fir grows limbs 
from the ground up, and as the /trees -become large the bottom limbs die and 
drop off , leaving knotty trunks. This results usually in a stand of small , 

• -45- •:...'• •• 

knotty timber with much rot. But the new generation -gr aw s- tall and clean 
of trunk, seeking sunlight through the tops of the older growth. 

As the mould and moss accumulated under the fir in the Coast for- 
ests hemlock encroached and gradually took full sway, with a scattering 
of fir and an occasional cedar. A few exceptions to this rule include 
gravelly hillsides with south slopes where hemlock, having only surface 
roots, cannot gain a footing. 

Certain "burns that never reproduced timber were called natural 
prairies by the settlers, but are -really areas which the Indians made 
their homes and over which they ran fires time and again. On some large 
areas of logged-off land no reproduction of conifers occurred, obviously 
"because small tracts were burned over as they were logged, each new fire 
sweeping over the old "burn and killing all the seed that had germinated. 

White pine is found quite commonly at an elevation of 3,000 to 
4,000 feet on the Coast, usually"in a. dwarf stand of other species but 
sometimes finely developed among large firs and hemlocks. 

Red cedar grows everywhere from sea level to 4,000 feet up. Yel- 
low cedar never comes "below an elevation of 3,000 feet in Washington. 

"Spruce propagates only in heavy, rich soil. On open land it grows 

at a rnirpri sing rite hut his liniba.-.frora the ground up. imong other tim- 
ber it grows but little faster than other species. 

Tree Census Conpletedin Southern Fine 

A detailed survey of the remaining timber stands in. the .Southern 
Pine producing territory, from North Carolina to Texas, has been complet- 
ed by the Southern Pine Association for the second. time in five years. 
The results of this "census of the trees" have now been tabulated with 
sufficient completeness to indicate general conclusions in regard not 
only to the present forest area but also to the volume of lumber produc- 
tion that may be expected from this territory in future years. 

The survey has shown that since 1919 the available stands, of mer- 
chantable southern pine timber have- decreased from about 260 billion 
board feet to 220 billion feet; and that production has increased to 
such an extent that the 1924 cut was approximately 16 billion feet, which 
is close to the maximum production for any year. 


llc~ tree growth is estimated at about 7 hill ion feet 'a year; 
Since the average annual' cut. during the period I?l?-"i'v7:4 v- ; ~.:> 1.0 "billion 
fsetj this rneaiii.-, a yearly rectiiC-bicn in one ^^-.ifocr btwaJ..':- during ihat 
period of 8 billion feet, 

The extent "of new grcnth., the survey- iridic at es, is such that 
the annual pieditc^ipn of, southern pine w ill: never fall "below 1 S' or 7 
"billion feet a year"; there' is thus assured a pe/oetnal supply of south- 
ern pine, in volume at least equal to one-half the pie&ent production, 
and much more than that when S"Cate and~natio»al reforestation programs 
rcr under way are made fully effective, — Polder of Southern Fine _ Asso- 
ciation. ...- . • .. . ..•• •.— • •:: ■ '-••- ' ' -'--• '-- -'-- 

._ ■ Control ■ of Western Pine Beetle 

An experiment r-r, started in the agi'e&tfa" national Forest in 
1920 to detV; riiie Whether bircct control measures against an endemic in- 
festaticn cl roscem pine "beetles would result in saving enough timber 
to pry currently ,fpr the work->- (indorse 'inf estatio'ns are nor considered 
to bc'vhor.r; in which -the insects are killing annually less bhan one~half . 
of 1 per cent, of the .stand or on the average leas: than 100 hoard feet per 
acre,) The : o c j acti'Ves of this project were to reduce endemic Iocs of thus 
nature by' direct control measures, consisting of cutting the- -inf est cd : 
trees and destroying the insect broods in the bark* also r "hythe same 
methods to prevent cr forestall ^epidemics arising from endemic-condi- . 
tiens. Aside from carrying . on .this .work with, varying intensity on a 
series of units j 'an analysis was made'of the infestation developing on 
chock areas where no control work was done. 

The final results of this .experiment will be: available -"sometime 
in the yja< ! ' 1 ?0i) , rata' now on Iiand* indi cat e that only intensive '^ork, 
that is the treating of all infested trees that can be located, ran &p~ 
pre^i?h';.7 ved^-e endemic losses and -eliminate -about .90 per.rc-eht of- the' 
seasonal in.-:;-j;..av-"Lon, Such. work casts S3 to 45 cents; per- acre. PrVn 
the cost figi-ee obtained from this ,Q''p or iment^-st 1 aspage- value .s-rjust" •' 
range from $7 'to ■•$'£2 per M-,"BVM,. in order. to. put- the cost of the- 'wcilr'on 
the right side" of the 'ledger;,' 

• A 

These results,, if proven .conclusively, ^Hl nodhy -the policy vhat * 

has heret j/or*vb'^'jn ieil^od in the cohere!., of than boetlov' Until' the-' 
present tine control wene has been consx'dered warrant'ed if directed against 


an info station in accessible timber whero any aggressive tendencies 
were noticeable, even though losses were low. It now appears that -un- 
less loss expensive methods can be evolved c control work under present 
stumyage of yellow pine in this district cannot bo applied to 
advantage except where relatively high epidemic losses prevail. Where 
annual losses are as high as 1 per. c-ent of the stand a saving can be 
qffected by direct- control methods if stumpage values oxceed $4.50 
per M. , „,-,,,'.'.'.. , .-' - r\. 

Erie County Keeps Elbert Hubbard's Memory G-reen with Trees 

The East Aurora Fish and Game Club of Erie County, New York, 
annually celebrates May 7 as "Hubbard Memorial and Reforestation Day" 
by planting forest trees upon i& land. , .It planted 25,000 trees 
in 1923 and 52,500 in 19S4, and several wmths ago its plans for 1925 
called for the. planting, of .179,000-, - This numb of will bo nuch increased 
by the time, cf planting, for the club ' coram: t tee has been actively sign-' 
ing up applications with owners of idle 'land, 1 • 

•In order to establish cordial relations with the neighboring farmers 
and to convince them that the reforestation of idle lands will benefit 
the entire- commurity, the club has been presenting illustrated talks on 
forestry at meetings of granges and other farmer organizations. Announce- 
ment is made at these meetings of the club's offer to furnish 500 trees 
and plant them an land belonging to any of its members. Membership costs 
$1.50. The, club also agrees to provide additional trees at cost, plus 
transportation from the nursery to the farm, and to plant them without 
charge. .---,- -, r: - - 

The trees are obtained from the nursery of the New Tor k State Con- 
servation Commission, and are planted through the assistance and coopera- 
tion of the Boy Scouts. 

The program for 1925 was started last fall when the club had an 
exhibit featuring reforestation at the county fair in Hamburg, Hew York. 
The plan was then introduced to farmers and landowners, and initial ar- 
rangements were made for the lecture program which, has continued through; . 
the winter. 

The. club has set as its goal the reforestation of ©very foot of 
waste- or nonproductive land in Erie County. 


Redwood Grove Named for Dean Graves 

The Henry S. Graves Redwood Grove is to bo established 10 ndles 
south of Crescent City, California, in honor of the provost of Yale 
University and dean of the Yale Forestry School. The tract of timber- 
land acquired for the purpose consists of 157 acres and las a stand of 
about 12,000,000 feet of giant redwoods, "besides other valuable forest 
growth. The purchase of the tract was nado possible through the activi- 
ties of George Frederick Schwartz, member of a well-known family of ium- 
b or. -en J and it is' by his.wish that the grove will "be dedicated to Boon 
Grave:;, • It is intended to complete the purchase of the tract in the 
near- future and to make it a public par k.--Ya!-e- Alumni VTeekly. 

Tut , Tut- 1 

"There is no nood to state" that timber, more than any other -raw 
material, supplies man with the' means .of . satisfying- a great many -of his 
essential requirements. But certain trees on -.the other hand are- .po si- 
. . tivplyv harmful,. There are some which t if approached too- hear, may end 
one 1 s existence. v A -vegetable octopus in South America once nearly 
kill ed\ a _ naturalist and his dog,, while, there is a 'cannibal 5 tree in 
Australia capable 'of trapping a man with. Ifs "leaves anl mangling the life 
out "of -him V. The .'telegraph trep' of Lvdia also has! electrical qualities 
which can. kill a top-curious- ■person with a '* eak.h car t^-'— Timber Trades 
Journal, London, No. 40.. : -"-~- i 

We are pained 'to see- our- esteemed, contemporary n< 'gleet the North 
American continent in the above ob'servati en s. Sur ly. 'it has heard of 
Our " sandbagger n tree which carefully hoards its dead lower, limbs in 
£idcr, to drop a devastate ry cudgel upon an innocent pa?~crby. Then 
there, is bui* -"l^igarqo" tree which is chiefly peevish during cold, frosty 
•"weather.. If the woodsman attenpts to fell one in such a season and gets 
back of the tree as it starts- to fall . it is likely to kick hack several 
■ feet' a;id land- him in t ho ■nearest hospital - :r or beyond. Fortunately a 
VVno tch' method, of hobbling, hh'e kangaroo tree so it cannot kick hack has 
heen devised;... against '' the- sandbagger. tree no adequate protection except 
vigilance and caution- -has yet. bce'h'.dev el cped. —Lumber World Review. 

'. '-, . A -forest- -product of the utmost importance to lumenity is paper, 
and -the 'largest use? > 'Importer,,- and ma'ar.Cc'cturor of this pi o duct is the 
United State s-i-' Uncle Sara. 'already us $s. -SI per cent of Canada's pulpwood 

•'•.■ ,-•.•"•'••' ',-.-, '.. "-4'9-. ' " 

cut, 32 per cent of her pulp, and 79 per cent of her newsprint procbic- tri 
tion, also 10 per cent of Sweden's pulp and smaller amounts from other coun-/ 
We depend upon other nations for more than half of the wood represented 
in the paper we consume notwithstanding the fa(?t that our original for- 
ests, the finest in the world, contained more than enough for all con- 
ceivable needs of the cotjntry if only a portion of them had "been prop- 
erly managed. Canada, our chief reliance for paper and paper materials, 
may soon have xxse for all her pulpwood forests. 

In Canada 90 per cent of the forests are publicly owned. In con- 
trast with this 53 per cent of the forest resources are publicly owned 
in Germany, 35 per cent in France, 24 per cent in Sweden, and only 20 
per cent in the United States. It may be questioned if Canada's percent- 
age is unnecessarily high, but the United States needs a greater propor- 
tion of public forests. In Canada, so far, exploitation exceeds the 
amount expended upon the public forests; in the United States the expense 
to date exceeds the income. 

A significant "sign of the times" is reported from Bogalusa, la., 
where the Great Southern Lumber Company has abandoned for all time the 
use of its huge refuse burner, gr"sid to be the largest in the world. The 
company states that all its waste materials are now needed for the paper 
and pulp mills and other by-products industries centered at Bogalusa. 
The waste burner will be allowed to stand, however, as "a monument and 
memorial to waste." 

The H. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston- Sal em, N. C. , has noti- 
fied the chief firewarden of Washington that packages of cigarettes and 
smoking tobacco prepared by it for shipment to that State hereafter will 
contain the following printed notice: "Help prevent forest fires. Be 
careful to avoid dropping burning matches, lighted cigars or cigarettes, 
and ashes from pipes where they might start a fire." — American Lumberman. 


gOKgXCT IT0T5S • •: 

" Sav e_ the "Forest TJeek" proclaimed fcr Canada 

By Boyal Proclamation the week of April 19 to 25 inclusive wa.s 

appointed- to "bo observed, in Canada as ."Save the Forest Week, " Such an 
annual observance is regarded a,- one of the principal developments of 
the movement which originated in Canada only last year. 

The statistics of the several forest authorities of the Dominion 
show that through the occurrence of forest -fires the forest resources 
have suffered enormous losses far exceeding the depletion in timber 
wealth through legitimate cutting operations. 

. The proclamation emphasized that next to agriculture the forest 
industries constitute the most important source of Canada's national 
income; and that according to the"" experience of all forest authorities 
in the Dominion the forest fire problem can he solved only, with the 
full sympathy, 'assistance, and active support of all the people. Sug- 
gestions were included as. to the precautions which should he observed 
by settlers and others engaged in the clearing of the land, by campers, 
and by timber operators. — Natural Resources, Canada. 

Australia Plants Large Acreage 

■ It is slowly coming to be recognized, in Australia that there is 
very great necessity for the establishment of softwood reserves. The. 
matter has for years received much verbal attention,- but so far. very 
little has been done in a practical way. The establishment of 40,000 
acres of pine reserves around Anglesey Victoria, which has now been un- 
dertaken, is the largest softwood planting yet planned in Victoria if 
not in Australia. Parts not sua. table for pines are to bo planted in 
wattle, and in some areas natural growths will not be disturb cd. The 
land to be planted, which is now practically a wilderness, will in about 
30 years time be : a very .valuable forest area. The' Victorian Forestry 
Department holds about 5,000 acres, the. rest being, held by the Lands 
Department.. The director of the Victorian State. Forest School, Mr. 
G. E. Carter, received his training in Forestry in America. 


Robin Hood Oaks Still Grow in Sherwood Forest 
By Nelson Courtlandt Brown 

A recent visit to Nottingham and Mansfield disclosed the fact that 
many of the famous old trees which formed a part of the great Sherwood 
Forest in the days of Robin Hood and his "merrie foresters" clad in Lin- 
coln green are still standing. They are pointed out with a great deal 
of interest to all of the many tourists visiting this "beautiful region 
which contains some of the "best examples of old castles, deer parks, and 
estates of the English nobility. 

Originally Sherwood Forest stretched from Lincoln on the east to 
Bakewell and Chetsworth in Derbyshire on the west. Many of the original 
trees are still standing in Chetsworth Park and these are said to he some 
of the finest examples of remnants of the old original Sherwood caks. 
The forest also stretches from Nottingham on the south to Sheffield on 
the north. 

Since the days of the famous exploits of Richard the Lion-hearted 
and his faithless brother King John this region has given way to great 
industrial and agricultural development, and much of the original forest 
has been sacrificed to provide agricultural areas for the rapidly in- 
creasing population. 

Robin Hood and his merry band flourished in the years 1170-1200. 
Many eld hxsfco'a; :1c nrxi3£ ap.r,o:;iated with their romantic feats and exploits 
are still in use. Mcsi" of the ooks vhiah composed the original forest 
are great g~avl 66. gpe^iTDene ol oho l,-v;'i ish whi te oak sometimes called 
the Pedunculate cak.- /Jfeny of these eld trees are named and bear little 
markers placed to express their significance in connection with the life 
of Robin Hood. For example, one is kno^n as Robin Hood's Larder, another 
is -known as the Queer. ! s Oak, and still another, in Thoresby Fark, as the 
Major Oak. The Major Oak is believed to be over 1.000 years of age. It 
is hollow,, and it is said that 23 men have been able to get into it at 
one time. -Thousands of dollars' worth of steel rods and chains support 
the widely branch <ng limbs. The Queen Oak is one of the few trees still 
standing in England that were described in x, he famous pcrr^sday Book. 

The forest is a region of chaTming valleys, lovely rolling hill- 
sides , and pro sp ercus. ; vil lnges. 

On the Duke of Portland's game preserve there is a large hollow 
oak where Robin. Hood is ?aid to have hung deer and other game which he 
poached from the king's domain"." Unfortunately this fine old oak, although 


protected and cared for at great expense, is in the last stages of de- 
terioration and will not long be available for the pleasure and delight 
of the many visitors. 

Near Edwins tow e is another interesting grove of old oaks some of 
which are said to be 1 ,700 or more years of age. 

Norway's 34itual Forest Fire Insurance Prospers 

The Norwegian Forest Eire Insurance Company has made the follow- 
ing report for the year ending October 31, 1924: 

After the necessary provisions had been made for special funds 
satisfactory profits resulted, all of which were transferred to the re- 
serves cf the company. The reserves have now been increased to 1,723,000 
crowns. (At the present rate of exchange the Norwegian crown is worth 
about 16 cents.)" The insurance for, 1924 amounted to 345 .,000 ,00C crowns, 
compared with 330,000,000 crowns in 1923. The company has extended its 
activities to every province in the country, and more than 7C per cent of 
all private forests in" the" southern section of Norway have been covered 
by this insurance. (Forests in the northern part of Norway are unimpor- 
tant.) In addition to p'ri'wafc r forests the majority of the municipal fcr- 
"•jc; ard la covrty iVre.rLs ivv/ >. -.//o 3 . i'rv ;'.:■>&-; -i-.^Jt . 

. : Noiway Xa no-" doubt the pionoajr ootiiitry i-i forest fire insurance* 
Frcm its-voiy start' in that cvun-ory forest f ire' insurance has been prof- 
itable to ; the stockholder s. ■ It should be emphasized that this is a mutual 
under talcing. ■ 

Canadian Air Service protecting Forests 

The services of the Royal Canadian Air Force are being used by the 
Forestry Branch of the Dominion's Department of the Interior to a large 
and ever-increasing extent. During the year 1924 the Air Force devoted 
practically as many hsurs of flying to forest protection as to distinctly 
military work. Forest reserves including over 3,000,000 acres of forest 
land were covered twice daily by air patrols during the season of fire 
hazard. The success of these operations is proved by the fact that during 
the past four seasons no fires originating in the reserves have got beyond 
control of the nearest district ranger. This work called for 345 hours 
flying during the season.' 


In Manitoba an area of 40,000,000 acres was under observation ' 
frera the- .two. Air Force Stations at Victoria Beach and Norway House,, 
requiring 1,010 hours flying..- Here fire .suppression was undertaken "by 
air as veil as fire-detection .work, the fire-fighting forces with their 
jnrrps aril gear "being transported to the scene of '-the fire "by air. The 
season's work has conclusively proved that in a remote and uninhabited 
area such as this both detection and suppression- can be undertaken to 
the best advantage from the air. 

It is expected that a smaller machine of lower horse-power than 
those now in us.e or included in present construction plans, which would 
be cheaper to construct and cheaper to. maintain, will be developed to 
perform fire-detection duties. Probably when wireless intercommunica- 
tion is perfected and efficient patrol systems are available in the 
country a light single -seat er machine can carry out these duties, at 
very greatly reduced costs. — Illustrated Canadian Forest and Outdoors. 

Old Sol- Fails tp Cooperate 

The British Meteorological Department has issued a warning that 
the year 1925 will be the driest of the century. This prediction is 
based upon a new discovery in regard to the close connection existing 
between rainfall and the frequency of solar prominences. The latter 
are explained to be tongues of flaming gas that dart out from the sun»s* 
surface, sometimes to a height of 250,000 miles and at a speed of more 
than 150 miles an hour. By three years study experts have learned that 
the interval between the dates when these giant fireworks are most ac- 
tive has grown progressively shorter during the last half century, while 
the periodicity of wet years in England has shown a corresponding change. 
The mathematical curves indicate a relationship that is too definite to 
be overlooked; and the experts assert that if any faith can bo placed 
in the constancy of the solar prominences the year 1925 should be a dry 
one for England and a droughty, one for the rest of the world. 

Hew Uses Found for Scotch Pine •■ 

German scientists are reported to have found away to manufacture 
material closely resembling wool by chemically treating the leaves of 
the Scotch pine. It is said that this new substance can be spun, curled, 
and woven* One of the uses to which it is being put is a stuffing for 
mattresses. The aromatic odor makes the mattresses insect-proof and 
also agreeable and beneficial te sleepers, especially patients in hos- 
pitals. — Forest Leaves. 




■ P2EI-S0IU L5 . - 

Paul-.D. Kelleter, formerly Director of .Purchases and Sales for 
the- Department, of y^ricuLture,:. has just "been •appointed .head of . the "Bit- ■ 
tension Department' of the'-ITew -York. State College of 'Forestry- I'x. 
Kelleter succeeds Mr. Earl 3. Peirce,' resigned. 

Mr. Kelleter was graduated from Washing ton University at St. " 
Louis in 1902 wi th~ the- degree of B..4.-,,.'ahd. veCt=gfek' the degree # .of- Mas- 
ter of Forestry at Yal& in 19o4i— r HO entered the -Forest Service on July 
1, 19Q4, as forest assistant and -Was • for." several, years in California ^en- 
gaged in special forest, and market studies. • ■••In.. 1906' he was sent to the 
Black Hills in South- Dakota and Wyoming and 'directed the. classification 
of timber and agricultural lands. 1&,1?Q# ifri- Kelleter was- promoted to 
Forest Supervisor of, the Black 'Hills.. National-- forest, which comprises 
1»25Q,000 acres. In" this '.position he was responsible for extensive re- 
forestation and timber utilization projects and fire protection plana. 
From 1910 to 1912 Mr. Kelleter served as representative of tho federal 
Government and chairman of the board to effect the. exchange of scattered 
3Chool sections belonging to Sruth. Dakota for -a compact tract of land - ... 
now the South Dakota Statn Park. ~ :'?.' :" ' 

Mr. Kelleter was transferred, to Washington in 1918 to take charge 
ftf tho information work of the Service, and in 1920 became Assistant 
Chief of the Branch of Operation. In 1923 the Secretary of Agriculture 
appointed him Director of Purchases and Sales to organize, and- coordinate 
th* purchase activities of the entire- department to. conform to the re- 
quirements of the budgetary legislation of -the* Federal Government. 

Dr. Perley Spaulding has been .appointed forest pathologist for 
the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. -His appointment is one of 
the two mads possible this year through an increase in one .of- the' appro- 
priations for pathological work by the Bureau of Plant Industry. Dr. .. 
Spaulding has long been familiar with conditions in thevregion of the 
Northeastern Station and is. the world' s foremost authority on -'the white 
pine blister rust, which- will .for raoy 7^6 t> . ccrae- be .one o-i* tho vical 
problems of N"<sw England forestry.' .'-'"•' , ,- .--..' ' '• "'-' . 


At the thirteenth wrmual meeting of the New York State For- 
estry Association, held in Albany, Representative; John D-'Xlarke, well 
known for his work in connection with the Clarke-McNary Forestry -I&ct, was 
elected to the executive committee. J. R. Simmons, who. had served the 
association as secretary and forester since 1919, ,was reelected for the 
year 1925. 

W» R. Barbour has accepted the position of forester for Haiti .un- 
der the American Occupation. - 

Thorvald S.- Hansen is now ari' assistant professor in... the University 
of- Minnesota' and is in charge of; the Clbquet Experiment Station in- Minne- 
sota, " '" : "•'•"■• '•"'"•. » : . - '-• 7 

Professor R. C. Hawley, Yale School-' of "Forestry, was elected chair- 
man of the New England Section of the Society of American, Foresters at its 
recent annual, meeting', "The newly elected chairman of the" Central Rocky .j 
Mountain Section is Prof essor 'Gordon 1 Farker of Colorado Springs.,.', 

.Aldo Leopold- was made- vice president of the National Game Confer- 
ence, and attended this- conference ,,4-n. New. York.- -•. ' :c-~ 
sc ■'•', "■ ~ ,'" ■ " -'•'-' "! . 0'! . ■ ' ' 

, v Dean : Hugo Winkenw order x>f Jth©'iiep"artment r of Forestry, University of 
Washington, recently made a visit to the Yale Forest -School' I '""■ " 

'Theodore. G...-Zschokke j Superintendent of ^Forests for- Hawaii^, finds 
.his ''work interesting, worth while, and full .of variety. . He-vff'rites of in- 
specting a large tract now covered wi'ch thorny scrub which the owner wants 
to reforest. Since the place i s ...sw..ep.t a strong trade wind, the owner 
is eager to plant trees having wind-borne soeds. 

i .--- : --:. --': - i - v ■'-■' : - • irj th-f Uhi ' .. 




Fred A. Besley, State Forester of Lfc.ryla.nd, has moved his office 
from the Culvert to the Fidelity Building :'n Baltimore. Besley 
is the oldest State forester in the United States in point oi continuous 
service. in one St/ate, and it is claimed that he is the only State forester 
ahle to deliver a 30-minute. speech' in 28 ninu .;. 

C. C. Robertson write?, of a most interesting: tour in India and 
Australia. In Australia he was impressed with the: need .for a really good 
forest school. 

,'Mr, L. C. Everard, formerly Chief of Publications, of the Forest 
Service, 'has returned to the Service as Editor. Mr, -Everard rersi : ed in 
1919 to accept the position of Chief, Editor of the" '.' ai it of Agricul- 
ture, and later engaged In publicity work for the War Finance Corporation. 
He has for some years been associated with Findl-ey Burns in, the printing 
and book-selling business in Baltimore as Vice President of the Medical 
Standard Book Company. 

Mr. H. H. Wheeler of the Forest Service has gone on a lecture tour 
through Connecticut and Vermont in which the State Foresters of these 
States are cooperating. He will return to Washington about May 5. 

At the " family meeting" of the Forest Service on April 8 Theodore 
W« ITorcross gave a talk on national forest highways. His remarks were sup- 
plemented by a number of pictures and graphs illustrating the character 
and extent of the various types of roads in use and projected*. 

Mr. W. R. Mattoon of the Washington office of the Forest Service 
recently made an extended trip through South Carolina, Georgia, and Mis- 
sissippi. An interesting feature of his trip was the field demonstration 
meeting on the forestry tract of the Agricultural Experiment Station at 
Sumroeiville, South Carolina, where for 12 years the Forest Service and 
the State together have been experimenting in natural and artificial re- 



Mr. Ellwood wilson, Manager of woodlands for the Laurentide Paper 
Company of Quebec, visited Cornell University in March. He gave four 
illustrated lectures on aerial photographs'- and rapping of forest lands, 
and also discussed the use of the airplane in forest fire prevention and 
control and in other lines of forest management and administration. 

Dr. Arthur Koehler, in charge of the Division of TCood Technology 
of the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory, in March and. April visited a num- 
ber of the eastern forest schools to lecture on the work of the laboratory 
and the opportunities for research in forest products. Arrangements were 
made for him to spend three- days at each of the following schools: Mich- 
igan Agricultural College, University of Michigan, New York State College 
of Forestry, Cornell University, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, 
Yale University, and Pennsylvania State College. 


Recent Books on Forestr y 

Common F ore st Trees of Ark How to Krow Thorn. By John T. Buchholz 
and W. R„ Mattocn. University oi .Arkansas College of Agriculture 
Extension Circular ICO. Fayetteville, Ark. , 1924. 

Federal F orest r- -■-■■-' Ses ar^ F ores t Recr eation. By V. Rhoades. 

North. Carol J i . and Economic Survey Circular No. 9. 

Chapel Hiii, i-i. 'c. , l: . 

Fores t Pla nting in the I", unta ir Ion, By C. F. Korstian and 

F. S. Baker. U. 3. Lep .t. oi Agriculture Bulletin 1264. Washing- 
ton, P. C. t 1925. 

Forest Rese arch Vanual, Canadian Bcp't. of the interior, Forestry 
Branch, Ottawa', 1925. 

Forestry in Can ada. Canadian Bureau of Statistics. Ottawa, 1925. 

Forest Research: ' The Basi s' fo r Sorjd Bevel opment of No rth Carolina' s 
Fo rest hi, '. us cri es. By. E. . H, IrotMngham, North Carolina Forestry Asso- 
ciafcion„ '.Wilmington, IT. C. , 1924. 

Forest R esou rces cf Pew H ampshire . New Hampshire Forestry* Bep't. 
Concord, N. H. s 192,5. 

Crazing Fees ; Hearings. U. S. Congress, House Committee ",n Agriculture. 
Washington, D<T C. , 1925, 

G-rowth of Ea c glyptus in Cali f ami a Plant at j one. By W. Motcalf-. 
California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin GCO. 
Berkeley,. Calif. , 1924/ 

Making the Farm Wocdlot Pay, in Northeast. Terras, Office of the State 
Forester Bulletin* 15, College Station, Texas., 1924. 

Manu al of For estry. Fi fth Edition, Vol , _3j_ Fo rest Ivfanagement , Including 

M en s arc i i on arj d A"a~j ua i i c n . By W. Schlich. Bradbury, Agnew, & Co. 
London, 1925. 


Natural Res ou rces of Qu ebec Natural Resources Intelliges^jss Service, 
Canadian Dep't. of the Interior. Ottawa, 1924. 

Packing for Foreig n Fnrkcts . By J. i?. Keeley. U. S. Dept. of Commerce 
Trade Promotion Series No. 1. Washington,. ,D.« C. , 1924. 

Practi cal fo res t M an agement: A Handbook with Special Reference to the 
U njte d ?i evinc es ci Ag ra artd Oa dh, By C. G-. .Trevor and E. A. Smythies. 
Government press, Allahabad, India, 1923. 

Pepo.rfr'for" the Y ear B idi ng June 30, 193 4, U. S.' national Forest Reserva- 
tion Co;v^i -.3-:. j. on . "TTaehington, D. C. , 1925. 

Studi e s ori'the "^ ru'ce'Sudwrm. ■. By J. M; Swain e and Others. Canadian 
Dep't'. of Agriculture Bulletin 37. Ottawa, 1924. 

State for est ry To -day - General Federation of Women' s Clubs, Forestry 
Committee Bulletin 2. Fay ett evil le', Pa. , 1924. . 

The Am erican Oaks. By T7. Trelease. national Academy of Sciences, 
Memoirs, vol. 20. Washington , ' D . C. , 1924. 

Tre e Pro tec tion Examining Board. Se cond Re port Covering the Three 
! ear s Fr -'. i ng Jun e ,30. , 1924 . .Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station 
Bulletin 263. new Haven, Conn., 1924. 

Th e Rainbo w F orest P l antations . By H. "7. Hi cock, Connecticut Agricultural 
Exp eriment Station Bulletin 262. new Haven, Conn., 1924. 

The Cp -at r ol_ of the ..Destructive- Sp r uce Bark Beetle in Eastern Canada . 
By <JVM<. Sffiairie, Canadian Dep't. of Agriculture Pamphlet 48. 
Ottawa, 1924 

A rticles in Current Periodicals 

A Report of an Investigation to Determine the C«usre of the Death of Cer- 
tain Pines in the Soxttheyn State's, From Alabama. to Texas, During 
1924, by R. A, St. G-corge, AMERICAN LUMBERMAN, March 21, 1925.. 

Air Seasoning of lumber in the"' Inland .Empire, by S t Y. Fullaway, Jr., 
and E. E. Hibert,. TmiRi/AN, March, 1925. ■ * 


Adjustment of Stumpage Prices, in Long-Tern Sales, "by T. S. 77 olsey, 
Jr., JOURNAL OF FORESTRY, March, 1925. 

A- Key- to' the Identification of Some Coniferous Seedlings, by C, G» 
Bates, JOURNAL OF FORESTRY, March, 1025: 

Classification of Growing Timber for Purposes of Taxation and Ex- ' 
' March, 1925, . - ....„>. 

... .Composition of the Oleoresin of Douglas Fir, "by H. K. Benson and 1). F. 
'McOaitgy, INDUSTRIAL. AKB "EN& INEE£i HTG- CHEMISTRY, Feb., 1925 u 

,. Examination of the Dissolved Tar from the Carbonization of Hard Maple, 
by L. K' Eavrley- and'-H. 'N, .Sal dor wood,- INDUSTRIAL. 4tD ENGINEERING 
CHEMISTRY, Feb., 1925. 

Experiment Station 'ttbrk in:" Lake States, by. R. Zon, LUMBER TORLD REVIEW, 
Feb., 10, 1925. 

Education" in Forestry', by H. S. Graves, JOURNAL OF FORESTRY, Feb., 1925. 

Economic Resaits of Improved Methods of Grazing, by J. H. Hatton, 

Forestry and the Farmer, by W. 3. Greeley, SUCCESSFUL FARMING, December, 
1924c - : 

Forest Depletion and Need for Reforestation, by E. G. Griggs, TIMBERMAN, 
Feb,, 1925. • ■ • ' 

Flexible Rptabion in American Forest Organization, by 3. P. Kirkland, 

Forest Types of the Northern Swamps, by G. Stewart, JOURNAL OF FORESTRY, 
Feb. , 1925.' 

Fifty Thousand Firebrands, Dy e. T. Allen* "AMERICAN FORESTS 'AND FOREST 
LIFE, March 1925-.- " . : 

Forest Management on Forest Lands, by T7. 3. Greeley, JOURNAL OF FORESTRY, 
March 1925; : -'- - -^\ ; ■•' t T •■;:; .- • ,...,. , - , 

Forest Protection: Diseases, by E. P. Moinecke and J. S." Boyce. JOURNAL 
of Forestry. 


Forest Mensuration To-day, "by D. Bruee and 'C -E. " Behre. JOURNAL OF IE- - 
ESTRY, March 1925. ■ "' 

Growing the Trees at Bogalusa ,_ La. , for Great Southern Lumber Company, 
by J. K. Johnson. LUMBER MANUFACTURER AND DEALER, Feb. 6, 1935. 

Grant-land forest", Dixieland' s Pirst:Pina-Plant.ed ^oods, By W. E. Mattoon. 

GrovfthCiaM Its Relation to Thinning, by C. H. .Guise, JOURNAL OF FORESTRY, 
Feb„ ; 1935, •- -• _ -■ 

Grazing in Pine. Plantations., by J. A. Pope, JOURNAL OF FORESTRY, March 
1925. ■;;■ -_ "re '■ 

Gathering and Extracting Red Pine S e ed, by A. H-." Richardson:, 'JOURNAL "OF 
. :"FORi;STRY -, Wa? ch -192 5* . , T _. 

How Ma£. States Best Finance forestry, by G. Vaughn, BULLET IN" OF THE: ' 

Is There a Solution to. Our.^orest Problem, by T. F. Hunt, JOURNAL OF 
FORESTRY, Feb. ,' 1925/ ' "'" . ' "■ : 

Lumb or- Statistics: Their Interpretation and. Use, by C. 3. Keith, 
LUMBER "jORLD REVIEW, March '25, 1925.' ' ' ■ 

.Measurement af -Xvcxg Plantation Plots,. by. G. A. Muiley, JOURNAL OF FOR- 
ESTRY, March, 1925," " '"- : ° "■" "'■''-' •".■.. 

Our • Imported, Sbratogi9 I'orest^pducts^ by J. .H. Pratt, MILITARY ENGINEER, 
March - April, 1925. '-'-'" ■''■'■ ; "' 

, On.. the -Trail c-f Mahogany,, by T- H. Gill, YALE FOREST SCHOOL NEWS, April, 
1925. '-- 3^<r-:? -•. •:-'." 

Putting -our Idl-e /orest-. Acres, to, V.ork., by W. 3. Greeley, REVIEW OF RE- 
VIEWS, Feb., 1925. " " "~ ''' '" *~ '■'- • '"-' ' - :-c • ■ •.-,' 

'.Prospects of paper Making in -the. Souths "oy A. Cary, LU1.DER TRADE JOURNAL, 
March 1, 1925. ' "' ! ' ' :: - : - ■'• " "■ "" : . , 

Romances- of Industry: Lumber, -by. 1,. Compton, AMERICAN INDUSTRIES, Feb., 
1925. """ ' '•-'•• - : ■ ' "• -"'■■ •■JO. : :.'c:iro -..---■-;. '-;.-' 


Results of Kiln Drying Fir, by C. W. Gould, AHERidAlT LUMBERMAN, Feb. 

Revised Volume Tables for Second- Growth Reduced, by D. Bruce and F. X. .. 
Schumacher, JOURNAL OF FORESTRY, Feb., 1925. -..••-;". \r. ' : 

Recreational . •Limitations to : -' J ST±vi culture in the Adirondacks, by R. 
Marshall, JOURNAL OF FORESTRY, Feb., 1925. , ., 

Repairing Damage frcn'Snor Bercung, by A F» Moss, JOURNAL OF FORESTRY, 
March, 1925. 

State ^crests and , State Forest Darks- for Recreational Use, by R. Y. 
Stuart, FOREST LEAVES, Feb., 1925. 

Sowing and Flatiffng '^iii'es in trie South, by W. R. Mat toon, AMERICAN. 
LUMBERMAN, March 7 5 1925. 

Si lvi cultural Practice in the Unite! States During the Past Quarter 
Century, by J. F. Preston and R. C. Havrley, JOURNAL . pF- FOREUIRY^' ' 
March, 1925. >; _ _g. . ' ' ' ■ .. . . - **■ 

The Forest Service is Sticking to Its Job, by.W. ,D.. .Greeley,, OUTDOOR, ' 

March 4, 1925. - .- .. -• ..-.-■ '■ : ' 

The Diagnosis of^.D-'ocay in tf'ood, \r S. E. Hubert , U,. S. BeptU of -Agri- \ . 
culture, JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH'/ ' Dec, . 1, 1924.= 

Trees: A study for Lumberman., by E. J. Hanziik, FOUR L BULLETIN,^ _ .. .„.«.. 
Feb. , 1925c .„, , . -vv i. "*" " "' " '.. 

'se of Decayed Wood in. .Bleached, Sulphite Pulp , 'by : J... D._ 
raphrey, PAPER 'lOLL' AND w'OOd'fULP NET7S, Jan, 21, "I9?5. ' 

The Use of Decayed Wood in. 31 cached Suluhite Pulp , 'by J,. D. Rue" and -C-. J. 

The ^ork of Twenty-five Years in R-et-r^ rpfeck" and l n\n Rro ?£,•<? ot,. by C. D. 

Tree Planting Along evards, P and. r lfc£OT ^Etgi^ayc- V by "R. J. Eayden, 
AMERICAN CITY, Feb., .1325 «• "'" ' 

The United States as a Market for Tropical Forest Products, by W. D 4 
Greeley, BULLElDf ?AN-AMF_RICA.w UcJlO'N, April, 192a. 


The Business of Growing Trees, by W. 3, Greeley, AMERICAN LUMBERMAN, 
March 21 , 1925. 

The Need of Forest He search in the Southern App ( ?,lachian Region, by 
J. H u Pratt, SOUTHERN LUMSSRMAi'./Mai-ch V 1925, 

The -Properties and Uses of Wood in P. elation to Its. Structure, hy 
P. Groom, TIMBER IKADLS JQIHOUL, JfarcH 14. 1925. 

The' Challenge of Woodless- Lands, 'hy P. 0, Louden, AMERICAN 'FORESTS 
AMD FOREST LIFE, March, 1325. . , 

The Bogey of 'Compound Interest, by W. Shepard, JOURNAL DP FORESTRY^ 
March, 1925. 

Utilization and Conservation of the Timber Supply, by .R. H. Golley, 
'SCIENCE, Jan, 30, 1925. ■ " 

Use of Preliminary Impregnation in Cooking Wood by the -^lkaiine Process, 
by S. D. Wells and Others, PAPER TRADE JOURNAL, %rch 12,. 1925. 

Weights of ^ome South African Grown Woods with Special Reference to the. 
Eucalyptus, by N. B. Eckbo and If. H. Scott, SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OP 
INDUSTRIES, January, 1925. ..''.'' -■' 

Wooden Overcoats, Being an Account of Thirty Centuries of the Use of 
Wood in Burial Cases, by R. K.. Helphanstine, Jr. t . AMERICAN. FORESTS 
AND FOREST LIFE, Feb., -1925. 

What Forestry Policy Should California Adopt, by C. A. Schenck, CALIFOR- 

N IA JOURNAL . OF DEVELOPMENT ; March, 1925.' • • - ;. 

Where Your Treasure Lies, by T. W. Norcrc-ss, OUTDOOR AMERICA, March^ 
1925. : ^ 


Publications Issued "by the Forest Service from 
March 1, 1925, to April 30, 1925 

Department Circular 211, Government Forest Work, Revised, 1924. 

Miscellaneous Circular 31, Let's Know Some ^rees. 

Forest Statistics - Intermountain District. 

American Forest Week (April 27-May 3, 1925). 

Miscellaneous Circular 39, Report of the National Conference on Utiliza- 
tion of Forest Products. 

Farmers' Bulletin 1428, Saving Livestock from Starvation on Southwestern 


;ii> '.iii-. > 

,,-_ «.,. ~~. ■.- . i ■ 

-..-.; v.. t ■- 

of South Carolina 

JULY, 1925. 




T E 3 r R 3 S T '7 C R K E 3 

July, 1S25 

Publish e r 1 bimonthly by the Forest Service, 
U. S, Department of Agriculture, 77a shin/ - ; ton, D. G 



State forestry departments and organizations, 

Education and extension 

Tor est Service notes 

General forest nens 

Foreign notes 

Personals . . . 

Articles, bibliographies, and publications . . 



Positions Open for Extension Foresters 

A number of States are looking for men to handle the farm for- 
estry extension v/ork upon which they are about to enter in cooperation 
with the Federal Government under -the provisions of the Clarke-McNary Act. 

An applicant for a position as extension forester should have good 
training and personality and a capacity for organization, and should have 
head experience in similar work. The position involves a considerable 
amount of field activity, including the examination of woods, outdoor 
demonstrations, public speaking, and meeting with county agents -and with 
groups of farmers for detailed planning. This is interspersed with 
periods in the office devoted to correspondence and to the preparation of 
publicity material and reports. The salaries offered range from $1,500 to 
$3,000 or $3,500. 

Foresters interested in such positions can obtain full information 
from G. H. Colli ngwood. Forest Service, Washington, D. C. 

College Position Open 

A position as director of research in the retail lumber industry 
is to be established by Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio, with the 
cooperation of the Ohio Association of Retail Lumber Dealers. This col- 
lege maintains a coordinated program by which the two halves of the stu- 
dent body alternate between study and industrial work. In a letter from 
the dean of the college, Philip C. Wash, it is stated that the duties of 
the person appointed to this position will be to outline and teach courses 
in the retail lumber field, to study the retail lumber business in Ohio in 
cooperation with other colleges of the State, and to attract students and 
assist in finding employment for them. Some public speaking will be re- 
quired. Candidates should have had some business success and experience 
in the retail lumber business. A college graduate is preferred. The be- 
ginning salary offered is $4,000. 


S cholarship Offered ir. Ohio 

A $4-, CCO scholarship ir - r ~& college or university ir. Ohio is 
offeree 1 , by Representative Martin L. Davey to the high school hoy or girl 
in the State who writes the best essay on forest conservation. The con- 
test is open to all regular hlwh school students in Ohio, inducting this 
year's senior classes and next year's freshman classes. Essays are lim- 
it eel to 500 words and must he in the hands of the judges hy January 1, 
1926. The dinner will he announced on Arbor pay of 192S* The contest is 
being managed hy the conservation division of the Ohio Federation of 
women's Clubs, which will furnish a limited amount of useful and informa- 
tive printed natter to contestants. 

Charles Lathrop pacl: Forestry prize 

The conditions under which the Charles Lathrop Pack forestry prize 
of $500 will he awarded this year have heen announced hy the Society of 
American Foresters as follows: 

"The 1925 prize will he awarded for the paper which presents con- 
cisely, and in such a v:ay as to v e understood hy the average intelligent 
lay reader, the "rest contribution to the advancement of forestry The 
contribution may consist of original results of the author's work, or 
may cover a new viewpoint or new presentation of already known facts or 
principles. Each paper will be limited to 10,000 words" in length, and 
may include a reasonable amount of illustrations if essential' The manu- 
script must be typewritten, and must be submitted to the Chairman of 
the Committee, Earrin,~ton Mcor e, 925 pari: Avenue, New York , on or before 
November 1, 1925. The manuscript rill net % e signed, but each author 
will write the title of his paper, together with his name and address, 
on a slip of paper which he will place in a sealed envelope, labeled 
"Author's Haras" and enclose with the manuscript. 

"The competition is open to all associate members, members, senior 
members and fellows of the Society of American poresters in good standing. 
The award will be announced at the annual meeting of the Society. 

"The Society reserves the right to withhold the prise if in its 
judgment an award is not justified." 


Tree photograph contest 

Eight cash prizes for photographs of unusual or "frcrh" trees will 
be awarded by the Her.' Yorh State College of Forestry, University, 
as follows: $5. 00 for first, $4.00 for sec on' 1 , $3.00 for third, $2.00 
for fourth, and four prizes of $1.00 each. The photographs rust show 
trees growing within the boundaries of l?ew Yorh State, although any citi- 
zen of the United States may submit a picture. It in required that con- 
testants attach to each photograph a description of the tree, .naming the 
species and statin- the location of the tree as accurately and completely 
as possible. The contest will close December 1- All pictures should be 
addressed to the Contest phi tor, Few Yorl: State College of Forestry, 
Syracuse, P. Y. 

Yale P or est • School Peru ion 

The tweiity-f ifth anniversary of the Yale "crest School will be 
celebrated by r. reunion on the school's demonstration and research forest 
of 1,000 acres near , p. p., on July 28 and 29, 1925. Alumni will 

be expected to reach the forest by noon on Tuesday, July 28. There vill 
he no set program or formal speeches. The main purpose of the reunion, 
in addition to the renewal of old friendships and the formation of new 
ones, is to- enable the alumni to see what is being accomplished on the 
most important of the school forests. Accordingly the entire time during 
the day will be demoted to field trips and the evenings to sonr;s and dis- 
cussions around the cam fire. 

Centenary of irench Forest School 

L'Fcolo National e~des Pau.x ot Fprets, Fancy, Prance, extends an 
urgent invitation to American foresters who ray N e in Prance at the time 
to attend its centenary celebration on .July 19 and 20. The ?'inister of 
Agriculture will attend, and the program includes excursions into the 
forests of Haye and Amance and ihtc the Vbsges Mountains. 


program of ~orld' s Forestry Congress 

The of the International Forestry 'Congress to he held 
in Rone in 1925- has, published the following list of subjects as indicat- 
ing the scope of the discussions to be covered in the final prolan: 

Section I . statistics of area, production, conscription, and 
trade. Census taking. Forests and the general interests of a coiurfcry. 
State intervention in afforestation of hare lands belonging to private 
persons, communi ties, and associations, and in improvement and adminis- 
tration of existing forests. Legislation and taxation. Revenue and 
credits. Experiment stations. Forestry- organization in different conn- 
tries. Instruction in forestry. 

Section II. Standardization of commercial usages, freight rates, 
customs, duties. The lumber, pulp and paper, naval stores, and other 
forest products industries, including wood distillation. Minor forest 

Section III . Technical problems in forestry and forestry operations, 
including forest ecology, geographical distribution cf forest trees, the 
best timber trees for different climatic zones, forest utilization, see:" 1 . 
collection and preservation, nurseries, afforestation of bare lands, 
cultural practice, working plans, seasoning and preservation of timber, 
and fire protection. 

Section IV. preservation of mountain and other lands, regulation 
of mountain water systems andccontrol of floods. Improvement of pasture 
and agricultural lands. Protection against insects and diseases, and 
against damage by wind, snew, and fire. Tropical forests and their util- 
ization. Recreation on the forests. Fish and game. Miscellaneous. 

Forestry Exposition in Switzerland 

Switzerland is preparing for a national exposition of agriculture, 
horticulture, and silviculture, which will take place at Berne September 
12-29, 1925. The forestry section will be. in charge of the Swiss in- 
spector general of forests and will include particularly exhibits on the 
methods cf protection against floods and avalanches in the Alps. 


oI "1:j j -Uj?- :.^la i I'.-l-.K!'. ;^. 1 . o -i-l'iJ '.u '>AiU-.ti.;i o 

Louis iana Pahhers pahe r. Point of Timber Pro "be e t ier. 

Many Louisiana bankers :.rc rabuna fire protection and reforesta- 
tion, compulsory on nortaa^cd lands. Tor the purpose of insuring the re- 
cale possibilities of such property they "b incL the mortpapor to rake everj 
effort to prevent forest fires on his land and to plant trees on waste 
and cut-over areas. This practice is beira: energetically stvjportcd by 
the Louisiana Department of Conservation, and Pas • een taken up by barri- 
ers in all parts of the State. It has spread all the rrore rapidly since 
the failure of efforts to boom certain cut-over lands for farming as op- 
posed to timber-'-rc-'ira purposes. The Louisiana Bankers' Ascoci; tion in 
April, 1925, adopted the following as the standard forestry clause for 
insertion in mortuaries: 

"The aortpeaor does hereby further hind himself to put his ~aste 
or idle lands not suitable to agriculture to tree.-, and to protect all 
forest trees .end tree seedlings grorrin.': on any of the above-described 
lands, and he further pledges that fires cr other destructive agencies 
'•"/ill he prevented uherever possible." 


Clnrhc- denary honey f or 'federal - £tr tc Cooperation 

• A c :ri cultural, Appropriation Act for the fiscal year 1925 car- 

ries an appropriation cf $660,000 for the "orb authorized by Sections 1-3 
of the Clarhe-McFary Act. These sections provide for Federal cooperation 
nith the States in forest fire prevention and suppression and in studies 
of forest taxation and timber insurance. The following table sheers vrhich 
States vill participate in this work Purine- the fiscal veer 1926, the 
areas of State and privately-owned forest lands needing protection in 
each, the estimated costs of protection, an? the allotment of federal 



Area needing 


estimated cost 

P ed eral al 1 o t merit 
(7.4$ total cost) 


i T C" Hampshire 


Rhode Island 

Her- York 
Fev.' Jersey 

1 -' - -j ^<,.-U 


'.Test Virginia 
Ivor th Carolina 

Loui si ana 


Minnesota Dakota 

Idaho , North 
Idaho, South 

: "dshingtoh 

Nev; Mexico 

: r 15 

,000 , 

: 4 


: 3 


: 3 



: 1 


: 9 


: 1 


: 13 


: 2 


: i 


: 14 




: 19 


: 10 




: 20 


: 13 

,- c co, 

: 14 


: 18 


: 16 


: 20 





: 3 


: 1 


: 12 


: 10 


: 17 


; ]_ 























'- 450 





























9UV ' 

Totals : 271,629,000 : $7, 738,900 


Forest tax studies 

Unallotted balance ■ .-. . . . 

Total appropriation 


;' 33, 





































































Darin- 192G at 18 Str.tes will take advantage of the provi- 
sions of Section 4 of the act, accepting Federal cooperation in the pro- 
curement, production, and distribution of forest tree soils and plants 
for the purpose of establishing windbreaks, shelter belts, ere. farm 
woodlots vpen denuded or nonforesteel lands, siich distribv.tion being lim- 
it el to farmers. It appears that it Trill "be possible to allot $2, COO 
to each State qualifying for cooperation in such distribution. 

/Section 5 of the act, \7hich provides for farm forestry extension 
work, the Federal Government will cooperate durinr the fiscal year 192S 
with 2G states. These include Alabama, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, 
Iov;a, Louisiana, l&ine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, "Minnesota, 

Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, 
North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, 
Vermont, Virginia, Pest Virginia, ana Pi scon sin. This represents an 
increase of 15 over the number of States in which forestry extension 
projects were in effect during the pear ending June 30, 1925. 

This section of the Clarke- McNary Act will be administered by the 
Extension Service of the Department of Agriculture. " r;:e l ro J ect for eacn 
State will be drawn up in cooperation with the State forester if possible. 
In some cases the State forester pap furnish a part of the funds fcr the 
cooperative project. It is hoped that the State extension forester will 
in every case servo as a liaison officer between the State forester and 
the State agricultural extension service. 

Legislative Developments 

Michigan's new forest taxation law 

Under the Pearson timber tax law recently enacted in Michigan, 
owners of lands well stocked with immature forests and not otherwise 
valuable may withdraw them from the general property tax rolls and have 
them listed on special rolls for as long as they retrain under forestry 
management of a specified grade. In place of the property tax the owner 
will pay a fixed yearly tax of 5 cents an acre on pine plain lands and 10 
cents an acre on hardwood lands. A "yield tax" of 25 per cent of the 
gross stumpage value of the timber will be collected at the time of 
cutting. Por every acre listed on these special rolls the State will pay 
to the county in which it is situated the sum of 5 cents an acre annually. 

This act, by providing some revenue for the expenses of local gov- 
ernment during the deferred tax period, improves on a measure vetoed by the 
governor in 1923. 


California adopts fire-prevention act 

The Taylor Act, said "by Governor Richardson of California to "be 
the b est piece of legislation ever enact ed' to prevent forest fires, re- 
ceived his signature on May 1. This lav: prohibits tine burning of tim- 
ber, slash, grass, or brush cover beWccn May 15 and October 31 without 
a written permit from the State forester, except within any municipal 
'corporation. It also prohibits the throning of lighted cigarettes or 
cigars or other flaming substances which may cause a fire. Violation of 
the law is made a misdemeanor. 

HirPh s-'Ots in Oregon's netr forestry legislation 

1. Authority of State Board of Forestry broadened. 

2. All forest land brought tender the compulsory patrol law. 

3. Slash disposal to be handled so as to leave the land in condition for 


4. Opening of deer hunting season deferred to September 10 as a forest 

protection measure. 

5. State may accept land as gift. 

6. State nay sell timber from state lands and reserve the land for 

forest m? nagement . 

7. Legislative committee appointed to draft reforestation law. 

The Vermont Legislature has passed a forestry appropriation of 
$22,000. This provides an additional $2,000 for the purchase of State 
lands, ill so, any v.nexp ended balances of the Department of Agriculture 
and Forestry may, with the approval of the governor, be used for the 
purchase of State lands. 

The Legislature of Colorado las passed an act providing for coop- 
eration with the federal Government under the Clarke-McKary La 1 :/, and an 
act making it possible to drive streams in the State containing fish* 
Heretofore blanket restriction has caused considerable difficulty in 
handling timber sales where the transportation involved stream driving, 

The bill to create a State forestry department in South Carolina 
retains its plnce on the calendar pending; the next session of the State 
legislature, with good chances of passage. 

Reducing Br il road Fi res in P ennsy l vania. 

In-order to learn what steps the railroads have taken during re- 
cent years to reduce the size and number of fires originating from loco- 
motives, District Forester V. U. Bearer of the Forbes District, Pennsyl- 
vania, recently requested brief reports from officials of the larger 


companies operating within Ms district. Every company replied. The 
reports show that r.ll the companies are endeavoring to reduce fires but 
that perhaps none of then has put sffect all the measures that 
have been found to be helpful and practical . 

On the Pennsylvania Railroad daily inspection of front ends of 
locomotives and ash-pans nas required during the spring fire season on 
lines whore fire hazards justified these precautions. The necessity for 
care and alertness in making this inspection was impressed on roundhouse 
forces, special inspections were made by higher officials of the company, 
and trade foremen were encouraged to' accept appointments as State forest 
firewardens. The company is burning many safety strips every year and 
is endeavoring to educate track supervisors and section foremen in meth- 
ods of developing such strips. The general manager's office investigates 
every reported case in which firemen are seen opening ash-pans while on 
the road, and in which sparks or cinders are scattered, or fires are sot 
by a locomotive. 

The Baltimore and Ohio reported that it had designed ash-pans with 
top hoppers arranged with slides or doors sufficiently tight to prevent 
the escape of live cinders, and also a netting arrangement in the front 
end of the smoke box which prevents the escape through the stack of any 
sparks of sufficient size to 'cause fires. This company's engine and train 
crews carry cards on which is printed the order, !: Go Pack and Fat Out 
Fire," and in case of a fire along the right of way thrown them to the 
track workers, crossing watchmen, station employees, or section gangs, who 
have been instructed to obey this order immediately. The Baltimore and 
Ohio is also developing safety .strips along rights of way in accordance 
with the policy of the state Department of Forests and Waters. 

The 'Jest ern Maryland road bra. adopted a system of inspection cover- 
ing front end screens and ash-pan doers, and 525X& strips along 76 per cent 
of its right of way in Pennsylvania were cut and piled ready for burning. 
All its trackmen have standing instructions to report sparks from either 
stacks or fire boxes of passing locomotives. Crews are instructed in 
such cases to inspect the engines as soon as possible and make an effort 
to correct any improper conditions. If the engine crew cannot correct 
the condition, trackmen follow the train on motor cars to extinguish any 

The Ligonier Valley reported that it had equipped its engines with 
#393 netting over drafts, placed extensions at openings of the ash-pans 
to prevent cinders from rolling out, and widened its safety strips so that 
all approach the 100-foot measurement. On this road the section foremen 
are at once given notice of any fire along the right of way. Because of 
the relatively good condition ,of its rights of way the section crews usu- 
ally arrive before fire has made great headway. 


From tire to time these roads issue to their lino officers com- 
plete instructions with regard to precautions arainst fire. In at least 
one case these instructions pre chiefly repetitions of circulars issued 
by the Department of Forests and Paters during the past three years. 

Idaho Adopt s Few Pirc Pr otection Pries 

Under the terms of recent legislation, the Idaho State Cooperative 
Board of Forestry is given power to determine policies and to make and 
enforce rules and regulations for the administration of the forest laws 
of the State. At a meeting of this "board on harch 17, 1925, the follow- 
ing rules, which are of especial interest to those States having large 
areas of woodland and extensive loggia.-; operations, were adopted: 


During the closed season smoking is prohibited in and around log- 
ging or lumbering operations, except at regularly established camps. 
Operators shall post !, po Smoking!' signs conspicuously in. their camps and 
in their operating works. All State and forest protective district employ- 
ees arc prohibited from smoking on forest land during the closed season. 


During the closed season each logging camp shall furnish every 20 
men or major fraction thereof a set of fire tools to consist of not less 
than 3 axes, 3 shovels, 3 mattocks or 3 srub hoes or 3 hazel hoes, and 2 
water bxickets. The set or sets of tools shall he placed at convenient 
places ready for and used *in case of fire only. After r. fire the tools 
shall he immediately replaced. 


During the closed season every logging camp maintaining an average 
of not less than 40 men shall furnish a patrolman, properly equipped for 
extinguishing smell fires, whose duty shall he to extinguish small fires, 
to give an alarm in case of a fire which he cannot control, and to re- 
port smokers to the camp foreman, 


Five men in each logging' camp shall he designated by the camp fore- 
ran, in consultation with the firewrrden, any or all of whom shall he at 
all times in readiness to go and who shall go, with or withotvt instructions, 
to any fire which originates in the operating rorks of that camp. 


Experiment--:! S^vr k Screen cf Close Planted Pi nes 

The Pennsylvania Department of Forests and '.Vaters is conducting 
an experiment en the effectiveness of screens of close, planted pines in 
preventing fires alon^ railroad rights of way- At "Johnson Bend," near 
Tiadaghton,- pa. , a strip one-quarter of a rile '.vide along the right of 
"' : cast of the track is being planted with pitch pine trees spaced 
three feet apart. It is hoped that within a fen years this strip trill 
form a screen upon which live sparks will die without reaching the ground. 
Hot only would this eliminate fires which cause the railroad company much 
expense, but it is "believed that in a few years the planting rill 
in a valuable stand of timber on what would otherwise be a waste safety 
strip, at the same time greatly improving the scenery. 

Distribution of Plant in.-- Stock 

More than 115,000 seedlings, practically all hardwoods, were dis- 
tributed this spring from the nursery of the Indiana Division of Forestry. 
This is an increase of more then 100 per Cent over last year's distribu- 

Most of the seedlings were sole", at cost to residents of the State 
for planting on private land. An experimental planting of 15 acres was 
made at Mccormick's Creek State Park. This planting is to v e extended 
to 50 acres and is divided into 5-ecre units. Additional plantings were 
made at the Clark County State Forest, and a demonstration planting was 

made on the farm of Hon. W. A. Guthrie under the supervision of the for- 
estry division. 

The Vermont Forest Service reports the distribution this spring 
of about 1,300,000 trees to 234 planters. This is an increase of about 
125 planters and about 500,000 trees over last year. 

The State Forestry Department of Maryland and the Maryland Univer- 
sity Extension Service this spring planted a total of 26,400 trees on 10 
demonstration areas. This is the first planting campaign carried on in 
Maryland in cooperation with the county agents. The interest shown by 
the farmers makes it appear probable that a much larger number of trees 
will be planted next spring. 


Geo rgia, Assoc ia tio n p roposes Fo restry Sill 

The Georgia forestry Association will again present a forestry 
bill to the legislature which meets at the end of June. ■ This hill 
will seel: to extend the authority of the present State Board of For- 
estry, nor only an investigative body, and rill make provision for a 
State forester, a fire-protection system, cooperation with private 
forest owners, the establishment of State forests, and educational 
work in forestry A State forestry fund for carrying on the work 
would be created through a .transfer from the General Fund of moneys 
already collected through privilege license taxes on forest products 
establishments in the State. The press of the State and practically all 
the important commercial bodies are backing the measure. It is be- 

lieved, furthermore, that the legislature is beginning to sec the need 
for an organization to protect Georgia's valuable timber resources. 

This will % c the last annual session of the Georgia legislature, 
so that if the passage of a forestry law for Georgia is to take place 
within the next two years one must be -passed at this session. 



Porcstry in the Pp bl ic Schools 
By Mario Heisley 

The question as to whether the lesson of forest conservation is 
reaching the people of the United States finds a encouraging response 
in the evidences of a growing interest in the subject among school 

This interest has hecn developed partly through the use, over a 
period of 12 or 15 years, of photographic exhibits, lantern slides, mo- 
tion pictures, nnd other material furnished to the schools hy the Forest 
Service. Requests for material of this sort have increased in volume 
until during the past fiscal pear 10,000 "^cre filled. This number in- 
cluded requests from both teachers and rupils. 

The nature of the requests received indicates that forestry is 
being studied in correlation with many other school subjects, both in the 
grades and in high schools. In the high schools it is correlated with 
agriculture, biology, botany, physical and commercial geography, general 
science, and manual training. The grade children get it with their 
manual training and geography and in their nature study and science work. 

*n Washington, D. C, the study of the forest has been t alien up by 
the children of the seventh and eighth grades and junior high schools. 
These children took an active part in the observance of American Forest 
Week. T-en thousand of them attended mass meetings arranged by the nature 
study department of the District schools, and eighth grade pupils of the 
John Burroughs School organized on their own initiative a production of 
Shirley Allen's masque "The Forest Fire Helpers." 

In the same way the eagerness of the Boy Scouts to obtain forestry 
material for their exhibits and examinations and to learn the facts about 
forest conservation has already blossomed out in parade and pageant de- 
voted to the subject of protecting the forests from fire. 

The spontaneous interest shown by such activities is a si^n of the 
most encouraging kind. The study of forestry that has been going on in 
the schools bears its best fruit when it inspires the children to take an 


active part - to do something: about it. The nest generation is roin-: to 
need forestry more than this one; and if the progress in £ettin~ the study 

of the forest before boys n::d fjirls car. be kept up it looks as if they 'vill 
be in possession of the facts and the inspiration they v.- ill need to main- 
tain an adequate forest policy for the paticr. 

Tropical Poods at Yal e 

The tropical woods collections of the Yale School of Forestry nott 
include nearly" 8,000 catalogued wood samples, and are constantly receiving 
additions. In identifying specimens sent in' by collectors, Professor 
Samuel J. Record of Yale has the cooperation of eminent systematists in 
the Smithsonian Institution, the Department of /j^ricnlture, the Pea York 
Botanical Garden, the Gray Herbarium, and the Pi eld Maseum of Eatural 
History. Specimens authenticated by these everts serve as the basis for 
classifying the '.' r oods for scientific purposes and for identifying the. tim- 
bers of commerce. 

The Yale School of ^orestry 1 has also the nucleus of a herbarium of 
important tropical trees; a collection of books, pamphlets, and manuscript 
reports dealing with tropical forestry; and hundreds of microscopic slides- 
of representative tropical woods of the various natural families.. 

The work in tropical woods at Yaie'trds initiated in 1916 and has been 
growing steadily in importance. Results already published a book 
of 610 pares, entitled" '-'Timbers 'of Tropical America" (Yale University Press, 
1924); two bulletins in the School of Forestry series, one on.Lignum-vitae. 
and one on Cocobolo; a mimeographed bibliography of foreign woods, with - 
supplement; and several contributions to various journals. Two co.ntribu- .. 
tions by advanced students have been published abroad, one by Dr. F.B.K. 
Brown on Hawaiian woods and one by Prof ._ George A. Go r rati on New Zealand 
v/oods. A study of the v o:c."Oods of commerce, to be issuer* as a bulletin in 
the School of Forestry series, is nearly corrpl etc -and. various other. pro j-- 
ccts are under way. 

In the coi;.rse of the investi.-atiors new facts come to-.light which 
it is felt should be promptly available to other investigators; also 
many problems arise -^^r. which assistance is needed in solution."' Por 

these reasons a new series of publications, Tropical Poods, has been insti- 
tuted. The first number appeared -in i-'arch'-ahd the second in June of this 
year, and it is planned' to issue succeed in."; '.umbers at such' Interval s, as ._ 
available funds and material will f> 


Forth Dakota to Open a Forest School 

The of Fortl ral-ota has appropriate? $60.00C for tl 
establishment of - fores" school at Botti'neara -ti addition to offering 
instruction in forestry this s hool Till carry on Kr-erii KTfcs^inJjroe^ 
planting. The presidency of the school has " cor. aoc:ptoa ," • ■-•> w>J . 

Mr. Cobb is a read-rate of the forestry department of the Univor- 
sity of Minnesota, an?, for a nvinher of years '—n attache?, to the fry Land 
experiment Station at Mandaii" There he collaborated ■ ith Fred ~. Jonn- 
3011 of the Forest Service in the prepr-ratior rl Far: rs ! Bulletin 13x2, 
"Tree planting in the C-reat Plaii s '-ion." He has saer.t the past 
years at Cornell University assistive Lr. forestry extension T/orh nd 
strdyine for the defTee of "■ ter of Forestry. 

Oregon .■ba ri cul tnr al C o lie pe * \ c e v. i res f r 1 r e t ' ~r. 

The Oregon ilcricvlt-aral Collepe announces its acquisition of a 
341-acre to " 3 v.sec" as an arboretr.m and forest demonstration area. 
The land is sitvated 8 rfJ.cs : orth of Corral lis and one-qr.arter mile "est 
of the Pacific HiGhrray, and has an elevation varying from 400 to 1,100 
feet. The arbor ctnm trill he developed on 8C acres of lo^sed-off land or. 
which little net.' errc'Jth is present. Here Dean P: — r has already oe^'an to 
experiment rith trees of native and orotic species. The remaining 261 
acres arc largely covered "vith second-are'eth fir at. different stages 01 
maturity and; afford an excellent field for experiments in thinnir/*, prvn- 
inp, lopGina, mid timber sales. 

"J "crial Forestry Library Fopnded 

The Forestry Club of the University of Minnesota las received a 
Gift of $1,000 to be v.sed in fov.ndiiiG and mr intaiiiinG a library in its 
cliibhonse. H. Ier~r-.cns of by. this Gift establishes a memorial 
to his sor Thorbern, a Graduate of the University of Minnesota Ferest 
School, class of 1923, ~ho y-as', a forest assistant en the faster Nation- 
al Forest and uas hilled in an automobile accident there in May, 1924. 

-i i- 

M assachusetts "Demonstrati on Forest 

In the Mt. Toby Tor est, the forestry department of the m-ssachv.- 
setts Agricultural College has an opportunity for the demonstration of 
forestry principles adapted to conditions in all parts of the State. 
"tfithin the boundaries of this 755-acre tract are high dry ridges, ccol 
ravines, both warm and cool hillsides, sandy flats, and swampy bottom- 
land. Owing to this marked variety of soil and topography, and owing 
also to its location in the intermediate zone between the northern and 
sprout hardwood. regions, the forest contains a wide representation of 
forest types. In close proximity within it are stands of red and rock 
oak, of birch, leech, and maple, of white oak and hickory, of hemlock, 
of white pine, of ash and basswobcL, and of swamp maple and elm. The 
forest is representative of Ivhs sac hu setts conditions also in the fact 
that it is nearly all second growth following the abandonment of worn- 
out plough land and pasture. The steady demand from neighboring mar- 
kets for all its products rounds out an ideal group of qualifications 
for a demonstration forest. 

Only so much timber is being taken periodically from the area 
as can be replaced by normal growth. Blank spaces are being planted to 
the most desirable native or imported species, and the stands already 
present are thinned, weeded, protected, and finally harvested in such a 
way as to bring on a new crop to replace the old. 

As years go by the Mt. Toby Forest is expected not only to show 
how timber may be grown as a continuous and profitable crop, but also 
how a public forest may serve the surrounding community by providing win- 
ter r/ork for farmers, "oy furnishing a constant supply of fuel and logs, 
and by affording all the while a playground for those who love the woods. 
In addition it will serve as a laboratory for the study of methods of 
combating forest enemies. The college new has on its program plans for 
establishing check plots on the forest to study the depredations of the 
white ^ine weevil. 

Portable Sawmill Demonstration 

The first portable sawmill school in the country was held at State 
College, Pa., the third week in .April, under, the direction of the depart- 
ment of farm forestry of the college. It was attended by more than 150 
sawmill men from all parts of the country and by many college students 
and other people of the locality. Sawing began on the second bay, with 
S. b T . Kresge of gaylorsburg, Pa., as instructor. Mr. Krcsge demonstrated 


the possibilities of the rJ.ll "by quickly reducing to inch boards a 
cherry lop 5S inches in dimeter and 10 feet in length • hich bad bcer. 
refused ly all the portable Pills of the region. He pleo solved prob- 
lems -in the handling of irregular logs, porcr for the rill ras furuishec 
by tractors of t'-ree different, rakes. Special interest . vr.s shorn, in a 
demonstration of the care of crosc-.cut and circular cars.. The largest 
crords rcre dram to the lectures on the marketing of sawmill products, 
given "by five sawmill men from different sections of the State. 

Cor:: ell Summer Carp 

The annual summer carp of the department of forestry of Cornell 
University this sunnier rill he "held in the Adirordacks. Twenty students 
of the class of. 1 92 S TV ill attend,-. and- Professors Spring, Recknagel, a::d 
Bently rill he in charge. The first reel: rill "be devoted to the study 
of logging, milling,- paper manufacture, arid other phases of forest utili- 
zation in and around Tupper" Lake. The remaining three reeks rill he spent 
in field studies in. silviculture and mensuration on Lake Francis, Les*ris 
County.' s School Forest 

The University' of the South, Seranee, Tennessee, rhich since the 
fall of 1923 lias been offering courses in forestry subjects under the 
direction of Prof. G-eorge A. Carratt, has an excellent equipment for 
field laboratory rork in its holdings of 8,350 acres of forest land. This 
area is located on a plateau of a spur of the Cumberland Mountains rith a 
general, elevation of 1,000 feet over the neighboring valleys. It is 
stockedprith seco.nd-grorth hardrood of more than 50 different native spe- 
cies,- rith oak, hickory, black gun, maple, yellcr poplar, chestnut., and 
ralnu.t. predominating! .The university plans to put this land under for- 
est management and hopes that, it rill develop into a valuable. demonstra- 
tion area, for the southern • Appalachian region. 


Schoolb oys Organize to Fight pire 

Four fire- fighting clubs have "been organized among the school- 
boys of District 6, Tennessee, by '17 1 T. McClovd. of the Tennessee For- 
estry Division. The boys joined voluntarily arid with the consent of 
their parents. Each club is headed by a captain approved by Mr. McClotid 
and is instructed not to go to a fire- without its captain. Aside from 
fire fighting the clubs are active in developing sentiment against care- 
lessness with fire in the forest, seeing that brush is burned at the 
right time, and helping to keqi the fire-warning posters in good shape 
throughout the district. 

Historical Arboretum Started at Syracuse 

Joan of Arc willows and Robin Hood oaks are growing at the New 
York State College of Forestry, Syracuse, N. Y. Acorns of. the famous 
Eobin Hood oaks were brought from England by Prof. Nelson C. Brown and 
planted on the college grounds. Prof. John S. Donald of the University 
of 7isconsin has sent to cuttings of willows obtained from the 
grounds around the chateati at Domremy where Joan of Arc was T»orn» The 
progeny of other famous trees, American as well as foreign, will be added 
to this nucleus from time to time to form a historical arboretum. Each- 
tree will be marked with an outline of its history. 

Forest School Finds New Ally 

A special committee has been organized by the New York State 
Association of Builders Exchanges to cooperate with the New York State 
College of Forestry -in. efforts to promote forest conservation- The. 
builders find their interests seriously affected by the way in which 
the -increase in the price of wood, the most satisfactory and cheapest 
of building materials, has discouraged the building of homes. by people 
of moderate means. This action of the builders' associations brings a 
powerful influence 'to the support of .forestry. „ . 


Py T. A. Sherman, U. S. Porest Service 

Everyone finds it easy to take a lively interest in an enterprise 
thr.t promises to put a goodly snm of money in his pocket. Commercial 
salesmen never lose sight of this fact ana their selling effort is always 
based on the argument "There's money in it." p-ew of them have as good a 
selling proposition - one promising S"ach aood returns on corparatively 
small initial investment - as the pirn of growing timl er on public land. 
Poresters, however, have seldom brought crat with adeqi^ate clearness and 
vigor the fact that there is in such a plan a remarkably rood financial 
return to county, State, and Nation - that it will put money into the 
pockets of the citizens of the community ana at the same tine into the 
public treasrry pirect financial returns are by no means all- important 
in public forestry enterprises, but they often bulk rather large and they 
have an appeal that needs to he made the most of in arousing interest in 
forestry and bringing about active cooperation in the movement by the 
communities, the States, and the Government. 

As an example of what may be expected from timber arowing on pub- 
lic land, prospective returns, in 5C years, from forest plantings on the 
East Tar/as Division of the Michigan National Forest have been estimated 
as follows: 


Planting 3,160 acres $2.94 per acre $9,390.40 


Initial cost with interest Q &f a per annum, compounded 75 ,123.20 

Eire protection and current administration © 7^ 

per acre ©^6% per annum, compounded $ 53,340.80 

(Rate of 7f^ represents 10^ for the first 
25 years and 5^ for the second.) 

Sale administration, marking, and scaling, © 25^ 

per M-for 60,000 M $15,000.00 

(The expense of slash and brush disposal is 
taken into consideration as an operation cost 
in fixing the stump age rate.) 


Insurance, etc $16,536.00 

Total costs $160,000.00 


Yield, at an average of 20,000 ft. B.M. per 

acre 63,200,000 ft. B. M. 

Gross return fron sale of 60,000 M© $15.00 per 1,000 

ft. B. M. $900 ,000.00 


County's share, for road and school fond, 25^ of total, .. $225,000.00 

Available for forest road construction, 10$' of total $ 90,000.00 

Costs $160,000.00 

Remaining in Federal Treasury as net cash return $435,000.00 

After liberal allowance is made for wiping out every possible 
item of cost, including interest at a rate higher than the Government 
ever pays, the enterprise provides $90,000 for roads and puts $225,000 
into the county funds and $435,000 into the Federal Treasury. This 
direct money return alone makes it good business; "but the cash profit 
is only part of the return from the transaction. There is the beneficial 
influence on streamflow, water power, wild life, outdoor recreation, and 
employment. The big fact, however, the fact that makes the entire activ- 
ity most v/orth while, is that in 1974 there will be standing on these 
3,160 acres of land a forest of merchantable trees, a great natural re- 
source requiring logging operations, sawmills, transportation, and other 
industries. These 'mean employment for many people. They mean homes, 
families, wealth. They mean money in the pockets of the citizens of 
the community and the State. Even without" its return of $225,000 in 
cash the comity might well encourage such an activity and remit all taxes 
upon it; even without the profit of $435,000 the Federal Government might 
well underwrite the initial costs. 

The came figures might be applied to an estimate of the returns 


onset Ijy the heavier yield from better lands. Good white pine land 
adjoining the Michigan National Forest, capable of a yield of 40,000 
per acre at the end of 50 years, can be bought for $1.00 to $1.50 an 

nds. Good white pine lands 



Michigan might extend 

these figures to 3,000,000 acres ane at the end of 50 years return aoout 

$15,000,000 net to the State treasury after redeeming 6 per cent oonds 
which had carrier! all the accumulated costs of 50 years. Hie same thing 
is possible for Wisconsin. In Minnesota the 11,000,000 acres of waste 
cut-over land might by foresight in tine be made to pay $40,000,000 or 
$50,000,000 a year into the State treasury. 

national Forest -Management Plans 
-By I. P. El dredge, U. S. Forest Service 

Increased demand for national forest timber has led recently to 
greater activity in the work of organizing tinder sales and developing 
new working plans. A technique in the formulating of management plans 
on the national forests is being developed that represents a practical 
application of conventional forestry methods to American con- it ions to an 
extent justifying its recognition as something more than mere adaptation 
of European methods. 

At present 71 management plans have '-eon approved by the porest 
Service. Of these 33 arc in the Eastern District and the rest are dis- 
tributed rather evenly among the other districts. Many others are now 
in course of preparation and it is expected that by June 1, 1926, syste- 
matic management plans will be in effect on at least 100 working circles. 

In the 15G national forests there are between 600 and 700 working 
circles, containing a total of about £0,000,000 acres of timberland. ^ 
In about half of these, management plans. will probably v e required with- 
in the next 10 years, either because of the demand for timber or because 
of the need for cutting for silvicultural reasons. Good management dic- 
tates that the overmature timber that forms so large a part of the stand 
throughout the national forests N e treated with the ax as soon and as 
fast as possible in order that the stands now stagnant or retrogressing 
may be put in condition to yield the maximum possible increment. 

.The preparation of plans of the conventionally intensive type for 
300 working circles, covering perhaps 30,000,000 acres, would be a pro- 
digious task involving the expenditure of millions of dollars annually 
and the maintenance of a large organization of specially trained men.. 
Such an effort cannot be contemplated for some time. The situation is 
now being met by the formulation of very simple plans such as can be 
drawn up in each forest by the local staff, with a minimum of outside 
assistance, on the basis of available data on volume, growth, and yield. 
Though lacking the finish, precision, and comprehensiveness of the work- 
ing plan of the text-books, these management plans give a satisfactory 
ansT/er to the supervising forester's question, "'.That amount of timber 
should I cut, and when and where and how should I cut it*?" Furthermore, 
these plans are made to meet almost at once the hard test of practicabil- 
ity, and are adjusted by trial until they can stand the test. 


A ir Patrol to Ply Again 

Air patrol of the national forests will be resumed this season on 
the basis of a special appropriation of $50,000- Airplanes have been 
used in connection with fire control on the national forests every year 
since 1919, Kit only twice before has intensive use been provided for. 
In the fiscal year 1926 the appropriation for aerial forest protection 
will he administered not directly by the Air Service, as in the past, 
but cooperatively by the Departments of .Agriculture and War. The Air 
Service vrill furnish and repair 10 planes and will detail one officer 
bo dv.ty With the Porest Service. The Forest Service will employ members 
of the Army Reserve Corps as pilots. Five bases are to be maintained, 
one each at Eugene, Oregon, and Vancouver and Spokane, Washington, and 
two in California. 

As a means of fire detection aircraft have been used with especial 
success in certain provinces of Canada, where wide stretches of forest 
are entirely -uninhabited and very difficult of access. The many lakes 
of Ontario and the deeply indented coast line of British Columbia make 
it possible to fly low over their forests in seaplanes. In the forests 
of "the United States where fire give's the most trouble seaplanes cannot be 
used, and even while the air patrol is in force the work of fire detection 
will be entrusted chiefly to the system of stationary lookouts now in use. 

For -other types of forest protection work, however, aircraft have 
proved invaluable in the United States. In case of a large fire the offi-r 
cer in charge can by half an hour's flying get information unobtainable 
in any other way as to what is happening in various sectors of the fire's 
edge. v;hen the atmosphere over a forest is so filled with smoke - which 
may cither have arisen there or drifted from some remote area - that the 
mountain-top lookouts become useless for days or even weeks, aerial ob- 
servers can still detect or watch fires by means of a vertical view through 
the smoke screen. Aircraft are the most efficient means of detecting 
lightning-caused fires while they are still in the smoldering stage. 
And finally, a distinct educational value attaches to the use of aircraft 
on the forest. It is recorded that in one California valley where fires . 
had been exceedingly numerous burning was brought to a dead stop by the 
institution of semidaily patrol with two planes - which the inhabitants - 
believed to be equipped not only with powerful telescopes but with machine 
guns! Even where it is not supposed to threaten a machine-gun attack on 
the camper who drops a burning cigarette, the air patrol very effectively 
impresses on the public mind a warning against carelessness with fire in 
the forest. 


Senate Ipv ej? t i~r tes Acini nistra tion of Gr".?.ir.r Lan ds 
By ".Till C. Barnes, U. S. Tor est Service 

An investigation "by the Senate Committee en public Lands and 
Surveys into ratters relating to the national forests and the public 
domain and their administration was atithorized "by a resolution passed 
in February, 1925. This investigation began with hearings before a 
subcommittee in Washington on April 17. 

Senator Stanfield, chairman of the subcommittee, outlined his view 
cf the administration of grazing lands by the Forest Service and the situ- 
ation, by which the investigation was called forth in the following re- 

"To a considerable extent the -razing upon the forest lands 
has been improved. The stockmen have been benefited by protec- 
tion against unpermitted users who would otherwise lave over- 
stocked the land and interfered with the real rights cf those 
to whom permits. have been issued. During the last four years 
Western stochmen have been seriously disturbed by the policy 
adopted by the Forest Service in respect to the raising of charges 
for the grazing and the continued reduction in the numbers of 
livestock which the old users are permitted to graze upon the 


forest. It appears altogether necessary and desirable that Con- 
gress should define, in as much detail as may be deemed wise, 
the plan and policy of the regulation of the grazing and thus 
instruct the executive officers as to the methods to be followed 
.in the administration of details and ratters which cannot fully 
be covered in the law in a way to meet varying conditions of 
locations- and .seasons." 

The Chief cf the Forest Service appeared before the subcommittee 
on April 17 and succeeding days. His statements, which consumed mere than 
four hours' time, covered the whole history of the management of the grac- 
ing ranges on the national forests from 1306 to 1925. 

First Assistant Secretary of the Interior Finney was called be- 
fore the committee and testified in regard to the administration of the 
public domain by the Department of the Interior. In response to ques- 
tions as to the desirability of supplanting- the rales and regulations 
established 'oy the Secretary of Agriculture for the administration of the 
grazing lands on the national forests with definite laws, he gave the 
opinion that such a change should be made. In addition he emphatically 
affirmed the belief that the Forest Service should become a part of the 
Department of the Interior. 


The subcommittee has called upon the Forester for a large amount 
of statistical information, including a complete list of the names and 
addresses of the 35,000 permittees. using" the national forest ranges dur- 
ing the current grazing season. 

If one may judge from the questions asked of the officials called 
before the subcommittee and the statements made by its members, one of 
the objects of the investigation is to ascertain whether or not the pres- 
ent system of handling the national forests, especially as it concerns 
grazing, should not be changed to definite congressional enactments which 
would replace to a large extent the rales and regulations established 
under the administrative authority of the Department of .Agriculture. An- 
other question before it is that as to whether grazing fees should be 
placed on a "cost of administration" basis, disregarding the value of the 
forage, with the idea of lowering. them by fully two-thirds. In addition 
the subcommittee has under consideration the proposal that a board of ap- 
peals or other tribunal be established in Washington to which national 
forest permittees may appeal as against decisions of forest officers in 
regard to their use of the ranges, reductions under permits, trespass 
charges, etc. Provision for such a board was included in the Phipps 
Grazing Bill, which during the last session of Congress passed the Sen- 
ate but failed of passage in the House, 

The hearings will undoubtedly be of great interest to those west- 
ern stockmen who are permittees on the national forests and who would like 
to have their present grazing privileges on Government lands recognized 
by Congress as vested rights - in other words, to have themselves, as 
users, made part owners of the real property. 

Forestry Gets Into the Movie s 

The movies took i-p the forestry idea with characteristic enthusi- 
asm during American Forest Week and gave a remarkably generous showing 
of Forest" Service slides and films. Through the courtesy of the Motion 
Picture Theatre Owners of America forestry slides were shown in 10,000 
theatres throughout the country with weekly admissions of approximately 
30,000,000. Scenes. from Forest Service films were run in the pathe news 
reel, which is estimated to reach 50,000,000. Topics of the Day carried 
a message from the Presidential Proclamation to something like 25,000,000 


attendants at Keith's and other vaudeville theatres. Regardless of the 
fact that these numbers a good many duplications, it appears 
that through the movies the forestry idea made a pretty clean sweqi of 
the country. 

This widespread presentation is not the only advantage of the 
movie showing. There is the value of catching the public when they are 
in the mood to "be entertained and therefore more alert than they would 
be over a magazine or paper. Those before whom a film message is 
flashed actually real it. And the very fact that forestry got into the 
movies so successfully is an encouraging sign - it means that at least 
in a general way forestry is a subject of timely interest and recog- 
nized as such by movie people and their patrons. It is only a step from 
such interest to favorable" action. 

Spotting Beetle Infestations from the Air 

An aerial survey of the San Joaquin areas of the Sierra Nation- 
al Forest, which are infested with the mountain pine beetle, was made in 
Hay* It had been demonstrated that under certain conditions the hypcr- 
sensitized panchromatic films used by the Air Service in photographic 
mapping would register the sorrel and red foliage of the infested trees 
in strong contrast to the normal green of the forest* Two planes were 
sent out from Crissey Field, at San Francisco. One carried the Air 
Service photographer and the other an entorr.cloaist of the Department of 
Agriculture, who endeavored to spot the infested areas or. a map and who 
found it possible at an average elevation from the ground of 9.0CC feet 
to get an excellent idea of the general distribution of the infestation. 
Nearly 2o square miles were photographed. 

Fire leather Forecasts 

Arrangements have been made with the leather Bureau to have fore- 
casts of dangerous fire conditions wired direct from Portland and San 
Francisco to the forest supervisors in California, Oregon, and -Washing- 
ton. Each forecast covers 12 to 3G hours or more. This year the fore- 
casts contain information as to wind direction, velocity, precipitation, 
and, for the first time, probable relative humidity. Forest officers in 
charge of fire-protection organizations interpret th*Hse forecasts and 
apply them to local conditions. 


The Northern Rocky Mountain Forest Experiment Station is sending 
out to adjacent national forests fire Heather warnings based upon the 
wireless messages received from San Francisco 'and including «al so fore- 
casts "based upon duff moisture determinations. 

The forecast service for the central hardwood region and for 
the Northeast terminated with the oncoming of summer. During the eastern 
fire season the district forester received detailed information regarding 
r/eather^ conditions, particularly as they applied to the southern Appalach- 
ian, reckon. Tneii conditions were especially threatening the information 
was forwarded to the forest supervisors. In the Northeast forecasts were 
issued on a 1,2, and 3-day basis to the State foresters and other agen- 
cies, giving information as to temperature, wind, and storm movements. 

It is not unreasonable to suppose that within a few years the for- 
est fire vrer.ther forecast service will reach most of the important forest 
a-encies in the United States. 

_A_?t7en t.y-tT7o Month Cld Fire 

A fire on the Santa Barbara Forest, California, has Veen burning 
ever since September 1, 1923. It started near the mouth of the Oso Can- 
yon where the Santa Ynes River enters. In its early stages it threat- 
ened the city of Santa Barbara and burned over an area of approximately 
60,000 acres. This area included a good part of the city's watershed, 
from which great quantities' of silt have since washed into the reservoir. 
"Later the fire burned for a long distance v.--> the Santa Ynez River through 
an oil shale formation, and this sh^le in many --laces ifnited and burned 
through the entire following winter. To this day, during a rain storm 
the steam from the water falling on the burning shale takes on the ap- 
pearance of a small volcano. There is no telling how long this will 
continue to burn. Last summer weeds ignited from the shale, and since 
there is a heavy growth of weeds and f ?rass throughout the burning area 
the forest supervisor has arranged for a constant watch over it during 
the present fire season. 



rat ional Committe e en Wood Utilization Organized 

A practical working organisation has "been completed to carry for- 
ward the movement for wood waste reduction recommended by the National 
Conference on Utilization of Forest Products held last November in Wash- 
ington, D, C, at the call of the late Secretary Wallace of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. VJith the approval cf President Coclidge a Nation- 
al Committee on "ood Utilization held its first meeting in Washington on 
May 2, 1925, at the call of Secretary Hoover of the Department of Com- 
merce. Secretary Hoover is chairman and Chief Forester Greeley vice 
chairman of the committee, which has a membership of 22 representing the 
railways, the paper and pulp industry, purchasing agents of the country, 
wood-using industries, lumber manufacturers and retailers, architects 
and contractors, the American Engineering Council, and the national far- 
mer organizations. The chairman and vice chairman are to choose a 
director for the activities undertaken by the committee, and another 
meeting will be called in the fall when the director las had an opportu- 
nity to formulate a plan of action. 

Cal ifornians to Take Fire-Prevention Pi 

A campaign for the prevention of man-caused forest fires in Cali- 
fornia during the present tourist season has been launched by the Cali- 
fornia Development -Association, the State Chamber of Commerce, the State 
Board of forestry, the California White and Sugar Pine Manufacturers' 
Association, and the federal Forest Service. Four regional commit tees 
are active in the State, and local committees are carrying the campaign 
to Boy Scouts, Girl Reserves, and other boys' and girls' organizations, 
all of which may compete for various prizes. 

The campaign centers around a contest in which boys and girls can- 
vass for signatures to a forest-fire prevention pledge. Each chamber of 

commerce has agreed to provide five local prizes: $10 for the greatest 
number of pledges; $5 for the second largest number; and third, fourth, 
and fifth prizes of $2 each- The newspapers will carry daily stories on 
fire prevention and on the standing of the contestants. 


The central committee will donate to the highest individual 
"boy or girl in the State a prize of $50 and to the second highest a 
prize of $25. The highest ranking Boy Scout patrcl trill get a trip to 
see the Big Trees of northern California, and the too highest ranking 
Boy Scout troops silk troop flags. 

Barnes Vf ants to, Know 

TJhile I was "browsing through a copy of Marsh's "The Earth as Modi- 
fied by Human Action," in search of references to damage from the grazing 
of domestic livestock, my attention was drawn to a note concerning the 
difference in cut of sawmills as between night and day operations 

"Foresters and rumbermen, like sailors and other persons 
whose daily occupations. "bring them into, contact, and often into 
conflict, with great natural forces, have many peculiar opinions, 
not to say superstitions. In one of these categories we must 
ran]: the universal belief of lumbermen, that with a given head 
of water, and in a given number of hours, a sawmill cuts more 
lumber by night than by day* Having been personally interested 
in several sawmills, I have frequently conversed with sawyers on 
this subject, and have always been assured by them that their 
uniform experience established the fact that, other things being 
equal, the action of the machinery of sawmills is more rapid by 
night than by day* I am sorry - perhaps I ought to be ashamed - 
to say that my skepticism has been too strong to allow me to 
avail myself of my opportunities of testing this question by 
passing a night, watch in hand, co-anting the strokes of a mill 
saw. More unprejudiced and, I must add, very intelligent and 
credible, persons have informed me that they have done so and found 
the report of the sawyers abundantly confirmed. A land surveyor, 
who was also an experienced lumberman, sawyer and machinist, a 
good mathematician and an accurate observer, has repeatedly told 
me that he load very often "timed" sawmills, and found the differ- 
ence in favor of night work above 30 per cent." 

This was written in 1863. Vlhat have sawmill operators of recent- 
years to say on this question?— '.Till c. Barnes. 


P"lsa for Qolr"'. Boxes 

The unusual characteristics of balsa wood, long known to scien- 
tists, have recently brought it into rather extensive commercial rise. 
A process has been discovered for sealing the air cells with which it 
is honeycomb eel a mil thus making it a natural insulation against cither 
heat or coir 1 .. Commodities forwarded in balsa containers remain in trans- 
it for from 48 to 60 hours without varying more than 10 or 15 degrees 
from the temperature at •:hich they were packed. Tot much more than half 
as heavy as cork, this wood is said to be as strong as pine and nearly 
as resilient as spruce. The balsa boxes now being manriactrred will 
stand the wear and tear of from 100 to 200 round trips. 

Yeast which otherwise requires ice jackets is now being shipped in 
balsa boxes, and a test has proved the feasibility of shipping ice cream 
by this means without ice. 

The balsa tree, which is native to Ecuador and other parts of 
Central and South America, ordinarily attains its maximum height of 3C 
to 40 feet within one year after the seed is planted. The diameter in- 
creases thereafter at the rate of about 5 inches a year, and the trees 
are ready for cutting at the end of five years. 

Little heavy machinery is required in logging and mill operations 
with this wood, since one man can handle a large log without difficulty. 

Millions of Trees Planted in the Adiror.dacks 

Private companies this year carried out in the Adirondacks what 
is said to be the greatest tree-planting program on record for that re- 
gion. The Chateaugay Ore and Iron Company set out 2,300,000 trees 
raised in its own nursery, mainly red pine, on 19,000 acres of its land 
between upper and lower Chateaugay Lakes. The St. Regis Paper Company 
planted 1,200,000 trees from its nursery in wilderness lands in Santa 
Clara, Franklin County, employing 95 men under the direction of foresters. 

Grow i iy; Redwood Timber 

In the California redwood region companies which produce somewhat 
more than 70 per cent of the annual cut are managing their properties 
on the basis of permanent forest production, and companies which produce 
an additional 20 per cent are now investigating the possibilities of 
such management. Plantings during the winters of 1923-24 and 1924-25 
covered approximately 800 and 3,500 acres respectively. It is expected 
that the increase in the supply of nursery stock will permit the planting 


of 6,500 acres next winter and of still larger areas in siiccee&ing years. 
In addition to fire protection and plant in- on cat-over lands, the first- 
mentioned group of companies are conduct ing some experimental thinning 
of second-growth stands to determine the possibility of marketing mate- 
rial from this source and also the effect of the thinning up° n ^hc trees 
which remain. 

Growing pulp T/oocl at Bo^alusa 

Since the organization of its forestry department in 1920 the Great 
Southern Lumber Company, Bogal-sa, La., has reforested 73,980 acres of 
co.t-ovcr land with such success that this area can nor/ he counted on to 
grow each year an average of one cord of wood per acre. At this rate the 
reforested areas produce annually enough wood to operate the plants of 
the Bogalusa Paper Company about 300 days. The fire protection system in 
force over 219,000 acres, including the reforested areas, during the past 
fire season held down the total burned area to 6,516 acres, by 84 fires. 

Profit in Naturally Seeded Short leaf 

A profit of $100 an acre in 25 years on naturally seeded shortleaf 
pine is reported by E. A, Spainhour of Burke Cotinty, N. C. In a stand of 
pine which had come up in an old pasture 25 years ago he ct n .t and sold the 
timber on a tract of three-quarters of an acre. The cut amounted to 30 
cords, or the equivalent of 40 cords an acre. The wood sold for $5.00 a 
cord, or $200 an acre. For. Spainhour, who is a forest warden in the em- 
ploy of the forest service of the Forth Carolina Department of Conserva- 
tion and Development, recorded the costs of the operation arid found that 
the cutting and hauling each cost $1.25 per cord, malting the total expense 
$2.50 per cord. The profit was th\is $100 per acre, or $4.00 per acre for 
each year of the 25-year period - not at all bad for worn-out pasture land. 

Burke Cotinty is in western North Carolina where the Piedmont Plateau 
merges into the foothills of the Appalachians. The rate of growth is prob- 
ably somewhat slower there than at lower altit-j.des, but 40 cords in 25 years 
is an average growth of one and three-fifths cords yearly. 


Forestry Solves Premier, of G-e Praia Lar.dc""ncr 

That private forestry can be made so pay is beina demonstrated 
by G-. K. Sessions of Cogdell , G-a. The r.yrc exodus to the North end in- 
roads of the boll weevil left Mr. Sessions with 100,000 acres of land v.n- 
profi tabic for agricultural purposes. Phile many of his neighbors similarly 

situated Here leaving their plantations to seeh city employment or let- 
ting large areas go for taxes, he began a study of the materiel or. for- 
estry supplied by the Federal Government and the State of Georgia. After 
arranging for fire protection of his second— rro-ti. tiri! er, he provided 
an ideal seed-Ire", for slash pine by drainin :p areas an- 7 , cutting the 

cypress. This operation paid for itself, and the drained land soon pro- 
duced thousands of slash pine saplings. Ivtr. Sessions is nor netting 
$1-00 per acre annually from his timber and expects this income to in- 
crease each year as the trees grow ana lis operations continue. 

C orporation to Handle loaaed-off L^n'.s 

A mill ion- dollar corporation which -ill hold for reforestation 
purposes extensive cut-over timberlands in the State of "ashington has 
been organised at Tacoma, under the name of the TTeyerbaeuser Loaaed-off 
Land Company. C. S. Chapman, formerly of the P/c stern Forestry ana Con- 
servation Association and nov; forester for the "."eyerhaeuser interests, 
will be its active manager. All the stock a ill be held 1_> y Weyerhaeuser 

This is the first large-scale attempt by private capital to solve 
the reforestation problem in the Pacific Portia: est. 

The corporation is empowered to acquire loaaed-off lands and to 
engage in reforestation, land clearing, farming, stock raising, and the 
conduct of experimental and research work as a means of restoring idle 
ctvt-cver land to productivity. One of its first activities vail v e a sci- 
entific survey of logged- over lands, in which mere than 150,000 acres 
will be classified according to valv.e for agriculture or for timber grow- 

Money paid annually for freight on wood shipped into New York 
State v/ould meet the cost of reforesting nearly all the waste land in 
the State. According to estimates of the Pew York State College of For- 
estry, these freight charges amount to about $55,000,000; and the 
4,000,000 acres of waste land in Per;; York could be planted at an average 
expense of $10 to $15 an acre. 


Birds Multiply under Forest Protection 

On an area of some 35,000 acres of pincy woods cut-over land In 
Washington parish, near Bcgalusa, La. , fires and hops have ""eon kept 
out since 192o, ana cloves batch "by the thousand. Safe from these two 
enemies," the birds nest on the ground. Larks and qvail also have in- 
creased marvelously. If such protection is extended "both the r/ild 
pigeon and the trxlccy can be brotight .back to the forests of the South.— 
J. K. Johnson, Forester, Great Southern Ltariber Company, in the Southern 

Franconia Notch to. Become State Property 

The preservation of Franconia Notch, in the "iThite fountains, has 
been provided for through the appropriation of $200,000 toward its pur- 
chase by the State of Uenr Hampshire. Owing to the burning of the two 
summer hotels whose owners had for 50 ye^.rs protected the forests for 7 
miles up and Cov-k the Notch, sale of the area for lumbering purposes was 
contemplated. Conservationists, led by the Society for the protection 
of NeS7 Hampshire Forests, v/ere aroused by the danger to the beauty of 
the Notch. It is expected that the State fond will be supplemented by 
p optilar r ip t i on. 


Training Forest ?^,r.rgrs in Prussia 
By "> T . 1*. Sparhawk, U. S. Forest Service 

A candidate for a ranger (Forster) job in Prussia must be over 
17 and under 21 years of are, and mast submit with his application a 
biographical sketch, a birth certificate, a certificate of physical 
fitness, a certificate showing that he has a Rood common- school educa- 
tion, a certificate of /rood conduct from the police department, and a 
written agreement from his father or guardian to support him for at 
least five years. He is then allowed to take an oral and written ex- 
amination in German, geography, history, mathematics, natural history, 
and elementary physics and chemistry He cannot pass this examination 
if he shows serious deficiency in spoken and written German, no natter 
how good he may be in the other subjects. 

On passing the examination he is assigned to a training forest, 
which is a forest selected on the basis partly of forest conditions and 
economic development and. even mere on the personality of the ranger 
(porster) or supervisor (Gherforster) in charge. The regulations state: 

"The careful and thorough instraction and guidance of the student 
forester is one of the most important duties of the officer under whom he 


The candidate serves seven months (October 1 to jjpril 30) under 
a ranger. During this period he is supposed to become familiar with the 
native trees and the important shrubs and plants; to learn the life 
histories and habits of the forest animals, the correct methods of came 
utilization, the care ana training of hunting dogs, and the use of 
weapons; to learn the laws and regulations dealing with trespass; and 
to acquire practical experience in all kinds of forest work, including 
protection of timber and game, cultivation of the ranker station garden 
and pasture, timber cutting, road building, and planting. He may re- 
ceive regular day wages for the last three kinds of work. He must keep 
a diary and submit it once a month to the ranger ana supervisor. 


. After seven months he is assignee" 1 , to the supervisor' s office 
for five months' further training in field and office. At the end of a 
satisfactory year's work he is assigned to a forest school 'There he 
spends one year studying the theory of forestry. He must then pass an 
examination to enter a probationary period as a forest apprentice 
(porstrehilfer) and is sent for three months to a police school to learn 
his rights and duties as a police officer.- Phis is followed "by a year's 
field training under an experienced ranger in which he has to do all the 
work, including the clerical work, of a ranker district. Nine months are 
then spent in the supervisor's office, mainly as an assistant to the for- 
est clerk. The following two to three years are, spent on assignments 
all over the forest district- on silviculture, protection, improvement 
work, utilization, surveying, timber measurement, and in some cases work 
for not more than two months in an industrial plant. 

ThroughQixt the training period, excepting the nine months office 
assignment, he must keep, a diary showing what ho has done and what he 
has learned each day- Once every two month's all the trainees on a for- 
est are taken on a field trip "by the supervisor* and once a month each- 
mast prepare a paper on an assigned topic. . 

During the seventh (in some cases, the eighth) year, the candidate 
takes a final examination for permanent appointment as assistant ranger 
(H'ilfsforster) . This consists of six months continuous employment as a 
ranger., and a written and oral examination. When this final hurdle is 
passed the name of the successful candidate is entered on the register 
of assistant rangers, from which- appointments:' are made usually in order 
of rating. As a rule,' a man is appointed to a State forest' within the 
district in which he was trained. 

Candidates are forbidden to marry prior to their final appoint- 
ments, although special permission may he granted in some cases. 

It is evident that the training required of Prussian forest admin- 
istrative officers is not' so overbalanced on the theoretical side as .- 
some have supposed, with one year of forest school to six years of 
"practical" training. It. is also ohvicus that in Prussia the profession. 
of forestry, even for the lower positions, is taken pretty seriously, 
and men who r.o. into it do so intending to make' it a life work and one in 
which they can feel considerable pride. 


England. Morts Madison Laboratory Methods 

Methods of measuring the strength of timber's originated and devel- 
oped by the U. S. Forest products Laboratory at Madison, '.Vis., have been 
adopted by the Forest Products Research Board of England and the labor- 
atories Of Canada, anr! TnPin. TVi a nrf.inn ig f-h'a ntitonmr. rs-? n fn-nff 

atorics of Canada and India. This get ion is the outcome of a forest 
products sT'.rvey conducted by C: J. Chaplin, head, of the timber mechanics 
section of the Forest products Research Board of England, in the coiirse 
of which Mr. Chaplin spent two months studying the organization and meth- 
ods for dealing with timber exemplified in the U. -S. Forest Products 

T.rih nm+.r>vrT 

Forest Hews from prance and Belgium. 
By Nelson Courtlandt Brown 

On a French 'municipal forest 

At Fpinal is one of the most interesting examples of a profitable 
and successfully managed municipal forest to be found in France. Al- 
though the forest is made up largely of beech and oak, it includes also 
working circles of Scotch pine and spruce and even some white pine. 
About 70 years ago in a birch swamp which, had repeatedly failed to grow 
birch, alder, and spruce the American white pine was tried in mixture 
with an equal quantity of spruce. The latter failed completely in the 
competition and the white pine proved to be most successful. How there 
are 100 to 150 trees per acre, most of them from 16 to 20 inches in 
diameter. The seed from these white pine trees has been scattered by 
the wind to distances of two and even three miles, where individual white 
pines are to be seen growing in with oak coppice. This is a good place 
to study the maximum distribution of" white pine seed by wind, since the 
seed could not have come from any other source than these original white 

In this forest Italian specialists are employed in hewing cross 
ties from the beech and oak trees thinned at an age of 50 to 60 years. 
They also hew railway timbers, bridge planks, and scaffold planks.. For 
railway ties the trees arc hewed on two sides and if large enough are 
placed in a rack and ripped through the middle with an old-fashioned 
double frame saw, one man standing on top of the rack and another man 
below. These Italians receive si francs for making the railroad ties and 
three of them make an average of 35 ties per day. The railways pay 18f 
francs apiece for the beech ties delivered at the railway station .at EpinaL 
It costs 1.1 francs per tie to have them transported 7 kilometers to a 
railroad station. 


Douglas fir in France ana. Belgium 

In contrast with the American system of producing forest tree 
seedlings at large nurseries, the French method is to decentralize 
the growing of seedlings by having many of the forest guards grow them 
in small nurseries in the vicinity where the field riant ing is to he 
done. The French are now growing millions of Douglas fir trees from 
seeds sent by Charles Lathrop Pack to, reforest the war-devastated re- 
gions. In the upland regions of the, the Moselle, the Lower 
Vosges, and the Jirgonne, soil and climate are admirably adapted to the 
growing of Douglas fir- and the little trees do splendidly. Excellent 
examples of the growth of Douglas fir from 20 to 50 years of age may be 
seen in the forest of Compiegne near the Armistice Monument, in the 
Forest Experiment Station of the National French Forest School near 
Nancy, and at several points in the high plateau region between the 
Mease and the Moselle rivers. 

The splendid rate of growth of Douglas fir in the upland regions 
of northern France and in the plateau regions of Belgium may be observed 
in the Ardennes, where a forest of 125 acres of Douglas fir 45 years of 
age contained 500 cubic meters per hectare. This is at an elevation 
of 1,200 to 1,300 feet. During the invasion of Belgium the Germans cat 
this forest and shipped the wood to Germany, 

Belgian foresters improve Scotch pine .stock 

In New England and elsewhere in the United States many planted 
Scotch pine trees have not grown so thriftily nor become so sturdy as 
they should. Apparently many of these trees are from poor seed. Sim- 
ilar results in many of the European forests led Belgian foresters about 
25 years ago to start a most interesting experiment from which definite 
results can now be shown. Quarter-acre plots were planted with Scotch 
pine seed of over 20 different origins, that is Scotch pine seed from 
Scotland, England, Prussia, Bavaria, south Sweden, North Sweden, Fin- 
land, Russia, Northern Italy, Northern France, Czechoslovakia, Poland, 
and several different localities in Belgium. The best sample plot now 
shows trees more than twice as large as those of the poorest plot. The 
trees in the former, which are tall and straight and well farmed, come 
from seed developed in the upland regions of Belgium, particularly in 
the Ardennes. Some seeds of the best plot have been brought to the 
United States and ,ire being tried out in an experiment at the New York 
State College of Forestry with the hope that a new variety of Scotch 
pine can be developed in this country. The seeds showed about 100 per 
cent germination and the seedlings developed from them have grown more 
thriftily than any other Scotch pine seedlings developed in the same 

m 08— 

End owment Fund-f~r deforestation in Spain 

Count Esteban Salazar ColOgan, late Spanish Consul in San" 
Francisco, at his death beqiieathed~a large fortune to the support -of 
reforestation in Spain. The- income fron-the fund created by his -will 
is estimated to amount to between 5 and 6 million pesetas (about 
$1,500,000) a year. The testator indicated by what method he wished 
the work of replanting to be carried .out in- various provinces of Spain, 
and entrusted the .guardianship and administration of his bequest to the 
School of Forestry Engineers of Madrid. 

The -count's enthusiasm for reforestation is said to have sprang 
from the impression made upon him 'oy reforestation successes in Cali- 

Her.' Zealand plant in.": Pro.iect 

New Zealand Forest products, Ltd., his undertaken as its fourth 
reforestation project the planting of 55,000 acres of Monterey cypress, 
California redwood,* Douglas fir, and eucalyptus at a location about 132 
miles south of Auckland. '.Vith an annual rainfall of 65 inches well dis- 
tributed through the year, a soil" which is a combination of pumice and 
deep black loam, and annual temperature extremes of 50 and 80 degrees 
only, timber grows very rapidly in this region. Monterey pine planted 
in 18.85 and milled in 1914 attained an average height of 92 feet and an 
average diameter of about 4 feet, and Douglas fir grows 1 inch in diam- 
eter in a year..' 

Grade Marking in Northern Europe 

In Norway, Sweden, and Finland, which with Russia form the 
most important source of softwoods in the international trade, the 
grade marking of lumber has been carried on for almost ICO years and 
nearly every piece of lumber shipped by responsible mills is grade 
marked. This has stabilized' the North European export business to a 
remarkable extent and has done more in the way of market extension 
"than any other kind of advertising could possibly do. Even in con- 
tracts Of foreign governments certain brands are not infrequently 
specified. Unbranded lumber 'from these cotmtries is looked on with sus- 
picion by foreign buyers and is sold at considerable 'reduction in price 
even in cases in which an inspection would not reveal inferior quality. 
Both the Swedish and the Finhisn' Exporter s'~ Associations maintain their 
own experts in the principal foreign markets who check up on claims 
against Finnish and Swedish lumber." 


Chestnut Troubles in Pran ce 

Rapid cutting threatens to exhaust the chestnut forests of 
Prance, according; to a report "by the commercial attache of the Paris 
Embassy. . These forests had already "been drained to a serious extent 
when the discovery of the method of extract ing tannin from chestnut 
trees and the development of the tanning industry greatly accelerated 
cuttings. Porest fires and the so-called ink disease have also made 
their inroads, and in some districts owners of chestnut proves have 
thought it best to cut them in order to prevent their destruction "by 
these agencies. The intention to undertake cuttings must now be announced 
"before local authorities, "but this requirement has "beer, largely ineffec- 

Under a hill now before the Trench parliament no owner could cut 
more than 10 chestnut trees at a time without the permission of the public 
authorities, trees less than 50 years old could not be cut except by spe- 
cial authorization, and owners would be obliged to cut trees level with 
the ground and to replant at such a rate as to replace all trees within 
twe years. Under these conditions land on which new chestnut groves were 
established would be free from taxation for 2c years. 

Increase in Porest Area of Prance 

prance exports more lumber than she imports. Nevertheless the Min- 
istry of Agriculture states that the present program of reforestation in- 
sures the continuance of a net annual increase in forest area. The re- 
forestation policy in force provides not- only for planting "by the Serv- 
ice des Eatac et des Porets in the national forests and in adjacent lands 
whose owners desire such planting, but subsidies, in money and in kind 
(seeds and saplings), to townships and individuals interested in refores- 

Afforestation in Ireland 

The Irish Government has required 29,524 acres of land for affor- 
estation and is negotiating with a view to additional purchases. Its 
plantings up to the end of 1924 totalled 5,400 acres, and during the year 
1925 will be increased "by 2,000 a-cres. 



Gifford piiicho't has been awarded the Roosevelt Medal for dis- 
tinguished service in behalf of cniservr.tion. The medal for work in 
promoting; outdoor life goes this year to George Bird Grinnel. The 
Roosevelt Awards are given annually in three out of ten fields. The 
medals were presented by the President at the TJhite House on my 15. 

C. E. Tillotson of the Washington office of the Forest Serv- 
ice mil on July 1 take charge of the -newly-cstabli shed inspection dis- 
trict in the Northeast, with heo-"\qrarterc at Amherst, !.?.ss. As the dis- 
trict forest inspector in this region, which includes the Eew England 
States and New York, Mr. Tillotson will ha* T e charge of the inspection 
work of the Clarke-Mcl&ry Law cooperation and of the distribution of 
forest planting stock. 

George Alfred Garratt has v een appointed assistant professor of 
forest products in the school of forestry of yale University. This 
appointment will enable the school to broaden its work in forest prod- 
ucts, particularly in the" field of trqical woe :1s. 

Mr. Garratt received his bachelor's degree in forestry from the 
•Michigan Agricultural College, and for nearly two years served as an 
instructor in forestry at that institution. He took his master's de- 
gree in forestry at Yale in 1923, having spent two summers as a research 
assistant at New Haven with Professor Record. During the past two years 
he has had charge of the department of forestry and engineering of the 
University of tre South, Sewance, Tennessee. 

Dr. -J. S. Doycp, pathologist of the Department of .Agriculture, 
is making a six-months study of Douglas fir canker in England, Scotland, 

and Ireland. 


George C. Joy has accepted the office of State supervisor of for- 
estry for Washington, left vacant "by the resignation af 3?red E. Pape. 
Mr. Joy has been chief firewarden of the Washington Forest Fire Associa- 
tion since 1913. 

P. T. Titus fe,s been employed as secretary and forester of the 
newly-organized Vermont State Forestry Association. Mr., Titus is a re- 
cent gradu&te of the- N&r York State College of Forestry. 

Ben z. Fish has been appointed to the recently created position 
of state Forester of Idaho, Mr. Bush was graduated from the University 
"of Idaho in 1303, and has for many years been connected with the Land 
Department of Idaho. . 

H. "Ey Malnsten has been- appointed assistant professor in the 
forestry division of the University of California. Ee will assist Doc- 
tor Sampson in range management and range investigative work throughout 
the State. Mr. Malmsten received the degree of E. S. in forestry from 
the University of Idaho in 1917 and since then has been engaged in range 
investigations with the Forest Service. 

Professor Mulford of the University of California has been ap- 
pointed a member cf the conservation committee of the California Devel- 
opment Board. This organization is the equivalent of a State chamber 
of commerce, and takes an active interest in the forests of California 
and their relation. to the future well-being of the State. Professor 
Mulford is also serving on the board of directors of the Sierra Club and 
on the executive committee of the Save the Redwoods League. 

K. A. Pyerson has .left the position of farm .advisor for Los Ange- 
mty., California, to accept one with the newly-established Agricul- 

les Coi 

tural Experiment Station in Haiti. 


■'■'•■ Books and Famphl et s 

Canada in Relation to the W orld' z Timber D?u-l v. Ey F. Story and 
E. D. Crai~. Ottawa, 1S24. (Canada-Dept. of the Interior - 

Forestry Branch. Forestry topic no. 1.) 

Contrib utions towards a Knowledge of T r -istc ;i . Fibre in Trees . By H, G. 
Champion. Calcutta, 1225. (Indian forest records, v. ii, Ft, 2.) 

Elements, of Conservation . Fy G. Harris. Richmond, Va. ' Johnson 
pub. co. , 1924. 

Facts and Po ssibilitie s of Silviculture in Canada, The . By E. H. 

Finlayson. Ottawa, 1924. (Canada-Dept. of the Interior - Forestry 
Branch. Forestry topic no. 3.) 

Forest Fire Protection in Canada . By F. R. Cameron. Ottawa, 1924. 
(Canada - Dept. of the Interior - Forestry Branch. Forestry topic 
no. 2.) 

Guide to the Trees. A . ' By Carlton' C. Curtis. Hew York, 1325. Green- 
berg pub. , inc. 

How to Know and Use the Trees . By William Chambers Coker and Enid 
Mr.therly. Chapel Hill, N. C . , 192 2. (Univ. of p. C. - University 
extension division bulletin', v. 3, no. 14.) 

L ot's Know Some Trees: brief descriptions of the ^rinci^al California 
trees . By~C. H. Shinn.' Washington, D. C. , 1925. (U.S. - Pcpt. of 
Agriculture. Miscellaneous circular no. 31.) 

lumber Market in the Netherlands . By A. H, Cxhqlm. Washington, D. C. , 
* 1925. (U.S.- Dept. of Commerce -'Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce. Trade promotion series no. 4.) 

" Lumber Trade Statistics; their interpretation and use . By C. S. Keith. 
New Raven, 1925. (Yale Forest School. Lumber industry series 5.) 


National Conferen ce on Uti lization of Forest products, Washington , 
D.C. , November 19 and 2q , 1924, Report of the , Washington, 1924. 
(U.S.- Deft, of Agriculture. Miscellaneous circular no. 39.) 

National Paries in Southern Appalachian Mountains: Hearings, Jan. 29 , 
1925. U. S. Congress - Eouse - Committee on public lands . 
Washington. D. C, 1925. 

Need of a Definite Forest polic y. By'C D. Howe. Ottawa. 1925. 
(Canada- Dept. of the Interior - Forestry Branch. Forestry topic 
no. 4.) '.' 

Report of Board of Commissioners of Agriculture and Forestry (Hawaii) 
for the "biennial period ended Dec. 31. 1924. Honolulu, 1925 . 

Report (Fourteenth Annual) of the State Forester. Oregon- State v oard 
of forestry. 1924 . Salem, 1925. 

Save the Forest Week, April 19 to April 25. 1925: forest facts. Canada . 
Ottawa, Govt, printer, 1925. 

Seasoning and Preservation of Timber, Th e. By Ernest G. Blake. London, 
1924, Chapman and Hall, ltd. 

Utilizing Poles and Timber in Farm Building . By G. Amundson. East 
Lansing, Mich. , 1924. (Michigan Agricultural College - Extension 
division. Extension "bulletin no. 24.) 

Vermont Tiriberland Owners' Association, Annual report, 1924 . White 
River Junction, Vt. , 1925. 

Articles in Periodicals 

Balm of Gil cad on the Prairie, The, :3y Archibald Mitchell. Illustrated 
Can. Forest and Outdoors, May, 1925. 

Balsa Wood, Timber Trade Journal, May 9, 1925. 

Bois Mort et Acidite du Sol, by L. Drumaux. Bulletin de la Sociefe 
Centrale Forcstiere dcBelgiqus, March- April , 1925. 

California Forest Service Fire Protection Sale Policy. Timberman, 
April, 1925. 

Chance for Forestry, The, by Ralph C. Staebner. American Lumberman, 
May 9, 1925. 


Conservation problem of the Paper and Pulp Industry, by Kerry Solon 
Graves, science .Monthly, March, 1925. 

Development of Pott er-driven , Port-hie Pumps for Forest lire Fighting, 
The, by E. P. Ross, 'Jest Coast Lumberman, April 15, 1925. 

Dogwoods and their Great Variety, The. By Ernest H. Wilson, House and 
Garden, April, 1925. 

Economic Aspects of -Forestry, by " T . B. Greeley, Journal of Land and pub- 
lic Utility Economics, April, 1925. 

Effect of Height of Chipping on Olooresin Production, by E. Gerry, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Journal of Agricultural Research, 
Jan. 1, 1925. 

Farms to be Major Source of Future Timber Supply, by Oscar E. Bradfute, 
Southern lumberman. May 2, 1925. • 

Forest Ranger, The, by 1. U. Rush, Hunter-Trader-Trapper, April, 1925. 

Forest Resources, Past and Present, by H. F. Eolzclav; and W. G. Edwards, 
Southern Lumberman, April 25, 1925. 

Forestry in Porto Rico, by U. B. Durlar.d, Univ. of Washington. For est 

Club quarterly, larch, 1925. 

Forestry Feeds of Texas, by J. L. Thompson, Gulf Coast Lumberman, 
April 15, 1925. 

Forestry Situation in the Southern States, Lumber Trade Journal, 
April 15, 1925. 

Land Policy for the Public Domain, a, by George Stewart, Economic 
Geography, torch, 1925. 

Liimberman Decides to Settle Down, The, 'jit \1 . Compton, Nation's Business, 
April, 1925. 

Maladie des Ormes, La, by A. A., Bulletin de la Socicte Central e Fores- 
tier e de Belgique. 

Her; Yorl: State Forest Policy, by 2. H. Hall, Uotf York Forestry Year 
Bcolc, 1925. 

Opportunities in the Appalachians for the Practice of Forestry, by 
I. F. Eldredge, Southern Lumberman, April 25, 1925. 

' -45- 

Oregon-TTashington pLirnitiire Indv.stry," by"tf. H. Gibbons and H. M, Johnson, 
_ Timberman,- April, 1925. 

Paper Industry, "The* v y r. G. Crawford, Paper Industry,' April, 1925. 

Philipp's New Metnoc! of Constructing Yield Tables, by C. R, Ranganathan 
and S. Howard, Indian Tor ester, March, 1925. 

pinchot, Gifford (C-.P. 1 '), by Chas. Lathrop Pack, Review of .Reviews,' 
June, 1925. 

Recreation. Value of National Forests, by L. P. Kneipp, Parks and Recrea- 
tion, March-April,' 1925. 

Reforestation Problems in California, by P. G. Redington, Lumber 'Torld 
Review, April' 10, 1925. ' 

Relation of Geography, to the Timber Supply, by XI. B. Greeley, Economic 
Geography-, 'March,' 1925. 

Senarkible Pine, Pinus Radi'ata, in New Zealand, The, by H. A. &oudiO, 
Australian Forestry Journal, January 15, 1925.- 

Report by the Conjiiittee -on State Forest Policy, A, New York Forestry Year 
poo?:, 1925. 

Restoration of the Oldest Known Forest, by J. Austen Bancroft, Science, 
May 15, 1925. 

P.oads Now Requiring Ties Greater in Size and Better in Quality, by 
Howard Andrews, Cross Tie Bulletin, Jfey, 1925. 

Second Growth Tupelo, by E. 7, Fadley, Lumber Trades Journal, June 1, 


Site Classification Scheme for the Western Cascades Forest Region, A, 
by S. J. Hanslik, Univ. of Jashiu-;toii Forest Club Quarterly, March, 

Slash Disposal in the Douglas Fir Region, by 0. 0. Scott, Forest patrol- 
nan, Fay 15, 1925. 

Small Fill Problem, The, by TJard Delar.ey/ southern Lumberman, Fay 2, 1925. 

Some Ecological Effects of Shading. Coniferous Nursery Stock, by Clarence 
F. Korstian, Ecology, Jan., 1925.. 

Some Mental Obstacles to F ores try, by 7; . shepard, American Lumberman, 
April 11, 1925. 


Sewing and Planting Season for Western Yellow pine, by 77. G. 7'ahlcn- 
berg, U. S. Dept. of Agrictilture, Journal of Agricultural Research, 
Feb. 1, 1925. 

State Forestry, "oy C. H. Tiliotson, Timberman, April, 1325. 

Steps Toward a Comprehensive Forest policy for the State of New York, 
by Ralph S. Hosmer, New York Forestry Year "Bock, 1S25. 

Synopsis of North American Crataegi, by E. J. Palmer, Journal of the 
Arnold Arboretum, Jan. -Apr. , 1925. 

Theory and Practice in Land Classification, by P. S. Lovepoy, Jotirnal 
of Land and Public Utility Economics, April, 1925. 

Town Forests as Game and Bird Sanctuaries, by H. A. Reynolds, Nature 
Magazine, April, 1225. 

Trees at a Cent Apiece: one crop that steadily rises in value, by P. S, 
Lovejoy, Country Gentleman, April 11, 1925. 

Tinbcrland Laws and Regulations in British Columbia, "cy J. o. Cameron, 
Univ. of Washington Forest Club Quart early, March, 1925. 

Value of Arboretums, The, by L. P. Jensen, Gardeners' Chronicle of 
America, Feb. , 1925. 

Volume of Sugar Maple Trees, by Alfred I-:. Chittenden, Mich. Agricul- 
tural Esp. Station Quarterly Bulletin, May, 1925. 

What the Clarke- McFary Forestry Law Means to the Tic Producer, by 
Frederick Dunlap, Crocs Tie Bit?, let in, Fay, 1925. 

"Till the Lumber Industry Settle Down or Settle Up? by Wilson Compton, 
Southern Lumberman, May 2, 1925. 

Bibl io^raphi es 
(Prepared by Helen E. Stockbridge, Librarian, U. S. F rest Service) 

Technique of Volume and Growth Studies, April 1, 1925. 
Forest Taxation, United States, Revised, June 1, 1925. 
Preparation of Volume Tables, June 1, 1925. 


Publications I s srec 1 . by the Frre c t Servi ce fr on May 1 to, June 50 , 1925 

Department Bulletin 12S8, Control of Decay in Pulp and Pulpwood. 

Map Folder- Ochoco national Forest. 

Journal of AfTicrltr.r::] Research Separates - (1) Effect of Height 
Clipping on Oleoresin production; (2> Sowing and Planting Season 
for '.Test em Yellqn Pine. 

Miscellaneous- Circular 36, Wichita National Forest and Game Preserve: 
Oklahoma's Mountain Mecca. 





OCTOBER, 1925. 







November, 1925 

Published bimonthly by the Forest Service, 
U> S, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 


p a~ e 

Announcements 3 - ^ 

State forestry departments and organizations 5~12 

Education 13-l6 

Forest Service notes 17-22 

General forest news 23-26 

Foreign notes 27-3O 

personals 31-3^ 

Articlcs, bibliographies, and publications 35-3^ 

1 - 

The Massachusetts forestry Association pnnounces a Few England 
Forestry Congress to he held i. Springfield, Mass., December 10-12. 

The Oklahoma Forestry Commission, whicix is S et " tln S ^ s program 
under way and hopes to begin active work u«ju»* t:ic new State law Lofor-o 
the first of the year, is looking for a man to serve as State forester. 

Send It In 

Svery "subscriber" to the Forest Worker. mast run across at 
least one interesting and helpful hit of news in the course of the two 
months between issues. If he would make it a point personally to jot 
it down and send it in to the editor--an announcement, a personal, a 
"brief account of some development in practical forestry, forest legis- 
lation, or fire prevention — he would he more than repaid by the in- 
creased interest and usefulness of the Worker. 

The best way is to write a letter to the editor at once, before 
the idea gets cold. It is not necessary to put the story into form for 
publication. Just give the facts; the editor will do the rest. Of 
course, original articles are desired, and the Worker is not receiving 
as many of these as it should from State and private foresters. We 
realize that a forester is usually overworked and may not often have 
time for the formal article. But a ]etter is easy and takes mighty 
little time. Send it in--the editor will bless you and sd will all 
your c o 1 1 e ague s . 

4 - 


Association Fin ance s State Forestry in Missour i 

The Missouri Forestry Association has made a grant to the State 
hoard of agriculture of $10,000 to finance forestry work in the State 
during the biennium ending January 1, 1927. Except for this action 
the forestry department created at the recent session of the State 
legislature could not operate, since the appropriation made by the 
general assembly for its support was vetoed by Governor Baker. The 
Missouri Forestry Association has also made a grant of $750 to the 'Uni- 
versity of Missouri for farm forestry extension in cooperation with the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture daring the year ending July 1, 1926. 

Outlines of a forestry policy and program drafted by the associ- 
ation were adopted by the State board of agriculture. The outline of 
policy reads in part as follows: 

"The first efforts of the department of forestry will be educa- 
tional and directed toward more adequate appreciation of our need for 
better forests and bow to get them." 

11 The farmer is the central figure around which the practice of 
forestry in Missouri will develop." 

" The woodlands in Missouri are now in the hands of a large num- 
ber of owners and the general practice of forestry promises to develop 
most speedily as a private and not as a public enterprise. There is no 
special or immediate need for public forests excepting well-distributed 
model forests none exceeding a few thousand acres in extent." 

"Wildfire in the Woodlands of Missouri is now causing the decay 
and loss of enough timber each year to supply all our wood-using indus- 
tries. The department of forestry will cooperate with local communi- 
ties, foreet owners, county and State agencies, and the Federal Govern- 
ment in the prevention and suppression of wildfire in the woods." 

Activities by the State department of forestry began on Septem- 
ber 1. Frederick Dunlap is serving both as State forester and as for- 
ester of the agricultural extension service. 

— \j — 

Ppyes try Reaw ake ns in Delaware 

The Legislature of Delaware at its recent session passed a law 
providing for the appointment of a commission of four to "make investi- 
gations concerning the preservation and conservation of Delaware for- 
ests" and to "report to the General Assembly of the State of Delaware 
at the next session the results of their investigations and make such 
recommendations as they may deem necessary. 1 ' Ho funds we're provided 
except for the printing of the report of the commission. 

George W. Butz/and Willard Springer have "been appointed members 

of this commission. I.Ir . Butz , a graduate of the Biltmore forest School, 
is in the lumber "business. Mr. Springer is a graduate of the Yale Por- 
est School and was a.t one time a forester with the Pennsylvania Bail- 

Delaware had an official investigation of its forestry situation 
as long ago as 1907, and in 1909 its legislature enacted a very good 
forestry law— hut without making any appropriation. That law was re- 
pealed in 1921 to make way for one giving the State hoard of agriculture 
authority over forestry work. 

These past efforts indicate that forestry sentiment has "been in 
existence in the State for a long time. The problem of the new commis- 
sion is to hring this sentiment into activity, especially in the direc- 
tion of a reasonably adequate legislative program. The commission is 
planning to carry nn an educational campaign through newspaper publicity, 
public lectures, and meetings with the State grange, the Parent-Teachers' 
Association, chambers of commerce, women's organizations, and local clubs. 

Forestry Cou rses and State nu rsery for ITort h Carolina 

North Carolina this year establishes its first State forest nur- 
sery and the first forestry courses 'in its State college. The' State Col- 
lege at Raleigh and the North Carolina Department of Conservation and 
Development are sharing the expenses of providing land, for a nursery, pay- 
ing a forester to take charge cf it, and carrying out an educational cam- 
paign to encourage better management of farm woodlotc. In the distribu- 
tion of planting stock from the nursery to farmers the State will avail 
itself of Poderal assistance offered through the Clarke -MclTary Law. 
P. H. Claridge, a graduate of the Yale School of Forestry, has been ap- 
pointed to the position cf State forest nurseryman and instructor in 
forestry in the State college. 

- 6 - 

Georgi a To res try W^r k C r^anized 

The Georgia State Ecard of Forestry net to "organize on September 
17. A committee of three was appointed bo investigate the subject of 
income for the hoard and to nominate a State forester. Also a committee 
of five was given authority to cooperate with the Georgia Forestry Asso- 

E. M. I-uiburrow, supervisor of the Alabama National Forest, has 
since been appointed to the position of State forester, and took office 
on October 15. Mr. Lufbnrrow is 'a native Georgian and received his 
training in forestry at the'r/si'ty of Georgia Forestry School, gradu- 
ating in 1914. Pe has been a me-ioor of the U. S. Forest Ser^/ice since 
1915, with the exception of two years spent in France with the forestry 
regiment. He "became supervisor of trie Alabama National Forest in 1919. 

The new State forester is faced with emergency conditions. Owing 
to th-e ex^ene'ed drought froid which Georgia has suffered this summer, the 
opening fall and winter fire season will be one of great hazard. 

iiLhl 1U: f f J P_Ep_thus i asm, in Pew York 

Ten million forest tree seedlings were cus^ributed in New York 
State this spring--two mi 1 lion more than in any previous year. In at 
least 10 counties the beginning s of county forests were made. On Arbor 
Day the Fast Aurora Pod and Gun Club set out 170,000 trees on farms of 
Erie County, and business came to a standstill in East Aurora because 
practically every available person, yov^i^ or old, was planting trees. 
The Broome County Sportsmen's Association distributed 50,000 trees among 
the county school districts for the establishing of school forests. 
Children planted 100,000 troes in school and Eoy Scout forests. Farmers 
set out more than 500,000 along the highways of the State under the di- 
rection of the locfl farm bureaus, and bought a million for farm planting. 

Tie New Pork State Conservation Commission announces that it will 
ha-e 50 million seedlings available for 1926. In cooperation with the 
railroads, it plans to offer free transportation of planting stock next 
spring to forest-iand owners in any county who will arrange to pool their 
orders so that shipment can be made to a single point within the county. 
One county preparing to take advantage of this offer already has 400 
orders of not 1 ess than 1,900 trees each. 

- 7 - 

Progress in Hew Hampshire 

New Hampshire has male progress in several lines of forestry 
activity this :/ear. One of its new laws provides for partial t %}^%£ T q 
from taxation for a period of 30 years of lands not exceeding $25/ m 
value when plantei to forest trees. Ihe slash disposal law has been 
amended to require disposal of slash v/ithin 30 days after cutting. 
V/oodlards ma ,r be closed to all persons whose presence is deemed to he 
a denser to them, during periods of extreme drought, and when they are 
closed it is made a violation of law to drop lighted matches, cigars, 
cigarettes, or other articles likely to cause fires within 200 yards 
of any forests or woodlands, whether or not such act actually causes 
fire, the violation being punishable "by $50 fine and costs. All port- 
able sawmills must he registered with the State forester and equipped 
with approved spark arresters, and slash must he removed 100 feet from 
all portable mills. 

New Hampshire has during the year pur chased State forests aggre- 
gating 13,000 acres, and has appropriated $200,000 for the purchase of 
Pranconia Notch. 

In response to a letter sent out by the State forester in 1924, 
38 towns have now appointed coiumittees to look into the feasibility of 
establishing town forests. Many of these have reported, and 7 towns 
have appropriated money to buy forest sites or to plant areas already 
owned. Ibis makes a total of 31 town forests in the State. 

The Hew Hampshire lumbermen's Association has undertaken a sur- 
vey to inform lumber producers of all possible outlets for their par- 
ticular products and otherwise to bring about a more stable condition 
of the lumber industry. V,"ood-rorking and lumber-using firms in all 
parts of the Stete are being visited and special efforts are being made 
to learn how much and what kinds of lumber arc being shipped from out- 
side sources. F.ichard T. Pisher, Director of the Harvard Porest at 
Petersham, LJass.. , is cooperating with the association in this survey, 
and his assistant Mr. A. C. Cline is doing the necessary field work. 

Winnebago County, Illinois, ha.s organized under the State's 
forest reserve lav/ and now devotes £60,000 a year to the purchase and 
maintenance of county forests. It has acquired six forests, employs a 
county forester with, two assistants, and is putting in a. nursery. Ho 
timber has as yet been sold from these forests. They are all game 
refuges and are popular as recreation grounds. 

- 3 - 

Tup Big Fores try la ws for - Po rto Pi c o_ 

The Legislature of Porto Rico • this year enacted two forestry- 
laws. The first provides for -educed taxation of lands which are "being 
reforested. In order to secure the benefits of this law a landholder 
must (1) plant forest trees on roc lees than 5 cuerdas (2 acres) of 
land from which the original forest has teen removed, prior to July 1, 
19:30; (2) plant not less than 6C0 trees per cue r da (1,500 trees per acre), 
distributing them correctly; and (3) agree to continue to care for and 
cultivate his plantation during a period of five years. Lands for which 
tax exemption is claimed will he inspected by the forest service of the 
insular department of agriculture and labor, and if the claim is ap- 
proved will be inspected by it at least ence a year while the exemption 
remains in effect. If the department of agriculture and labor reports 
favorably to the treasurer the lands will be assessed at the rate of 
$1.00 per cuerda. ($2.50 per acre) for the five fiscal years succeeding 
the application. An adverse report by the department at a later date 
will result in cancellation of the lower assessment. 

The second Porto Pdcan forestry law of the year provides for a 
study by the department of agriculture and labor of a practical plan 
for the proper development and distribution of forests along the coast 
and in the interior of the island, with special consideration of water- 
shed protection; for the acquisition by purchase, grant, legacy, or ex- 
propriation of forest lands, timbered or untimibered, to become part of 
a system of insular forests; and for a bond issue of $50,000 to cover 
the expenses of acquiring, planting, and improving these forests. 

The decision of the Fo^to F.ican government to spend $50,000 on 
forests and forestry has considerable significance in view of the size 
of the island and its financial limitations. Official estimates place 
the wealth of Porto Pico at about $300,000,000, which is much less than 
that of any of the States. 

Eme rgency Fi re Protectio n Pay in Alabama 

A ''Special Forest Protection Day" was observed on October 16 in 
Alabama, where great damage has been done to the forests within the past 
year by -fire and drought. In his proclamation designating this day the 
governor requested, among other things, that operators of engines and 
boilers using wood and coal make a special inspection of all spark- 
arresting devices, and that railroad authorities, highway crews, land 
clearer s, and all other persons discontinue the use of fire in the open 
for any purpose during the existing drought. He urged that the day be 
observed in all schools of the State. . 

- 9 - 

lhe Governor of mt th Carolina o n Tire Protection 

Governor Angus W. McLean of North Carolina has made a personal 
study of forest protection conditions in his State, and has given out 
an extended statement on the subject which reads in part as follows: 

"This whole region [the western part of the State] is interested 
not only in timber production, for which it is admirably adapted, out 
perhaps even more in recreation, namely, furnishing interest and amuse- 
ment, to the hundreds of thousands of visiters 7/ho annually spend more 
and more tine and money in ho th the mountain towns and country. If the 
people *+***.*****.*** realised the close connection "between the tourist 
trade end the prevention of forest fires there would be no need to enact 
laws and "bring prosecutions against those who set fire or refuse to 
fight it. The indifference of the residents of the towns is as hard to 
overcome and even harder to understand than the occasional antagonism 
of the rural people. 

"Forest fires have not "been confined to the mountain region nor 
is the advantage of fire prevention any greater there than in the other 
parts of the State. The growing of pine as a crop may be better adapted 
to eastern ! T orth Carolina than to the upland region, but if so land- 
owners have failed to recognise this advantage. Tires continue to burn 
unhindered in most of the Coastal Plain" counties, though fortunately 11 
counties are now cooperating with the State in its effort to reduce the 
fire damage. The stands of young growth and pine seedlings are deci- 
mated by annual fires and instead of raising a full crop of timber, or 
all the land is capable of using, one more frequently finds one-half a 
crop or less. How that the destructive hog and grazing cattle are ex- 
cluded by law from most of our cut-over and second growth forests, the 
only enemy we have to combat is fire. It has been well said that fire 
prevention is 85 per cent of forestry. 

"There are two ways in which the State can take the lead in this 
work. First, by adequately doing its fair part in the actual work on 
the ground, by providing adequate funds, and by employing leaders and 
conducting supervision and inspection. In the second place the State 
should provide through its general assembly for proper cooperation from 
landowners and local authorities. This should not be left optional but 
should be considered one of the duties required by the law." 

"Fire suppression is only an expedient while fire prevention is 
the ultimate goal. In order to secure permanent protection the cooper- 
ation of all parties mast be secured. Education, therefore, and pub- 
licity are the chief means to this end.**** Education and publicity is 
the only way to convert the public from carelessness to carefulness. 
The major activities of the State Forest Service so far as forest pro- 
tection is concerned are, in the order of their importance: education, 

- 10 - 

fire suppression, law enforcement. Though placed separately and third 
in the list of importance , law enforcement is looked upon "by the forest 
officers principally as an educational measure. This I feel is the 
right attitude, for while most people can be convinced "by reason a few 
can only be reached "by force. 

"It is my very earnest desire to see this work of forest pro- 
tection extended o ,T er the whole State. Certainly one-half and probably 
three-fourths of the 100 counties in this State should take definite 
and constructive steps to protect their forest resources. Fifty per 
cent of the area of the average farm in ITorth Carolina is woodland, so 
that the farmers are particularly interested in this work. I should 
like to see printed and put into force in this State some plan whereby 
one-half the total cost of forest fire prevention should he paid by 
local people, the landowners, wood-users, and county officials cooper- 
ating, the former contributing either on an acreage basis or preferably 
through taxation on a valuation basis. The other one-half of the cost 
should be borne by the State, the Federal Government cooperating. This 
would, I think, be preferable to the plan now being worked in some 
States whereby the local people pay all costs of fire suppression and 
the State assisted by the Federal Government pays all overhead expenses 
and cost of education and publicity. 

11 The difficulty of having cooperation optional with the counties 
and landowners is that should cooperation cease at any time and pro- 
tection be abandoned even for a few months, the whole work of years 
might very well be wasted. For this reason it seems to me most important 
that the work be put on a permanent basis, either supported entirely by 
State appropriations or which is much more equitable, the local people 
who, of course, are the most interested being required to bear their 
fair share of the costs of protecting their own timber of the timber of 
their county." 

Pennsylvania's primary forest fire tower system now includes 114 

lookout points, of which 110 are steel towers. The State owns all but 

four of these. One belongs to the U. S. Forest Service, one to a rail- 
road, and one tc a coal company. 

A survey of the forestry, situation in Arkansas, preparatory to 
cooperation provided for by Section 1 of the Clarke -McliTary Law, is to 
be launched in the first half of November. The Arkansas Soft Pine Bu- 
reau will assist the representative of the U. S. Forest Service in the 
conduct of this survey. 

- 11 - 

Planti ng Plans and perfor mance in Pennsylvania 

The planting of some eight million forest trees in Pennsylvania 
this spring failed to satisfy the department of forests and waters of 
that State. Tne department complains that at the present rate three 
centuries will pass by before all the idle forest land in Perm's Woods 
is brought back to productivity. ' Its ambition is to have 5,000 private 
land owners planting £0,000,000 forest trees annually by 1930. The 
number available for distribution next year is 9,623,000. 

Governor Pine hot in his fall Arbor Day proclamation stated that 
Pennsylvania has planted more than 35,000,000 trees on its State for- 
ests, and during the last 15 years has distributed more than 40,000,000 
forest trees to private landowners of the State. 

In connection with its forest tree distribution the Pennsylvania 
Department of Forests and Waters has published several very attractive 
illustrated leaflets. "Plant Porest Trees on Idle Acres," Circular 28, 
explains why it is necessary to plant forest trees, where they may be 
obtained, and how they should be planted, and includes 12 photographs 
illustrating planting methods. "Porest Tree Planting Recommendations," 
Circular 29, gives general advice in regard to choosing species for 
different purposes and soil conditions. "Porest Trees to Plant," 
Circular 31, describes rather fully the growth characteristics of the 
different species offered for distribution, their uses, their suscepti- 
bility to disease and insect attacks, etc. , and states the conditions 
under which the department distributes seedlings and transplants with- 
out charge except for transportation. 

- 12 - 


Four -Tear Co urse at Louisiana Sta t e _ Un iversity 

The University of Louisiana this year offers for the first time 
a four-year coiirse leafing to the B. 5. degree 'in. forestry. Hereto- 
fore it has offered no advanced work in forestry, ■ .although general 
courses have for many years "been conducted by Prof. Jordan G. Lee, now 
head of the departments of forestry and horticulture. G. D. Marckworth, 
formerly assistant State forester in charge of forest fire prevention 
work in Maryland, has been appointed to'- the position of assistant pro- 
fessor of forestry. A movement' is on foot among, southern lumbermen to 
endow a chair of forestry in the university. 

The forest school occupies rooms in the splendid new $5,000 iOOO 
plant of the university, south of Baton Rouge. 

A feature favorable to the establishment of a forest school in 
Louisiana is the opportunity to make use of the unique and extensive 
forestry demonstrations at Urania on land belonging to Henry Hardtner. 
Another is the laboratory facilities provided by the Great Southern 
Lumber Co. in its plant at Bogalusa and in its pine plantations, which 
are being increased this winter by 6,000 acres. 

The course announced emphasizes timber production and utiliza- 
tion rather than engineering problems, giving an important place to the 
utilization of cut-over lands for farming and grazing and their re- 
forestation. Attendance at two summer forest camps of six weeks each 
is required. 

In establishing this school the University of Louisiana undertook 
to meet the very definite need for another forest school in the South, 
where southern forest conditions could be given special study and south- 
ern boys attracted to the profession of forestry. It is felt that the 
South will be well served by the two forest schools of the Universities 
of Georgia and Louisiana. 

The economics of range cattle production are to be the subject 
of a special study by the l\Tew Mexico State College. Data on the supple- 
mental feeding of range cattle during periods of drought 7/ill be ob- 
tained on a part of the range included in the Jornada National Forest. 

13 - 

More For e stry at th e University of _ Minnesota 

The appointment of Dr. Henry Schmitz to head the division of 
forestry of the College of .Agriculture, University of Minnesota, is the 
first step in a plan for the reorganization and development of the for- 
estry work of the college. The university realizes that a large number 
of trained foresters and a great deal of fundamental research are needed 
for the solution of the forest problems of Minnesota. The development 
of the pulp and paper industry, for example, has greatly changed the 
forestry situation of the State, and the further growth of this industry 
with its almost unlimited possibilities for the utilization of second- 
growth timber and of species formerly classed as inferior presents un- 
usual problems in silviculture and management. 

The university now has a forest experiment station at Cloquet, 
v/here it is cooperating with the Lake States Experiment Station of the 
U. S. Forest Service, and is carrying on research in forest biology at 
a station at Itsaca Park. The forestry division of the university also 
has the use of nearly 400,000 acres of forest lands controlled by the 
State forest department. 

Plans now under consideration by the university would allow the 
individual members of the faculty more time for investigation and re- 
search. It is h6ped, also, to establish in the near future a number of 
additional research fellowships for graduate: students. 

He w Courses at Syracuse 

A course in timber preservation is offered "by the New York State 
College of Forestry this year.- prof. Reuben W.. Smith, at one time a 
member of the technical staff of the Forest Products Laboratory and 
recently chief treating engineer of the St. Helen's Creosoting Co., St. 
Helen's, Oreg. , is in charge. 

A course in nature study has also been added to the curriculum 
of the forest school. This is open to all ' students of the university. 
It is given by Dr. William G. Yinal, newly-appointed Professor of Forest 
Extension. Dr. Vinal goes to Syracuse from the Rhode Island College of 
Education, where he has "been teaching biology. He is the author of a 
number of publications on botany, camping, and nature study, and has 
been a nature guide for the U. S. Government at Yosemite National Park. 

_ 14 _ 

California Change s Forest ry Cours e 

The Forestry School of the University of California has made a 
change in its curricula. Until this year it offered a "general forestry" 
course which permitted specialization in grazing and range management 
and a "forest utilization" course intended for students who. desired to 
specialize in logging engineering or forest products engineering. Now 
it has tut one curriculum, which permits specialization in pure forestry 
or grazing, and students wishing to prepare themselves for some engineer- 
ing phase of lumbering or forest products utilization are enrolled in 
the College of Mechanical Engineering with forestry as their- minor sub- 
ject. The individual courses of the division of. forestry, including 
those concerned with lumbering and forest products, remain unchanged. 

A School Woodland 

Nature study and conservation classes in the public schools of 
New Roche lie, N. Y. , are to have exclusive use of 115 acres of woodland. 
Miss Katherine Dolbear, director of elementary science courpes in these 
schools, has persuaded the Westchester County Park Commission to make 
this provision. School children planted more than 2,000 trees in the 
tract last spring, and classes are now making maps of the area and an 
inventory of its resources. It is planned to remove vegetation from a 
portion of the woods, which the children will visit after hard rain- 
storms in order to study erosion. 

• • : A Forest f or Boy Scou ts 

A troup of Boy Scouts at Madison, Wis. , are to have a forest 
for their own use. The' .regents of the University of Wisconsin have set 
aside a tract of wooded land belonging to the university for develop- 
ment exclusively by the scouts. The dean of the agricultural depart- 
ment of the university has selected a committee to advise the Boy Scouts 
forest committee, and the forester at the head of this advisory com- 
mittee has drawn up a 10-year plan for the use and development of the 
forest. The scouts will construct trails, fire lines, picnic and camp 
grounds, signal towers, and bridges, and will carry on reforestation 
work, improvement thinnings, and studies of tree growth. 


Boys Enlis t Against Forest Fires 

The Bracket H Ranch in the Chelan National Forest is an outdoor 
summer school where hoys learn to ride, canrp, and take care of them- 
selves in the outdoors. This' summer Junior Forester Maclay of the 
Chelan Forest organized the 40 hoys attending the school into a junior 
forest league. He spent a day teaching them something ahout forestry, 
with emphasis on care in the use of fire in the woods, and showing them 
how to "build a safe and practical fireplace. On the second day each of 
the hoys built a camp fire and was graded "by three judges on his suc- 
cess in choosing a location and in preparing and building the fire and 
putting' it out. Out of the 40 boys only one failed. Five were given a 
grade of 100 per cent. The builder of the safest and most useful camp 
fire was presented with a Boy Scout ax. All who passed took the oath 
of membership in the junior forest league and were given commissions as 
junior forest scouts. In the oath of membership each scout pledged him- 
self not only to practice care in using fire in the woods but to teach 
others to do so. The commission's - , decorated with bright red seals, were 
signed by the supervisor of the Chelan Forest. 

The fact that Mr. Maclay 1 s idea worked out so well should carry 
a suggestion for other outdoor boys' schools located near national for- 

The Honorary Arkansas Forestry Association is considering how 
its appeal for increased interest in the conservation of the forests of 
the State can be extended to school children and college students. It 
plans within a few months to arrange for essay-writing contests in the 
schools and colleges, assigning subjects as follows: rural schools, 
"What can forestry do for the farmer ?" ; high schools, "What is the con- 
dition of forests in our county and what can be done to save them?" ; 
colleges, "What do forests mean to Arkansas and how can we save them?" 
The terms of the contests would require that each essay be read before 
the school in which it originates, and that prize essays be published 
in the county papers of each county. 

- 16 - 


' ' Blanket Lightning 1 ' 

By Harry Lee Baker, U. S. Forest Service 

Stories sent in from the districts this season about lightning 
"bolts which jumped from tree to tree- 11 three-tree lightning" — recall 
a phenomenon which occurred in 1921 on the Coeur d'Alene Forest, just 
over the divide from the Cabinet. At least 28 trees of pole size 
were struck "by lightning at ore time. Practically all needles were 
"burned off the upper third of the entire hemlock crown cover. The 
"branches were as black as ink — in about the same condition as would 
have prevailed if the needles had been burned off with a blow torch. 
The lower third of the crowns remained green. Varied degrees of 
singeing occurred throughout the middle third of the crowns. The 
"branches or trunks of the trees were not shattered in the least. 
There appeared to "be no evidence to support the theory that a single 
tree trunk had served as a lightning conductor to the ground. On an 
average, as I remember, the trees stood about 5 feet apart. The 
spacing, of course, was much greater in a few cases. In the center 
of these larger openings the duff covering seemed to have ignited 
first. The rain which must have "been falling when the fires first 
started apparently caused them to smolder and helped to preserve the 
evidence. While I was not so certain about this part of the evidence, 
I could find nothing to indicate that the fires started at the bases 
of the trees. 

The only theory that I have ever been able to advance is that 
the amperage was sufficient to charge the atmosphere over an area ap- 
proximately 30 feet in diameter. The hemlock trees may have been very 
poor conductors. Possibly the conductive capacity of the trees was 
sufficiently low to cause the lightning to decide that the air was 
the line of least resistance. I have imagined that the lightning 
traveled as a blanket through the tree tops direct to the ground, re- 
fusing to use the trees as conductors. 

Similar pranks were played oy Mr. Lightning at two other points 
not far distant but, as I recollect, only three trees in one case and 
five trees in the other were singed by this peculiar kind of lightning. 

- 17 

Fur Farms in Ala gkar. National Forests 
By C. H. Squire, U. 3. Forest Service 

The growing of fur -bearing animals, particularly foxes, has 
cone to he an important industry in the national forests of Alaska. 
Its development there is favored "both by climatic conditions and by 
the presence of the desired kinds of food. 

The fur farmers usually try to locate near a salmon cannery. 
Daring the canning season great quantities of fish heads can be ob- 
tained from the canneries free of charge. These are in some in- 
stances cooked with a cereal and baked into a sort of loaf which is 
fed to the animals every other day during the summer months, less 
frequently in the spring and fall, and once every five days in the 
Winter. Sometimes the fish heads are partially cured and fed in 
that condition. 

A large number of islands included within the boundaries of 
the Alaskan forests are peculiarly adapted to fox growing, because 
of their admirable denning grounds. Also' their isolation, which 
makes it possible to give the foxes a great deal of freedom, and 
yet prevents escape, was formerly believed to be an advantage. It 
has been found, however, that the animals can be raised satisfac- 
torily in captivity. Captive animals are more easily fed and, of 
course, are much more easily protected against poachers. 

i In 1921 the Secretary of Agriculture, on the advice of the 

Forester and the Chief of the Bureau of Biological Survey, adopted 
a. set of special instructions for handling fur farms in the Alaskan 
national forests and in lands in Alaska over which the Biological 
Survey exercises control. At the close of 1924, permits authorizing 
the use of islands and small tracts on the mainland of the two 
Alaskan forests for this purpose numbered 192. So far, the enter- 
prise has been largely one of raising animals for breeding purposes, 
tut the time has now arrived when success in the production of pelts 
is to be looked for. Ihe industry presents a good many uncertain 
factors, including the caprices of fashion, but those now engaged 
in it in Alaska seem to be quite confident of profitable results. 

- 18 - 

The Airpl a ne Toes its Bit in Fire Control 

Wine Army airplanes gave important assistance this summer in the 
protection of national forests against fire. They were borrowed by the 
Forest Service for a period of 10 weeks. One officer was detailed by 
the Air Service. Pilots and mechanics of the Air Service Reserve were 
employed hy the Forest Service, and forest officers acted as observers. 

Periodic patrol was not maintained except in one forest where it- 
was used in suppressing an outbreak of incendiarism. After a series of 
reconnaissance flights to familiarize the pilots and observers with 
their territory, the planes were held in readiness for detection flights 
after lightning storms and to answer calls hy forest units or protective 
agencies. They were called out for the reconnaissance of going fires, 
for confirmation of unreliable fire reports, and for observation flights 
when the atmosphere was too smoky for good detection from lookouts. 

Experience in fighting this season's fires on the Santa Barbara 
and Sierra Forests has left forest officers of the California District 
convinced of the extreme effectiveness of aircraft in fighting large 
going fires. After taking a good look at a Santa Barbara fire from the 
air the officer in charge was so sure of the situation that he proceeded 
to give his orders without waiting for any report from the men on the 
ground. In this instance a plane was also used to transport emergency 
telephone wire and other fire-fighting supplies over the mountain. 

'The two planes using Spokane as a base 83 flights during 
the season, . reported 12 fires ?head of the ground lookouts, scouted 66 
fires, and dropped 150 messages of which only 2 failed to reach their 
mark. Because of the scarcity of emergency landing fields in the Koote- 
nai, Perd Oreille, and Kar.iksu Forests, these planes in most instances 
returnee to Spokane without landing. This meant unbroken flights of 
from 300 to 400 miles. They flew over the roughest of mountain country 
and in all kinds of weather and atrr.o spheric conditions — sometimes, for 
example, encountering columns of heated air over the fires which would 
raise then vertically for hundreds of feet, having the opposite effect 
to the ordinary "air pocket" or "hole. 11 Yet in 400 hours of flying not 
a single injury occurred to men or equipment. 

Forest officers report that they find flying an extraordinary 
help in getting acquainted with their terrain. The supervisor of the 
Chelan Forest expressed the wish that every man in his force could take 
a flight for the sake of such a new conception of the country for which 
he was responsible. In scouting fires the best results were obtained 
by local forest officers who had had previous air patrol experience. 
One of the districts in which planes were used has already suggested 
that hereafter picked forest officers should be given special training 
as aerial observers. 

- 13 

Metal fo r Wood in Ai rcraft ? 

By John B. Cuno , U. S- lores t Service 

"Metal's the thing 'for aircraft. 1 Goin' to do away with wood al- 
together pretty soon." 

The "pretty soon''' of this pseudo-aeronaitt ' s statement has "been re- 
peated over and over in the last five years, hut the time for complete 
replacement never seems to arrive. True, steel tubing is gradually re- 
placing wooden parts in fuselages; hut the hulk of the average plane is 
still wood. 

Why is this replacement so slow? First of all and chief of all, 
metal is more expensive than wood; second, repairs to damaged metal parts 
can he made only with iiff iculty; and third, aluminum and aluminum alloys 
weaken and fall apart through internal decomposition. The best scientific 
thought has as yet been unahle to find a way to prevent this corrosion in 
aluminum and aluminum alloys. In salt water and in a salty atmosphere 
the corrosion, is particularly rapid. Duralumin tail-spars supported with 
balsa strips, wrapped in fabric, and exposed to a salt-water atmosphere — 
an ideal condition for corrosion — were rendered useless in less than a year, 

The substitution of metal for wood in aircraft will probably take 
the course of the substitution of metal for wood in freight cars. Belief 
used to be current that the ail-metal freight car was to be the "last 
word" in railroad construction. Put not only was the all-metal freight 
car expensive; it flaked away in large red-brown scales of rust. It was 
also almost impossible to repair when damaged. The test of actual use 
led to the development of the combination wood and metal freight car, a 
superior product. 

Metal may he "the thing for aircraft"; but it is not replacing 
wood as rapidly as is generally believed, nor is it probable that the 
suhsti ration will ever he complete. 

Twenty Years o f Na tional Forest Timber Sales 

Tor the first time in the history of the Forest Service, timber 
sales receipts for a quarter-year have exceeded a million dollars. The 
exact figure for the quarter ending September 30, 1925, was $1,081,695.43, 
This follows a similar breaking of all previous records in the last quar- 
ter of the fiscal year 1925 (April- June , 1925), when sales "brought in 

20 - 

Every one of the eight forest districts shewed, in the period 
July-September , 1325, a substantial increase in sales over the same 
quarter of the preceding year. • 

June 30, 1925, aided the twentieth full fiscal year of Forest 
Service control of the national forests- It seeras an appropriate time 
to take note of the growth of business under Forest Service management. 
Sales expanded rapidly and progressively daring the fiscal decade 
1306-1915, aggregating $1,167,5.83 during the lest as compared with 
$202,470 during the first year of the 10-year period. Paring the sec- 
end decade every .Kind of authorised timber use- except free use, more 
than doubled in volume and returns as compared with the first decade, 
while timber trespass, or unauthorised, use, decreased 52.5 per cent. 
The whole story appears in the following summary comparison of the 
first two decades under Forest Service control: 

Per cent of 
First decade, Second decade, increase or 
1.1. 1306- F.Y. 1915- decrease from 
1915- ircl. 1925, incl. lirs t decade 

Butcher of sales 54,731 127,410 + 132.6 

Amount cut under sales 

(M feet) 3,952,277 3,277,367 + 109.4 

Contract value of cut 

under sales $9,231,135 $19,745,983 -!- 139.9 


(a) Timber sales and 

settlement 1/ $8,789,525 520,249,223 + 130.4 

(b) Timber trespass 353,571 137,317 - 52.5 

Free use: 

(a) lumber of users 313,750 379, 7G8 - 21.0 
("o; Amount cut 

(Id feet) 1,041,101 1,039,639 

(c) Estimated value $1,589,840 $1-203,399 - 24.3 

1/ lot including receipts Iroia turpentine sales. These amounted to 
$133,540 ir Vie second decade and, according to the incomplete data 
available, to about half that figure in the first. 

- 21 

Ho re 'j 3 e d Boxe s Used Again 

A recent survey "by the' Forest Products Laboratory shows that 
in certain parts of the country the used "box industry is growing in 
importance. In New York City there are approximately 140 dealers in 
secondhand containers. One dealer there uses about six carloads of 
lumber each year just for reeoopering used boxes. The Wisconsin Immi- 
gration Commissioner reports that the used "box "business in 16 years 
growth has reached large proportions in chat State. The lord Motor 
Co. has a factory at its Highland Park plant devoted exclusively to 
salvaging lumber from "boxes, "barrels, and crates and converting it 
into shipping containers, etc. During January of this year this fac- 
tory turned out a octal of 189,950 containers, together with numerous 
specially shaped "blocks and various small pieces made from salvaged 

Pi re earnings wi t h a. Pound of Te a. 

lire warnings are reaching the public these days through many 
unofficial channels. The Liggett and Myers Co. , the E. J. Peynolds 
Co., and several other manufacturers of cigarettes are including fire 
warning slips in each package of their goods destined for certain 
States whose officials have requested such cooperation. The Western 
Auto Supply Cc. headquarters at Los Angeles, in cooperation with the 
Pores t Service, during a two-week period this snmmer featured in all 
of its 125 stores west of Denver a prevent-fcrest-f ires display in- 
cluding certain automobile and camping accessories designed to lessen 
fire danger. In addition, this company distributed mats and publicity 
to ICO vresterr newspapers. The Chamber of Commerce o± Klamath, Oreg. , 
is following up a cigaiette drive of last year by requesting the lead- 
ing national manufacturers of picnic goods -co include fire warning 
clips in their products next summer. And the Clason Map Co. of Denver, 
following out a suggestion of the North Pacific District Office of the 
U. S. Forest Service, is now using the service anti-fire slogan not 
only on the inside front page of its new touring atlas but on all its 
State maps, which are printed at the rate of 10,000,000 a year. 

22 - 


S aw i ng "R e d .ivo o d , 3 n Mississi ppi H 3 lis 

Cb-3 Finkhire Lester Co., with large sawmills at D'Lo end 
Wiggins. Hiss. , have tried out an interesting experiment. They own 
large holdings of redwood in California, and this summer they shipped 
to Mississippi a carload of logs which were successfully sawed out. 
Hie present plan of the company, it is reported, is to run their 
mills on redwood ]ogs when in the course of from two to four years 
their supply of virgin longleaf is cut out. Hie larger trees will he 
quartered and the logs transported by water through the Panama Canal 
to Gulfport, then by a short haul over the Gulf and Ship Island Rail- 
road to. the mills. Factors which favor this procedure are the large 
investment in the present plants, the advantage of water transporta- 
tion, and, according to the company, the fact that the lumber can he 
placed on the northern market in shorter time by virtue of the more 
rapid air drying of lumber in the South than on the Paciiic Coast. 

Blister Pust Poaches Out Tbward Oregon Suaar Pine_ 

White pint blister rust was recently discovered in Oregon, for 
the first time, by agents of the Bureau of Plant Industry. It made 
its appearance at Pacific City, £0 miles couth of the mouth of the 
Columbia River, in Tillamook County, and at Khappa, Clatsop County. 
This infection is within 175 miles of the northern edge of the great 
sugar-nine forests of southern Oregon and California. 

S. P. Betweiler, in charge of the office of blister rust con- 
trol of the 3ureau of Plant Industry, has recent!.;/ returned from an 
extended inspect: on tour of the 17 States in which cooperative blister* 
rust control work is in progress.; and reports that control activities 
are malting raj id headway. He states that the recent advances of the 
rust were inevitable, ard that the spread of the infection, though it 
will continue until it has reached the limits of white-pine growth, 
can be materially slowed down. 

- 23 - 

America n For est Weak Committee Gets Bus:/ 

Ihe American Forest Week Committee met in Washington September 
28. Eon. Frank 0. Lowden presided and 39 persons were present. From 
the size of this group and the number of favorable letters sent in by 
persons unable to attend the meeting, it appears that at least 100 or- 
ganisations will take an active part in the 1926 observance of Ameri- 

At this meeting a more permanent form of organization was 
evolved. Mr. Lowden continues as chairman. Those to serve with him 
as directors are Mrs. John E. Sherman, General Federation of Women's 
Club,:,; 0. M. Butler, American Forestry Association; Arthur Ringland, 
National Conference on Outdoor Recreation; Wilson Compton, national 
Lumber Manufacturers Association; R. S, Xollogg, National Forestry 
Program Committee; Elbert K. Baker, American Newspaper Publishers Asso- 
ciation; Alton J. Hager, Order of Rbo-Hoo and Friends of the Forest; 
Robert Y. Stuart, Pennsylvania Department of Forests and haters; and 
iiV. B. Greeley, Chief of the j. 3. Forest Service. Ihe executive com- 
mittee consists of R. S. Kellogg, Mrs. Sherman, Elbert H. Baker, Wilson 
Compton, and W. B. Greeley. Arthur Ringland is treasurer, Edgar P. 
Allen managing director, and Miller Hamilton secretary. 

It was agreed to cooperate with Canada., and to appoint State 
committees and State chairmen. The board of directors was authorized 
to choose the date of the 1926 week, those present strongly favoring 
a date in the latter part cf April. 

Membership on the committee is open to any organization inter- 
ested in forestry and kindred subjects, except firms, corporations, 
and associations operated for profit, and carries no financial responsi- 
bility. All activities are on a voluntary basis. 

As a result of this meeting the committee holds a much stronger 
position than in its preparations for American Forest U ; eek of 1925. 
With its earlier start, and' with a board, of directors representing such 
diversified forestry interests, the 1926 campaign should make a record. 

Ihe "coals to Newcastle 11 paradox was matched this summer by 
the news that forces of workmen ive re pumping water into ditches in 
Dismal Swamp, to control fires smouldering in the dry bogs and under- 
brush there. A dense mantle of smoke from the Dismal Swamp fires en- 
veloped Norfolk and other Hampton Roads cities and towns and extended 
far to sea. 

- 24 - 

Another Invention of "Les Americains' 1 - 

A bulletin of the Central Belgian Pores try Society for July 
tel"! ■ t! ie 'cl '-.7.1 rg ctoj y: 

"Under a trade name the Americans have put on the market a con- 
struction material consisting of a sheet of wood covered on one or 
both sides with a thin sheet of steel; by a chemical process, wood 
and metal are soldered together firmly. In place of steel, tin or 
zinc is sometimes used. 

,! This material has the advantage over wood of being fireproof 
and impervious to decay. 

,; Over metal plates, it has the advantage of lightness for 
equivalent strength and it is a poor conductor of heat. A sheet of 
the material one-four t?a inch thick is as strong as a metal plate thin- 
ner by half but weighs four times less. The product can be sawed and 
cut like thin metal plates. It holds nails well and is adapted to 
drilling and soldering. 

"It is adapted to the manufacture of fireproof panels for doors, 
partitions, fixtures, vehicles, etc." 


Has any of our readers seen this wonderfiil amalgam of wood and 

Coal Corporation D ecides to G- rov; its Own 

Increasing scarcity and mounting prices of lumber, due to de- 
pletion of nearby supplies of timber, have induced a large coal-mining 
corporation in Pennsylvania to adopt a timber-growing policy. It has 
established three company forests, totalling 26,000 acres, each in 
charge of a ranger or warden. lire protection plans have been worked 
out, and a fire tower erected. Eoads and trriis have been built in 
such a way that they can be used in logging as well as for fire patrol 
and transportation of fire crews. The tracts are logged carefully so as 
to save young trees of all valuable species. 

In making its plans the company estimated the amount of timber 
that would be needed annually for mine preps, ties, drift timber, tipple 
timber, mine car lumbar, repairs, and other purposes — the figure being 
about 5,500,000 board feet — and organized its timber-growing project with 
the idea of insuring a steady supply to meet this consumption for a 
period of from 100 to 300 years, the estimated life of the mining oper- 
ation. The plans contemplate restocking at least 4,000 acres denuded by 
burning; and it is expected that if planting of the barren areas is suc- 
cessful the lands will produce something like 15,000,000 board feet an- 

55 - 

A Private Reforesta tion Program in the Paci fi c North west 

The Long -Bell Lumber Co. has adopted a five-year program of re- 
forestation for its timber lands in the State of Washington. This com- 
pany has for two years had the services of a forester and is already 
maintaining several forest reserves in the South. 

After clear cutting of the old growth stands of Douglas fir the 
company plans to hum over cnce, in the spring where possible, and 
then to keep fire out and wait .two .years for natural restocking of the 
more favorable sites before planting artificially. On the less favor- 
able sites experimental planting will be begun at ones. A site near 
Riderwood nr.s been selected for a nursery of from 10 to 15 acres, which 
is expected to be ready for a first planting in the spring of 1926 and 
to produce good planting stock from the seed bed, witnout much early 

The company intends to experiment with several species which 
ax, present are not commercially important in Washington but which prom- 
ise to be of great value there in the future. Among these strangers . 
are redwood, bigtree, Port Orford cedar, and white pine. Small plant- 
ings of all these species except bigtree are now under observation at 

A Ciga rette Caught in the Ac t 

Forty days labor and thirty acres of timber lost and Mr. Aban- 
doned Cigarette proved guilty by an eyewitness, reports District Patrol- 
man B. P. lb yd, Cccke County, Tenn. : 

"On Sunday,.. August 30, a girl about S years old was passing 
along a road on Johns Mountain in my district. She noticed a cigarette 
stub smouldering in the leaves by the roadside but passed on by it. 
When she. had gone but about 20 steps she was attracted by a noise which 
she thought 7(?as an automobile, approaching, from, the rear. Upon looking 
around she discovered that the smouldering cigarette stub had set a fire 
to the leaves which was spreading- rapidly. She ran to a house nearby 
and reported the fire. The man of the house hurried back to it but 
found that he was unable to control the fire by himself. He thereupon 
rushed to a church net far from the scene of the fire and called for 
assistance. About 40 men and boys who were attending church responded. 
Most of the volunteers fought the fire until 11 o'clock that night when 
it was finally extinguished. Tine, fire burned about 30 acres of land. 11 

- ?6 - 


Cedars in Morocco 

Jast now foresters, like ordinary people, are probably more 
interested in Riffs in Morocco than in cedars there. Still cedars 
55 meters tall and 110 centimeters in diameter are worth mention* 
Cedars of this or nearly equal size are numerous in the forests of 
Sidi M' Guild and Kissarit, according to a correspondent of the 
Dendro logical Society of France. 

' In the forests of the Middle Atlas, Moroccan cedar ( Cedrus 
A tlantica ) appears at elevations of 1,50^ meters in mixture with 
Holme oak, "begins to dominate the forest at 1,700 meters, and forms 
pure stands above 1,800 meters. It prefers north and northeast ex- 
posures. It is a light- demanding tree, though it requires partial 
shade up to the seventh or eighth year. In heavy stands the stem 
is straight and clean. 

Cedars in . Lebanon 

Ever since Solomon sent 30,000 men to cut them, the cedars 
of Lebanon have had a- powerful attraction for the tourist and the 
visiting scientist, and many descriptions of the famous trees are 
in print, remarkable chiefly for their apparent inaccuracy in regard 
to sizes, distribution, and number of the trees. It is a wonder any 
were left at all with a fresh crew of IO.OjO in the woods every 
month; for Solomon split his jO.OCO into three shifts ana put them 
on the job in relays. Considering that they had to get out timber 
enough for only a couple of buildings, the men must have dug the 
trees up with their finger nails and gnawed them into logs with their 

In a recent report through the French inspector of agriculture 
in Syria, Assad Younes, former director of agriculture in Lebanon 

"The accounts of travellers and the scientific notes written 
by tourists mention only a grove of about ^+00 trees (in the valley 
of Kadicha, near Lecharri )» The truth is that this species has 
a much wider distribution — an inspection made in 1922 revealed the 

- 27 - 

existence of several thousand cedars in the woods of Akkar in the 
northern extremity of Lebanon , scattered anong stands of Abies and 
Junip erus. .knother more important group of cedars, covering over UOO 
acres and containing about yO.OCO trees, is situated on the mountain 
of Hadeth and de Tanno urine. These trees are 'exploited' regularly 
to supply building timber for some twenty neighboring communities." 

The report goes on to explain that the trees are cut in such 
a way as to have the appearance of candelabra with 5. 10. ana 15 
branches. The cutting off of the cedars caus-es the. horizontal branches 
tc turn upward into a vertical position. ; At /the end of 20 years these 
vertical branches reach a .diameter of .25 to 30 centimeters and are 
ready for another cut. -. . ■ 

A third group of cedars of equal importance is situated about 
30 kilometers, southeast of Beyrouth. The- inhabitants call these 
trees "obboe," which may be the reason, they have not been recognized, 
although botanically the same as the other groups of cedars. 

M. Assad- Younes mentions a young planted cedar which at the 
end of 15 years had grown to a- height of 13 meters and a circumfer- 
ence of 7O centimeters. 

On the Centenary of th e French Sc hoo 1 of Fore st ry at Nancy 

The centenary of the French forestry school at Nancy, cele- 
brated during the past summer, has roused the Journal Forestier Suisse 
to this tribute to their French colleagues: 

"The teaching of forestry at Nancy nas demonstrated a remark-. : - 
able unity of doctrine on the treatment of forests. One does not find 
there, as in other countries , the traces of fugitive vogues for such 
and such methods of cutting based on soeculations that have nothing. 
to do with the laws of nature, and which sooner or later miserably 
fail. The silviculturists who have taught at Nancy have not believed 
it possible to correct the laws by which forests grow. It has sufficed 
to learn to scrutinize these laws and to teach foresters how to conform 
to them in order to draw frcm the forest its highest yield. The fine 
maxim of Parade, true a century ago, will remain true forever:- 'To- . 
imitate nature, to hasten her work, is the fundamental maxim of ' -■■.: 

silviculture. ' 

"If one considers the severe conditions of admission and the ex- 
cellent preparation required of pupils, one can explain without going 
any further why the School of Nancy has been able to furnish to France, 
for a century, a forest personnel of the first order — a personnel 

- 28 - 

whose tradition, esprit de corps, love of the forest, ana high concep- 
tion of duty have created those beautifully-managed state and communal 
forests who se richness rouses the admiration of all who have the good 
f o r t un e to see. th em . " 

Douglas Eir in the Neth erlands 
By Ri chard E. Mca.rd.le, Fad fie Northwest forest Experiment Station 

A report en Douglas fir in the Netherlands issued last year by 
the Dutch Eorest Experiment Station contains many items of interest 
to American foresters. The Dutch investigators have found, for ex- 
ample, that the Douglas fir yield is about the same in Holland as on 
similar sites in Germany, but somewhat less than that obtained in the 
pacific Coast regions of the United States. Douglas fir in the Nether- 
lands gives a yield more than double that of Scotch pine, heretofore 
perhaps the most important timber tree of that country* as a revenue- 
producing tree it is likely to supersede the Scotch pine. 

Apparently the Dutch are not at all backward in adopting new 
tree species which are better suited to their needs than those they 
formerly have had. Although the average age of the Douglas fir 
plantations in Holland is less than j>0 years, the "Douglas wood" is 
already much in demand for posts and mine timbers. For these purposes 
the Douglas fir is superior to the Scotch pine because the fir wood 
is stronger. This, the report says, is because ir. spite of its fast 
growth the fir has a high percentage of strong "summer" wood, whereas 
tne fast— growing Scotch pine is composed mostly of weak "spring" wood. 

The report ends with the -orediction that "as a forest tree 
with an exceedingly Dig yield and valuable wood, moreover only slightly 
subject to damage, preserving good soil conditions and easily regenera- 
ting, tne Douglas fir will prove a valuable acquisition to Dutch 

Canadi an Pulp Exports Decr ease 

The preliminary report en the pulp and paper industry by the 
forest products branch of the Dominion Durea.u of Statistics states 
that exports of pulp from Canada fell off 3 -9 per cent in quantity in 
l\)2h as compared \ n i ch 1923- 2he total production of pulp and paper in 
132^ is valued ai; $187,174,703, the slight falling off from, the 1323 
figure, v lS£,bH2,103, being due to the decreased exports of pulp. The 
total figures give net value for the whole industry, including values 

- 23 

of pulp wood exported, pulp exported, and paper manufactured. The number 
of mills in operation in 192*4 was 115 as compared with 110 in 1923* Of 
the paper manufactured newsprint made up SO. S per cent, amounting to 
1,368,051 tons valued at $100,276,903, This was within 100,000 tons 
of the United States' -production of newsprint- 

Unusu al H ethod o f Fighting Forest Fire 

Water drawn from streams higher up the mountain and thrown "by 
pressure of gravity was used recently in subduing a fire on a Canadian 
national park in British Columbia. The fire was first attacked with 
axes and grubbers and a portable pump drawing water from below. It 
continued to burn strongly in spite of these measures. The fire fight- 
ers then determined to use the "head" of two streams that ran down the 
mountain on either side of the fire* Three small dams were built in 
each of these streams and six lines of hose were laid diagonally down- 
hill to the fire, connections at the dams being made by ordinary 
galvanized iron nipples thrust through the walls of the dams. The 
force of gravity in tne droo of 30 or 40 feet from the dams to the 
fire line was sufficient to send the six streams of water 15 or 20 feet 
from the nozzle. With these and the water thrown by the portable pump 
from below, the fire was soon stopped. The gravity lines were kept in 
operation several days until all danger had passed, thus releasing the 
por -cable pump for use elsewhere. 

Enormous timber concessions in Mexico and Central America are 
held by the Tropical Hardwoods Company, a corporation recently organ- 
ized in New York. The company will concentrate on the production of 
mahogany and cedar. The standing timber on its concessions is estimated 
to have a value of more than $70,000,000. The one on which development 
will begin immediately covers a tract of 640,000 acres of Tabascan 
mahogany. It is reported 'that the company's entire output for the next 
two years has been contracted for. 

Low lumber o rices in Great Britain are reported to be due in 
part to the good supplies of Russian wood that are coming forward this 
season. The Russians have 'been selling their lumber in keen competi- 
tion with the Swedish and Finnish producers. 

30 - 


Tom. Gill, assistant chief of the "branch of public relations 
of the Washington office of the Forest Service, will spend the 
months of November and December in Cuba studying forestry conditions 
on a project of the Tropical Plant Research Foundation. The investi- 
gation, which will cover the eastern end of the island, will then be 
taken up by Donald M. Matthews, who was forester of the Phillipine 
Islands for b years and who has spent the last 11 years organizing 
and administering a forest service in British Korth Borneo. 

Donald, silviculturist of the Forest Service, has gone 
on leave in order to take charge of the Washington, D. C, office 
of a firm of consulting forest engineers. 

Fred B. Merrill has been appointed to the position of State 
forester of Kentucky. Mr. Merrill, who is a graduate of Cornell 
University, had several years ■ experience with the Forest Service 
and has for some time served as a district forester in North Carolina. 
William S. Jackson, jr., who has been attached to the office of the 
commissioner of agriculture of Kentucky, " r iil remain in the capacity 
of assistant State forester. 

Millard R. Line has taken over the duties of superintendent 
of the forestry division of the Louisiana Department of Conserva- 
tion. Ever since his graduation from the Cornell University school 
of forestry in 1921 Mr. Hine has been connected with the Southern 
Forest, Experiment Station, where he has had charge of field work 
on a study of southern pine growth and of studies on the effects of 
forest fires in the South. 

1 - 


a. B. Hastings, formerly assistant State forester of 
Virginia, has returned to the Ibrest Service to take the place 
left vacant by C. E. Tillotson as inspector of Clarke-McNary 
law cooperation. Mr. Hastings was a member of the organiza- 
tion of Forest Service District 1, engaging chiefly in timber 
sales work, from 1911 to 13l6. In the latter year he became 
a s si s tan t S ta t e f o r e s t r of h ew Han p shi r e , wh ere in the ab s en c e 
of the State forester during the War he was in full charge of 
the State work. 

Harry Lee Baker has returned to the Forest Service 
to tsaze charge of the investigations authorized by Section 1 
cf the Clarke-McHary ,Iaw coucerring and adequate 
fire protection for the different forest regions. Throughout 
10 years experience as ranger, deputy supervisor, and super- 
visor in Forest Service District 1,-Mr. 'Baker had much to do 
vi th forest fire protecticn- The intensive training cf forest 
guards, now an. annual event in the West,- was first begun under 
his direction. Since leaving the service, in- 1922 he has held 
positions as secretary of the Eastern Washington Timber 
Protective Association , district forester in Virginia, and 
assistant State forester of North Carolina in charge of forest 
fire pro tection. 


The position of assistant State forester of Maryland 
left vacant by G. D. Marckworth, now assistant professor of 
forestry at the University cf Louisiana, has been filled by 
the appointment of John R. Curry, a junior forester on the 
Arkansas national Forest. 


S. T. Dana of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, 
who is chairman of the committee on international relations of 
the Society of American Foresters, is acting as the American ';. 
representative of the committee arranging for the World's 
Forestry Congress at Rome in May, 132b. 

William Crosby, of the 1315 ciss-c of the Yale Forest 
School, has resigned from the Fhillipine Forest Service after 
13 years of continuous work in the tropics, and returned to his 
home in Tacoma, Wash. 

- 32 

Nathan D. Canterbury has beer, appointed assistant State 
forester of Louisiana. 

Chester A. Lee on November I takes op the duties of 
farn forestry specialist of the Colorado Agricultural College. 
Mr. lee is a graduate of the Yale School of Forestry, and has 
been connected with the U. S. Merest Service for 1U years. He 
leaves- a position as technical assistant in the office of the 
supervisor of the Colorado National Forest. 

Tsi-tung II, a graduate of the Yale Jo rest School, 
left for China this summer to become an instructor in the 
forestry department of the University of Hanking. Since his 
graduation in VjZ^ Mr. Id has continued with his forestry 
studies at Yale. 

Carl I. Peterson and lor. 2. t> . Y.'atkins have recently 
joined the technical staff of the State forestry division 
of Tennessee. Mr. Peterson has for a number of years served 
as a district forester in North Carolina, and Mr. Vatkins 
leaves a position in the Kootenai National Forest. 3oth 
received their forestry education at Pennsylvania State 

P. A. Crocker, a graduate of the Biltmore Forest 
School and until recently vice— president in charge of Wood- 
lands of the Eastern Manufacturing Company of Banger, Maine, 
has "been appointed forester in the woodlands section of the 
American Paper and Pulp Association, New York City. Mr. 
Crocker's first assignment in this position will be ^no months 
field work in the northern Lake States, after which he will 
report on the practicability of insuring the pulp and paper 
mills of the lake States a permanent supply of wood from the 
forest areas of those States. 

- 53 - 

Theodore F- Laist, field engineer for the Northern 
Hemlock: and Hardwood Manufacturers' Association, has "been 
selected to head the department of research in retail lumher- 
ing at Antioch College, Yellow Springs. Ohio. Mr. Laist is 
a graduate of Cornell University and a licensed architect. 

Mr. Samuel P . Senior of Bridgeport, Conn., was recent- 
ly elected director of the Connecticut Forestry Association. 
Mr. Senior is president of the Fairfield County Forest Pro- 
tective Association and of the Fairfield County Planning Asso- 



Tidestrom 1 s Flora of Utah and Nevada 

kany foresters, especially those of the Great Basin region 
and those interested in ecology and systema-tic Do tan y, will be glad 
to know that Ivar Tides trcm's Flora of Utah and Nevada is about to 
come from the press, Mr. Tidestrom, who is no^' with the Bureau of 
Plant Industry, was formerly a member of the Forest Service and 
still acts as consulting expert of the service in natters of plant 
identification. The flora has been in preparation for about 20 
years. It is believed that its nomenclature and keys will be much 
above the average in accuracy and usefulness. 

Several specialists have cooperated in the making of this 
book. Mrs. Agnes Chase prepared the grass portion, Dr. C. H. Ball 
the willow portion, Mr. Glen P. Van Eseltine the Carices, Br. S. F. 
Blake the composites, etc. Two ecological discussions of the 
region covered are given, one by Dr. Shantz dealing with the plains 
and foothill regions and one by Dr. Sampson dealing with the 
montane portion of the Great Basin. 

This book will be volume 25 of Contributions from the U. S. 
National Herbarium. It will contain about S3 5 pages of text, 12 
plates, and an ecological map of the region covered. It may be ob- 
tained from the Superintendent of Public Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington, E. C* 

Books and P amphlets 

^-.§rj.c^ , s_Jjr^atest_Gar den > the Arnold Arboret um. By Ernest Henry 
Wilson. Stratford Co. • Boston, 132 5. 

Boxwoods. Ey S. J. Record and G. A- Garratt. (Yale Forest School, 
Bulletin No. 1^.) New Haven, 1925- 

Common Trees of Pen n sylvani a. By J- S. Illick. Times Tribune Co. 
Altoona, Pa., 1^-5- 


Care of the Farm Woodlot. By M. E. Watson. (University of Maine, 
College of Agriculture, Extension Service, Bulletin No* 151* ) 

Orono , Me. , 1925 . 

Etude sur les incendies de forets. By Felicien Michotte. 
(institut de la science du feu.) Paris, 192p. 

Farm Forestry Extensi o n; Early development and status in 192 3* 
By G. H. Collingwood. (U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Dept. 
Circular 3^5°) Washington, 1925- 

Fire and the Forest, Californi a Pine Region. By S. B. Show and 
E- I. Xotok. (U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Dept. Circular 35^« ) 

Washington , 1925* 

F orest Conservation . American Forestry Association* Washington, 1925- 

Growing and Pl an tin,.? Coniferous Trees on the Fa mi. By Claude 

Raymond Ti Hot son. (U« S. Dept. of Agriculture, Farniers' Bulletin 
No. 1U53.) Washington, 1925, . 

Handbook of A laska: Its resources , p ro ducts, and attractions in 
192U. By a.. w'« Greely. Chas. . Scribner 1 s Sons. New York and 
London, 1925. 

Mixe d VJlii te Pire and Hardwood . By A. C. Cline and C. P. Lockard. 
(Harvard Forest Bulletin No. 8.) Petersham, Mass., 1925* 

i-Iati c nal Lumber Man u facturers' As sociation: Twe nty- third annual 

meet ing, April 2S--29, 13 2 > Washington, 1925* 

Q uantity of Wo od Treat ed a r.d prese rvatives Used in the United 
States in 192'4-. By E. K. Helphenstine, jr. (American Wood 
preservers' Association.) Chicago, 1925» 

Report on the Reforestat ion of the Cedar River W aters hed, with 

speci al re f erence to the upper division. (Seattle, Wash., Water 
Dept.") 192^. 

State Forests of Pe nnsylva nia., The By R. Y. Stuart. (Pennsylvania 
Dept. of Forests and Waters, Bulletin 37*) Harrisburg, 1925* 

Tre e Di st ribution Unde r The Ein kaid Act, 191.1. (U. S. Dept. of 
Agriculture, Miscellaneous Circular lb. ) Washington, 1925* 

Town Forests: Their recreational and economic value and how to 
e stablish and maintain then. (American Tree Ass'n. ) Washington, 

- 36- 

Winter Botany * By W. Trelease. 2nd ed. , rev. Pub. by the author, 
Urbana, 111., 1925. 

Wisconsin's Wood.-u.sinf: Industries. 3y B. Gr. packer. (Wisconsin 
Dept. of Agriculture, Bulletin Wo. 67.) Madison, 1925- 

Articles in Periodicals 

American City, July, 1925. — Municipal forests a profitable invest- 
ment, by C. L. Pack, pp.*+2-3- 

American Lumberman, Juap 13, 1925 Jack Pine, the Cinderella 

of the Lake States, by A. E. Wackerman, p. 6l. 

Bulletin of the Pan American Union, July, 19 2 5- — International 

cooperation by sci en ti fi c agencies in tropical forestry, by H. S. 
Graves, pp. 632-9. 

Journal of Agricultural Research, April 15, 1925- — - he ase of 
Liability ratings in planning forest fire protection, by W. N* 
Sparhawk, pp. 693-762. 

Journal of Agricultural Research, June 1, 1925- — Factors affecting 
reproduction of Engeluarm spruce, by W. C. LowdermiHc, pp»995 - 

Journal of the American Water Works Association, April, 1925* — 
Protection of public vrater supply by forest cover, by W. Xu Ashe, 
pp. l+0H-i0. 

Journal of Agricultural Research, June 15, 1925. — Natural repro- 
duction after forest fires in northern Idaho, by J. A. Larsen, 
pp. 1177-97- 

Science, July 3. 1925* — Report of the committee of the National 
Academy of Sciences on forestry problems, pp. 5~^» 

Scientific Monthly, June, 1925- — Ecological conditions in 

national forests and in national parks, by C. C. Adams, pp. 5°1~93' 

Southern Lumberman, May 9. 1925* — The Present Status of public 
Forestry Measures, by L. C« Bell, pp.^7~2* 

37 - 

Map Folders recently issaed "by the Forest Service - Arapaho National 
Forest, Coeur d'Alene National Forest, Hayden National Forest, 
Montezuma National Forest, -On- the Roof of* the Continent (Eastern 
Idaho and Western Wyoming), Oregon Skyline Trail Map , pike National 
Forest, San Juan National Forest, Washakie National Forest, White 

Mountain National Forest, White River National Forest, 

California' s Recreation Grounds (Map only), Columbia National 
Forest, San Isabel National Forest, Superior National Forest. 

- 33 - 

»-?■ i ' v 4 1 i w. ' -" ! * I ' 1 - ' *. "* . ' * }} T ' < ' TT r ' ' ; ° r f * ,r 


Y, 1926. 




January, 1926 

Published bimonthly by the Forest Service, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 



Announcements 3-4 

State forestry departments and organisations 5-10 

Education and extension 11-14 

Forest Service notes 15-28 

General forest news 29-34 

Foreign notes 35-38 

Personals 39-40 

Bibliography 41-44 



Outdoor Recreation Conference 

The President's Committee on Outdoor Recreation has extended an 
invitation to the National Conference on Outdoor Recreation and to the 
members of its general council to meet with the committee in V/ashington , D.C. 
January 20 and 21. This will "be the first meeting of the full conference 
since its initial organization in May, 1924, and the second meeting of 
the general council. The principal objects of the meeting are to con- 
sider Federal and State responsibilities in outdoor recreation; a nation- 
al program for 1926 for the endorsement of the President's committee; and 
progress reports on conference surveys and committees. Officers will be 
elected for the new year. 

State Extension Foresters to Meet 

A conference of extension foresters has been called for January 
11, 12, and 13, to be held in the conference room of the Extension Serv- 
ice of the Department of Agriculture, Washington , D. C. An attendance 
of 25 or 30 men from as many States is expected. The principal object 
is to discuss the development of programs for forestry extension and 
ways of making these programs effective. Attention will be given to 
motion pictures, exhibits, lantern slides, posters, and slogans, as well 
as demonstrations and tours. 

Positions for Three Foresters in Georgia 

The State of Georgia is in need of three district foresters, one 
each for the mountain, piedmont, and coastal plain regions. Each of 
these will take direct charge of fire-control organization, under the 
supervision of the State forester. Qualified foresters are sought for 
these positions, which it is understood will pay an initial salary of 


College Scholarships Offered in Esgag Contest 

The American Chemical Society is conducting an essay-writing 
contest for secondary-school children, offering them their choice among 
several subjects which include "The Relation of Chemistry to Agriculture 
or Forestry." In each State $2.5 wil^X'Ohe awarded for the best essay on 
each of the assigned subjects. The national prizes will be six 4-year 
scholarships to Yale and Vassar. The concluding date is February 1. 

. Meetings df'--2Jew England Foresters - . 

i -. ,- ...i. ■■ v. ; —■■ '" ■ , f - ' ■ ^ ij— ■ .— i.,,-,— ,■—■— — ■ — ■■,« „ f , i i n ..., — 

■ „ -The Hew England' Section', -Society of /'American Foresters, will hold 
its winter meeting on January 27, in Boston^ On January',26 the State for- 
esters of that* section;' will meet in'Bosrton. to discups. forest- fire rec- 
ords and. studies. ' • i •■.• : '. 

A Correction 

Through error the covers for the last issue of the Forest Worker 
were multigraphed "October" instead .of ."November." When the Editor 
learned.of this the issue was in the mails, nor all his piety nor wit 
could lure- it back to cancel half -a- line, and- substitute the correct date. 
■Will readers who preserve the number please, make this change for themselves 



In Connecticut 

The Connecticut Legislature gave more attention to. forestry in 
its 1S25 session than in any other of the State's history. It appropri- 
ated $455,000 for forest and park purposes, including an allotment of 
$150,000 for new purchases' of land for forests and game preserves. These 
purchases are expected to add 25,000 acres to the present 12,000 acres of 
State-owned forests and game preserves. , They were entrusted to a newly- 
created commission of forestry and wild life of which the officers are: 
president,' Senatbr Frederick C. Walcott, president of the State hoard of 
fisheries and game; vice president, Prof. H. H. Chapman of Yale; and sec- 
retary, Walter 'Fill ey, forester at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment 
Station. The sum of $5,000 was allotted for the estahlishment of a nurs- 
ery to supply planting stock for the State forests, and the period during 
which camp-fire and brush-burning permits are required was made to extend 
from March 1 to December 1. 

While urging the legislature to buy more forest lands, the Connec- 
ticut forestry Association has on its own part collected a "People's For- 
est Fund" and with it added 1 ,C46 acres of well-timbered land to the State 

The Connecticut Forestry Association has in the last few years 
succeeded in greatly popularizing its meetings, partly by meeting jointly 
with other organizations such as farm bureaus and local civic associations. 
It circulates- forestry films and exhibits, works through the press, and 
has abandoned the publication of technical papers in order to get out a 
series of popular bulletins on subjects of local interest. Its present 
aims include the enlargement of the area of the State's forests to 200,000 
acres, better fire protection for private forests, and reform in forest 
land taxation. 

The Connecticut association was in existence for many years before 
it had a membership of 100 or carried its activities beyond their original 
scope. In 1922 the 27-year-old society employed a secretary and began to 
expand. In the short period since then its membership has gone beyond 
1,200. In discussing the past year's gains in forestry legislation for 
Connecticut-, the president of the association, Dean Graves of Yale, states 
that "as the only organized body in Connecticut working day in and day out 
along this line, it may fairly be credited for a large measure of the suc- 
cess obtained." 


West Virgi nia Associat ion Organ! zes- .and Rec ommends 

The Association of West Virginia Foresters, organized in Elkins 
about a year ago, met in Charleston on December 3 and voted to form a 
permanent association admitting professional foresters and other persons 
who are especially interested in forestry or have been active in the for- 
estry movement. B. L. Roberts, forester of the Cherry River Boom 
and Lumber Company, was elected president for the coming year, and recom- 
mendations were prepared for the State forest, parks, and conservation 
commission. These call for the employment of a State forester to head a 
coordinate division under the game and fish commission and the renaming 
of that commission "the forest, game, and fish commission"; the amendment 
of the tax laws of the State as applying to forest lands, along the lines 
recommended by the Senate Committee on Reforestation; continued trial of 
the new West Virginia state-wide fire control law without amendment until 
it becomes more firmly established and the need for its amendment is' , more 
clearly demonstrated; and the steady expansion of the State T s fire-control 
organization to cover the entire forested area of the State, approximately 
10 million acres, instead of 4 million acres as at present. 

West Virginia Commission Begins Forestry Investigation 

The Forest, Parks, and' Conservation Commission of West Virginia 
met at Charleston on December 4 to take the first steps in the investiga- 
tion on which it is to report at the next session of the legislature. 
This investigation is to cover the whole field of conservation of the 
State's natural resources. Governor Howard M. Gore presided as chairman • 
of the commission and Nat- T. Frame, State director of agricultural exten- 
sion, was made secretary. Later in the same day about fifty representa- 
tive men of the State were brought together by invitation of the governor 
in a meeting at which the forestry and conservation situation of the 
State was quite definitely presented and suggestions were brought out as 
to future steps. James E. Scott, of the U. S. Forest Service, gave an ad- 
dress on "Essentials in State -orestry," and George H. Collingwood,. ex- 
tension forester, discussed cooperation under Section .5 of the Clarke- 
McNary Law. Forest Supervisor 0. L. Perkins of Elkins, W. Va. , outlined 
the national forest program applied to the Mpnongahela Forest. 


Trees for North Dakota Farms 

The State of TTorth Dakota has arranged for cooperation with the 
Forest Service and the Extension Service of the Department of Agricul- 
ture under Sections 4 and 5 of the Clarke-McNary Act. F. E. Cohh , State 
forester and president of the North Dakota School of Forestry, will act 
for the State in the cooperative effort to assist farmers in developing 
shelter "belts, windbreaks, and wood lots. The State nursery at Bottineau 
will be reestablished to supply trees for distribution to farmers and also 
for demonstration work. It will be under the management of 3. S. Burton, 
a forestry graduate of the University of Minnesota formerly in charge of 
the windbreak project of that State. C. A. Gillett, a Cornell graduate, 
will act as extension forester, with headquarters at Bottineau. He will 
work with county eigents in organizing the shelter-belt and wood-lot proj- 
ect, and will give lectures and hold demonstrations. 

In order to find out what they have to start with, the State for- 
estry officials are planning to make a complete survey of the State's 
natural woods and present tree plantations, largely by means of question- 
naires mailed to farmers. 

Mr. Cobb and Mr. Burton in traveling from Bismarck to Bottineau re- 
cently made a test count of the farmsteads within one-half mile of the high- 
way having no trees or an inadequate number. Of the 322 farmsteads ob- 
served on the 232-mile trip 142 had a considerable number of trees, such 
as an old timber claim or a young tree plantation that will eventually 
protect the buildings of the farm; 62 had one tree or a clump affording 
no protection but showing that trees would ^row on the site; and 118 were 
absolutely treeless. Mr. Cobb remarks that the number of farms having 
trees was considerably larger than he had imagined it would be, and that 
a snap judgment on the treelessness of the prairies is apt to be a little 
too strong because the farms are so large. 

The Florida Bcautif ication and Fo r estry Society has put James 0. 
Hazard in charge of its work for the betterment of the State's forests 
and the protection of its natural beauty. Mr. Hazard is a graduate of 
the Yale ^orest School and has practiced forestry for several years in 
New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The Florida Chamber of Commerce, the Florida 
Forestry Association, and the University of Florida are cooperating with 
the society, which is headed by Dr. A. A. Murphree , president of the uni- 


Califo rnia's Big C ooperative Plan 

■The ■12,506,000 acres of forest, watershed, and range areas in 
California Hbxdh are not included in national forests are. to "be (guarded 
Ik the comir-g year by 21 St.dte rangers and nearly 500 volunteer State 
fi'ret?araens, ■acfc^ding to "an anncuheement by State Forester M. B. Pratt. 
The -uetecfiica ' peVvi.-e of she U. S. Forest Service lookouts will "be sup- 
piemen ted "by 6 'Ssate ■lockor.ts. Airplanes from Ivjather '".Field will be 
available fro Sta^e fo'restr'y officers for reconnaissance flighty. The- pro- 
tection work undertaken by the State will be based on cooperative .agree- 
to^nfrsr -with the Fe&.ef.f'al Government", counties u . municipalities, corporations, 
and pri--ate owners of timber. 

Three- men are to be detailed specifically to, the inspection of log- 
ging equipment ,'■ and during the appropriate. 'season most of the ranger force 
of the- State will be detailed to the supervision of slash burning. 

The current plan for forest, improvements, calls for the completion 
'by July 1 of firebreaks for the protection of the watersheds of Los Angeles 
County, and' for watershed protection "in. the Tarcalpais forest, fire district 
and the San' Bernardino fountains. The .State will share equally with the 
affected counties the expense of these improvements, which will be about 

A forester connected with the State 'university extension service 
and working in c'f.rse eocperatjo-i with the State department of forestry will 
in the coming year offer advice on forestry problems, especially those of 
farmers, and will supervise demonstration plantings of forest trees.,. 

Steamed Tffurscry Beda <.. .. ■ 

The Pennsylvania Department of Forests and V/ is experimenting 
at the Greenwood I'ursery in the sterilization of nursery beds.. Each por- 
tion of the bed is covered with" a .sheet metal pan 12. feet long, 4. feet 
wide, and 1 foot deep, and .charged with steam for 30 minutes. The ground 
is heated to such a temperature that all weed seeds and grubs within a 
foot of the surface are destroyed. . - .* 


States Enr oll for Cooperative 1'r ^.^■2!? of Planting Stock 

Section 4 of the Clarke-McNary Act, providing for cooperation 
between the Federal and State Governments in the procurement, produc- 
tion, and .distribution of forest tree seeds and plants for use on farms, 
has greatly stimulated these activities. Agreements to cooperate in 
this work have already been executed by the folio-ring 14 States: New 
Hampshire,' "Vermont, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, Indiana, 
Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, Louisiana, 7i scons in, Oregon, and 
California. In the case of 4 States - Iowa, Washington, Idaho, and North 
Dakota - agreements are -now being executed, and S others - Maine, Massa- 
chusetts, New York, Michigan, Alabama, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and South 
Dakota - will probably qualify for cooperation before the spring planting 

In the 18 States where this cooperative work is now lined up in de- 
tail the estimated cost for the present Federal fiscal year is $170,000, 
of which the States 1 share is $139,140. Each cooperating State receives 
a Federal allotment of not more than- $2,000. 

Pen nsylvania to Plant F orest Tre es on -Arbor Day 

In preparation for the spring Arbor Days of 192G a special tree- 
planting project has been worked out by forestry and education officials 
of Pennsylvania. The superintendent cf public instruction has sent out to 
school superintendents the suggestion that without discontinuing the use of 
shade and ornamental trees for Arbor Day planting they encourage the schools 
this spring to plant forest trees on idle land. The department of forests 
and waters has agreed to supply forest tree seedlings to schools free of 
charge upon request from superintendents, secretaries of school boards, 
or teachers, and is reserving a million white pine and Scotch pine trees 
for this purpose. The State superintendent f s message appeared in the 
November number of the Pennsylvania School Journal followed by informa- 
tion as to the planting equipment needed and general planting instruc- 
tions, and a blank form for ordering the seedlings. 

Blister rust co nt rol ^*ork in New York State in 1925 covered nearly 
10,000 acres more than in any preceding year. The total area protected 
was 34,937 acres. Twice as many landowners cooperated as in 1924. The 
Saratoga County Board made the first county appropriation for this work, 
setting aside $500 for the protection of county property in the town of 


Vermont Association Offers Tre es for Municipal Fo rests 

The Vermont Forestry Association is offering to supply and plant 
the first 5,000 trees for any torn in the State that es-'iabli'SHes a munic- 
ipal forest of 100 acres or more,. The laws of Vermont pro-vide that a 
town may vote such sums of money as it deems- best for the purchase, man- 
agement, and improvement of lands for forest purposes, ?.nd provide for 
"bond issues to cover such purchase or development. '. Twei "ty-f ive municipal 
forests have already "been established in the State, 'witl a total area of 
about 6,000 acres. 

Governor Billings is urging the people of Vermont to reforest waste 
and idle lands. Ke states that he has for years been planting from 500 to 
5,000 trees annually on his own 225-acre property near Woodstock. 

Georgia to S erv e the South 

The Georgia Forestry Association expects soon to publish the first 
number of the "Southern Forester." The paper will be the official organ 
of the Georgia Board of Forestry, but will be devoted to the interests 
of forestry throughout the South. C. B. Harman, secretary of the associ- 
ation, will act as editor. 

A resolution introduced in the Rouse of Representatives by Resident 
Commissioner Davila of Porto Rico would authorise the Secretary of Agri- 
culture to cooperate with Territories and possessions of the United States 
on the same terms and conditions as with States under Sections 3, 4, and 5 
of the Clarke-McNary Act. 



Forest Schools Demonstrate the Portable Sarogill 

By John B. Curio, U. 3. Forest Service 

The second portable sawmill demonstration of the year at Pennsyl- 
vania State College was held in October. Following closely on its heels 
a portable mill demonstration was held by the New York State College of 
Forestry at Syracuse, N. Y. At both of these demonstrations, which were 
attended by Pennsylvania and New York farmers, mill men, mine owners, 
and men in related industries, the fact T7as brought out that there is 
great need for better methods of saving and for better grading, better 
seasoning, and better merchandising of the products. 

Various types of portable mills, saws, and power were shown. At 
the Pennsylvania demonstration forestry students kept time, power, and 
fuel-consumption records for sawing different sizes and species of logs. 
Men of the Central Pennsylvania Lumber Co. directed the sawing, graded the 
lumber, and explained their methods. Talks and discussions by foresters 
and by manufacturers of sawmills, saws, tractors, electric motors, belting, 
and logging equipment formed a large part of the program at both institute 

At the Pennsylvania demonstration the Pennsylvania Forest Products 
Manufacturers' Association was organized. It will have headquarters at 
yrone and is under the direction of Ralph Smith, secretary- treasurer* 
At the wood-utilization conference at Syracuse in connection with which 
the portable mill demonstration there was held, a permanent committee was 
appointed with A. B. Recknagel of the Empire State Forest Products Asso- 
ciation, Albany, as secretary. Details concerning the demonstrations 
conducted in these States and plans for the future can be obtained from 
these men. 

It need hardly be said that the small sawmill will in the future - 
if it has not already done so - take the place of the large mill in the 
East and the ^outh. It has already made inroads in the far West. The 
small mill can operate and continue operations on a perpetual basis if 
some of the simple principles of forest practice and close utilization 
are adhered to. These demonstrations showed that lumber equal in quality 
to that cut by large mills ean be cut on portable or small mills if the 
mills are substantial and properly aligned, and are operated by intelli- 
gent sawyers who understand thoroughly the grades of lumber. 


It was also brought &ut that "by stacking according to grades, 
in snail stacks, on good foundations, with adequate pitch and spacing 
of boards, losses in l-umber can he greatly reduced. The desirahility 
cf determining the needs of local industries for special sizes and 
grades of 1— inch lumber, so as assumed :of a continuous outlet 
tor a product which ordinarily sell's with difficulty, was forcibly 
brought to the; atterticn of all. The: need for leading in the forest 
all trees below certain diameters, caring for young growth in logging, 
and preventing fires, was also, made evident. All these latter points 
have a:; their aim continuous production on forest lands and closer 
utilization. , ■■• • • • •.'..„■ 

Additional demonstrations should be given in these same States 
and in other -States.;. '..They should be daracted by foresters and should be 
held. at portable mill "operatica,;, or .State forests, or at forest schools, 
Perhaps in vie ,,T of the, increasing, significance of the portable sawmill 
and its products there can later be held a demonstration of nation-wide 
interest. , ■ 

•.:.;■'« '■ •■ ghe Sal ter Mul ford Forestry Loan Fund 

A very pi easing honor has just been paid to Prof. Walter Mulford, 
.head of the division of forestry of the University of California, by the 
forestry alumni, faculty, and class of 1926 of the university. As he was 
about to enter on a year 1 3 leave of absence he was made administrator of 
a, fund, raised in his honor and bearing his name, from which loans are 
to be made to forestry students .Who ihave difficulty in meeting oheir" : , 
school expenses. , The fund will/be used largely in helping simients who 
find it a hardship to lose a scjwner * s earnings through the required at- 
tendance at summer forestry camp. .;..■• - • " 

'! Professor Kulford plana -to spend the year 1926 in .Europe, •studying 
forestry methods applicable in California, ' 'His observations will. begin. 
in January, in southern Europe. In May he will attend the International 
Forestry Congress at Rome, to which he is a delegate, and later he will 
work northward as far .as the Scandinavian countries. 

Forestry Enrollment at Idaho 'and Iowa 

The Iowa State College -enrolled- a larger number of 'forestry stu- 
dents this fall than ever before. . The total is 101. ' The freshman class 
numbers 46, and- the next largest class is the 18 seniors." The -Idaho 
School of Forestry reports an enrollment of 115 "representing every part 
of the United States and three foreigh.countries." 


Wanted: More Califomians in the Forest Schools 

Foresters of California are concerned over the fact that so 
few young men of their State are "being drawn into the profession of 
forestry. The number of students majoring in forestry at the Univer- 
sity of California has remained almost constant for several years. 
California has a population somewhat greater than the combined popula- 
tions of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana, but in comparison with 
the 425 men from the four northwestern States now in attendance at for- 
est schools California has not more than 60. At a fall meeting of the 
Forestry Club of the University of California the question was raised, 
Why is it that Califomians are not interested in forestry? In answer 
it was suggested that Califomians know less about woods operations than 
the people of the northwestern States because (1) the forest districts 
of California are sharply separated from the farming districts, instead 
of "being more or less intermixed with them, and (2) a larger proportion 
of Califomians live in cities. 

What Happens to Cornell Forestry Graduates 

The Cornell Department of Forestry has collected and tabulated 
data as to the present employment of the 161 men graduated from it in 
the period 1911-1925. Of the 117 graduates with the B. S. degree 52 
are in forestry and 60 are engaged in other occupations; of the 44 who 
took the M. F, degree 29 are practicing forestry and 14 are in other 
occupations. The total number of graduates now engaged in forestry 
includes 43 in private work, 15 in Federal, ax^d ? in State employ, 8 
teachers, 3 in foreign countries, and 5 graduate students* 

The Cornell department this year reports the largest registration 
of its history - 133. 

Minnesota Gets Money for Wood Chemistry Study 

The University of Minnesota has received from the Cloquet Woods 
Products Co, a gift of$4,000 which -rill be used in the study of the 
chemistry of wood. This makes a total of $25,000 contributed by manu- 
facturers to help finance the university's researches, in recognition 
of their value in determining the best uses for materials in industry. 
The gifts are received by the board of regents of 'the university, and 
then assigned to departments for use. They are accepted on condition 
that the money is to be devoted to pure research and that the department 
supervising the project is to select the workers. 




" Plant a Tree Week" in Mississippi 

At the request of the Mississippi Federation of Women 1 s Clubs 
Glovtirnor Whitfield proclaimed December 6-12 "Plant a Tree Week," T* 1 
week was widely observed by schools, churches, and associations. On 
December 11, the State's Arbor Day, the federation planted a magnolia 
on the State capitoi grounds. 

The Mississippi Federation of Women's Clubs, through its State 
chairman of conservation, Mrs. G. H» Reeves, has for some time been 
working to stimulate local interest in forestry. At its invitation 
Mrs, Lilian T. Conway of the Washington office of the Forest Service 
spent six weeks of November and December in Mississippi. Mrs. Conway 
gave talks before women's clubs, schools, and other organizations in all 
parts ex the State, using colored lantern slides and the motion picture 
"Pines for Profit." 

The people of Mississippi are taking an increasing interest in 
forestry and realize that steps must be taken promptly if the timber 
which has been such an asset to the State is not to disappear. The 
State has an enormous cut of lumber - the fourth largest in the Union - 
but not much has been done to renew its forests, or to prevent the many 
fires which occur each year. In the southern part of the State thousands 
of little pines are coming in on cub-over land, and nearly all the great 
cut-over areas would reforest naturally if fire were kept out. 

Fire-f i g;hjb in.^ ^couts Win Prize 

District Warden J. Frediik Virgin of Maryland describes a recent 
triumph of a troop of "the livest scouts in the State,." of which he is 

"To keep these youngsters out of mischief on Hallowe'en the mer- 
chants of Elkton sponsor a monster parade. Hundreds take part and sub- 
stantial prizes fcr the best costumes, floats, etc., are awarded. So 
the bunch got busy, and on a large flat- -bedded truck built a miniature 
forest fire. The front end of the truck depicted the woods in their nat- 
ural beauty, the rear end showed the complete devastation after a fire, 
and diagonally between the two was the fire. Burning chemicals gave off 
volumes of smoke and red electric bulbs coupled to a storage battery 
supplied the flames. Eight boys manned the fire line with Rich tools , 
spray tanks, axes, etc., and for an hour and a half 'fought the fire' to 
the cheers of the 8,000 people who saw the parade. The 'Prevent Forest 
Fires' sign was used most liberally, and so the scouts did a 'good turn 1 
for forestry, and incidentally won first prize ($25). The latter is the 
nest egg for next year's camping fund." 



Study of the Forest Tax Problem 

A study of the nation's forest tax problem in all its phases is 
being launched "by the Forest Service, in accordance with provisions of 
the Clarke-McNary Act. These provisions are the outcome of an investi- 
gation in 1923-24 by a special committee of the Senate on reforesta- 
tion, which led to the conclusion that timber growing would be stimu- 
lated by readjustments of tax laws as they apply to timber lands. 

The group of foresters and economists who will make the study 
are headed by Prof. Fred R. Fairchild of Yale. Professor Fairchild is 
an authority on the general subject of taxation and was one of the 
earliest students and authorities in the special field of forest taxa- 
tion. He has often acted as consulting expert to States and municipal- 
ities, and has for several years served on the advisory commit 'cces of 
the financial department of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States 
and of the National Commission on Federal and State Inheritance Taxation. 
He has been connected with the economics department of Yale University 
since 1904 and for the past six years has been chairman of the depart- 

Professor Fairchild and his staff will begin with a study of the 
workings of present systems of taxation in typical counties of the dif- 
ferent forest regions of the country. They will go over local tax rec- 
ords to find whether forest lands are carrying or are likely to carry an 
unfair proportion of the tax burden, and will determine to what extent 
cut-over lands are being sold for delinquent taxes and what policies 
have been adopted by big timber owners in regard to holding or disposing 
of cut-over lands. In preparation for working out modified systems of 
taxation which will aim to relieve the owner of growing timber of any un- 
fair tax burden without undue disturbance to local revenues, they will 
study local traditions of taxing and State laws and constitutions. 


Reductio n of Ma n-caused Fires on the National Forests 
By Roy Headley, U. S. Forest Service 

The number of man-caused fires on the ikational I©rests was strik- 
ingly reduced in 1925. It dropped 27 per cent "below the average for 
the preceding six years and 40 per cent below the record for 1924. 
Figures for the period 1919-1925 are as follows: 

1919 4,603 

1920 2,996 

1921 4,400 

1922 4,052 : 

1923 3,116 

-1924 '4,826 

. .;.. . 1925 ........... 2,883 

..Average for the seven .... 3,839 


Average for the six 

years 1919 to 1924 .. 3,999 

(The 1925 figure is for fires occurring before October 1. The total 
for the year will be slightly greater.) 

Weather conditions were more helpful to fire prevention this 
year than last , but the 1925 season was by no means an easy one and oh 
a considerable number of forests was relatively "bad." It seems reason- 
able to believe that the men in charge of the forests had a part in mak- 
ing this year's record an unusually good one. 

If getting credit for it depends on telling exactly how we did 
it, we lose. We are always trying new fire-prevention schemes and try- 
ing to improve old ones, and when a thousand fires don Y t happen we can- 
not be sure which scheme prevented the : largest number. One gueSs which 
stands analysis fairly well is that there would have been a good many 
more man-caused fires on the national forests this 'year if certain areas 
had not been closed to use '.In 1924.. These closures appear to have had 
an unusual educational effect on the minds of forest users. 

Recent cattle lo ss es on the Lincoln national Forest have been 
charged to wild tobacco (.Ni. trigonophylla ) . There are about a 
dozen species of tobacco indigenous to this country, but the office of 
grazing studies of the Forest Service has never before had record of stock 
touching any of them. Whatever the inherent depravity of the range cow, 
she has hitherto refrained from adding a quid of nicotine to her cud. 
The inference is that these Lincoln losses' are probably associated - ir ith 
a severe condition of overgrazing or immoderate hunger bordering on 
starvation or both. 


Successful Planting at Low Cost 

On the Michigan National Forest planting is "being carried on 
with ■unusual success at the remarkably low cost of $2.94 an acre. 
Supervisor R. G-. Schreck of the "Michigan describes his planting work 
as follows! 

"In 1911 a very small acreage was planted and since that time 
the acreage has gradually been increased until this year over 3,000 
acres were planted to ITorway pine - the largest area ever planted at 
one time and at one place "by the U. S. Forest Service. 

"The question is often put to us as to how we can possibly plant 
for $2.94 per acre. This has resulted from very close and constant study 
of the entire planting operations from nursery to field, cutting down 
lost motion, checking up on actual field methods, and increasing the ef- 
ficiency of the planting crews to such an extent that each man is now 
planting between 3 and 4 acres per day or between 2,100 and 2,800 trees. 
We are planting r at the rate of 700 trees per acre. These costs of $2,94 
cover all expenses: gathering the cones in Minnesota, extracting the 
seed there, shipping the seed to Michigan, planting it in our nursery at 
East Tawas and carrying it there for two years, plowing the furrows in 
the field, digging the stock, and the actual planting operations - 
including cook's wages, provisions, camp construction, all overhead, 
truck maintenance, and depreciation on equipment. 

"In all the time that we have been lowering costs on the Michigan 
we ha-\ebeen improving "our technique until our survival averages between 
85 and 90 per cent. 

The main success of our planting work in "Michigan is due to the 
fact that we can plowfftf-.tffote's. Before the Michigan national Forest was 
set aside for administration the area had burned. -.over. repeatedly, until 
at that time the forest represented a sand plains region covered with 
turkey-foot, blueberries, kinnikinick, and other inferior plants that 
always cause a very high fire hazard. The competition is so keen that 
natural reproduction or planted stock ^ould be killed out unless furrows 
were ploughed or something sirr.ilar was done to eliminate the dense sod 
and wild competition. Plowing furrows 8 feet apart enables a man to 
plant more trees in a day; gives the trees a good situation in which to 
grow; and moves away wild growth, which does not close in on the young 
trees until they are 6 or 7 years old and able to care for themselves, 
being above grass and weed competition. 

"Furrows are plowed with teams and common sulky plows. We have re- 
cently devised a plow share or plow point for plowing in dense sod. We 
had been troubled for a. long time in the densely sodded portions by the 
sod flopping back in the furrow. To eliminate this we purchased steel 
points and turned up the outer edge and sharpened it. This tends to cut 
the furrow clean and throws the sod out like a ribbon. 


"Each man carries a small planting '-spud', or tar, which consists 
of a steel blade drawn to a thin point 4 -inches wide and 12 inches long. 
This is fastened to a 3/4 inch galvanized pipe handle, 3 feet long.. 
The tool is very easy to handle., .especially in the bottom of the plowed 
furrow, and is the .sandy region in which we are situated the bar works 
better than anything I know of to date. Each man carries hi?s . own box- 
of trees and does his own planting, . . ... . .• .... '■: 

. "\7e -are' doing almost all of our' planting work in the fall months, 
beginning usually in September and, continuing as long as weather condi- 
tions permit. -This is found more advisable in a number of ways than 
spring planting. At this time of the year the young trees are going 
into a dormant state, have stopped growing, and will endure more abuse 
than if planted in the spring. Again, during the fall tne weather is 
cool and the ground is moist and coo^., jand the fall. rains, winter snows, 
and spring rains settle the tree in its new environment so that it is- 
ready to go ahead when spring opens," - . 

A- New Intake for Gravity Pressure in Fire Fighting , 

In the November number of the Forest Worker the use of gravity 
pressure from a mountain stream for fighting fire on a park in British 
Columbia was mentioned. Superintendent ,; 7. G. Weigle of the Shoqualmie 
National Forest writes that he has been using this method with good re- 
sults. During the past summer while fighting a bad fire on the north 
fork of the Skykomish Hiver with two gasoline pumps, one locomotive with 
pump, and the gravity system, Assistant Supervisor Trcen devised an in- 
take which made the use of the gravity system much more effective. The 
intake consisted of 30 feet of 30-inch canvas sewed together so as to 
make a reservoir about 9 inches in diameter. A- Ij-rinch hose was con- 
nected to it by a section of 2-inch hose. Uith this reservoir it was 
possible to get a much larger quantity of water, in many places enough 
for two small nozzles. The intake end of the reservoir was held open by 
means of a ring of #9 wire and was fitted with, a piece of fly screen to : 
keep out leaves, etc. Often two lines of hose attached with a "Y" were- 
used in order to play on the fire from two places at one time. It was 
found convenient, also, to attach a 1-inch or £~inch hose, which gave 
better control of water and was lighter to carry. 


Congress Considers ITew Forest Experi men t Stations 

The Federal forest experiment station program, 'which has so far 
resulted in the creation of six regional forest experiment stations in 
six of the principal forest regions, will he rreatly strengthened if 
bills now before Congress are enacted into law. The program as orig- 
inally approved by Secretary Wallace several years ago provides ulti- 
mately for 10 or 12 regional experiment stations, well manned and 
equipped, designed to aid the Federal Government, the States, and pri- 
vate owners in solving problems of timber growing, and to cooperate with 
various interested agencies in forest research. This program is re- 
garded by the department of Agriculture as an important part of the 
national forestry program. The bills now before Congress provide for two 
new regional forest experiment stations and for substantial expansion of 
two others. 

A bill (H.R.397) introduced by Representative Fitzgerald of Ohio 
would appropriate $50,000, to be immediately available, to establish 
a forest experiment station in the Ohio and Mississippi V&lleys. This 
great central hardwood region includes Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Mis- 
souri, Iowa, and southern Wisconsin and Michigan. The bill provides 
for cooperation with States, universities, colleges, county and munic- 
ipal agencies, associations, and individuals. 

Senator Overman through Senate bill 1161 seeks to have the Appa- 
lachian orest Experiment Station enlarged by the addition to its funds 
of $40,000, to become immediately available for silvicultural and eco- 
nomic research and demons oration in Forth Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, 
West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and adjacent States. This bill 
likewise provides for cooperation with the various agencies mentioned 
under the Fitzgerald bill. 

Senate bill 1409, introduced by Senator Ashurst, would provide 
$25,000 for the establishment and maintenance of a forest experiment 
station in Arizona for research in that State and in adjacent States 
presumably including Hew Mexico, Nevada, and Utah. 


" Field Day" Demonstrations of Range Experiment Stations 

The first :, Field Pay" at the Santa Rita Range Reserve was held 
on October 3, 1925. About' 50 cattlemen-, State experiment station work- 
ers, bankers, and other interested persons including Governor Hunt of 
Arizona were brought together' for the demonstration. The visitors as- 
sembled at Continental, Aria;-, about 30 miles south of Tucson, and were 
taken over the ran^e reserve in automobiles. At suitable points the 
party stopped for demonstrations of deferred grazing, proper utiliza- 
tion of range, proper methods of salting cattle, improvement in type 
and grade of cattle., and methods of Increasing the calf crop and de- 
creasing losses. Figures were presented showing that on fenced range 
with improved methods of management it is possible to make a 7.4 per 
cent profit on a total investment of $35.80 per head. Contrasting aver- 
ages were given for a number of representative cattle outfits running 
on the public domain which indicated a 5.8 per cent loss on a total in- 
vestment of approximately $56.00 per head. 

At. the evening meeting all phases of the range cattle industry in 
the Southwest were discussed by specialists of the Forest Service and of 
State agricultural colleges. 

"Field Day" was held in August at the Great Basin Experiment Sta- 
tion, Ephraim, Utah, with the cooperation of the Utah" State Extension 
Service, to demonstrate the results from improved methods of range manage- 
ment and to exhibit the work under way at the station. It was attended 
by 125 persons, including 90 stockmen. The need for conservative stock- 
ing and proper seasonal use, and the question as to just what constitutes 
proper utilization of the^e, were the points emphasized. 

The. visitors met at Ephraim and proceeded up the mountain in auto- 
mobiles, making stops at the various types extending from tbe sagebrush 
in the valley, at about 5,000 feet, to the alpine type at the summit of 
the Wasatch Di'ridc, at about 10,500 feet. 

At an evening meeting Doctor Peterson, director of extension for 
Utah, led a discussion in regard to the control of the public domain. 
A strong sentiment developed in favor of putting the public domain un- 
der administration, preferably by the Federal Government with .some branch 
of the Department of Agriculture - possibly tbe Forest Service - in charge. 
A number of men grazing stock both -on the national forests and on the pub- 
lic domain expressed themselves strongly in favor of such administration, 
and emphasized the great depletion and the unsatisfactory conditions now 
prevailing on the public domain. 

Copies of the program of the Santa Rita Field Day, describing the 
methods of cattle management on the Santa Rita Range Reserve, may be ob- 
tained from Director Matt <J. Culley, Continental, Ariz. C. L. Forsling.u.S 
Forest Service, Ogden, Utah, will, furnish on request copies of the program 
of the Great Basin Field Day, which includes an outline of the range man- 
ageirenttpr.inciples discussed. 


Forest Planting; on the Lassen 
By A. E. 'Tie slander, U. S. Forest Service 

October 21 to 27, 1925, might well have been called "Forest 
Planting 'Veek" on the Lassen National Forest, California. The entire 
district ranger force spent that period in setting cut 8 S 000 2-year-old 
yellow yeed'iings shipped from the nursery on the Columbia National 
Forest, Tfashingt.on. The planting site •was a portion of the Antelope 
Mountain burn where destruction was complete. The area had been logged 
twice, once prior to the fire of 1924 and once last spring to salvage 
the fire-killed timber. The soil was comparatively deep and the plentiful 
rains of this fall had put it in ideal condition. 

There were six of us on the job and we split into two crews of 
three men each. In each crew one man dug the holes for two men planting. 
Deep holes were made with a spade and each tree was carefully set out 
and the soil compacted tightly around it. Each crew averaged 900 trees 
a day* The trees were spaced not less than 10 feet apart, and when the 
jcb was completed a traverse of the area showed that approximately 15 
acres had been covered. If good planting stock, ideal soil conditions 
on a good site, and careful planting are any indication, this experi- 
mental project should be successful., T 7e are optimistic, at any rate, 
since better than 70 per cent of the 1,000 trees set out a year ago on 
a less favorable site in the same locality are vigorous and healthy at 
the end of the first season. 

In addition to the tree planting, an area of about 10 acres was 
seed-spotted with a mixture of yellow and Jeffrey pine seed. On this 
job we divided into three crews of two men each. One man of each crew 
was equipped with a hoe and the other with a bucket of seed. Holes were 
dug not less than 10 feet apart and from six to a dosen seed were put 
into each hole, covered with soil, and primed with the foot. A total of 
3,861 spots were made in this way. 


Game and a Feas t 
on Oklaho ma ' s One. ITational Forest 

By TJill C. Barnes, U. S. Forest Service 

Away down in the southwestern corner of Oklahoma there rises out 
of the comparatively level "plains 1 ' an odd jumble of huge granite and 
limestone "boulders, in several instances piled up into what down that way 
they call the ,r ?i chit a Mountains" ~ a little rocky islet in a vast sea of 
grassy Hone of the hills are very high, and judged by Rocky 
.Mountain standards they are mere molehills.. But to the Oklahoma people 
they are real mountains, and Mount Scott, 2,400 feet in elevation, is in 
their eyes fully as sightly and appealing as is Pike's Peak to their fel- 
low citizens to the north. • ■ . ■ : 

Except for a few cottonwoods and such trees along the streams, 95 per 
cent of the timber is white oak of fairly: good size and very. attractive in 
its gro-th. In the rougher hills a few scattered junipers manage to exist. 
The oak is valuable chiefly for fence posts, rails, and firewood. The 
juniper furnishes local Christmas trees.. 

This region is rich in historical interest. Around these mountains 
the plains Indians of the early days gathered to hunt buffalo and inci- 
dentally hunt each other. Fort Sill, on the- southern edge of these moun- 
tains, was the most important military post in the So-athwest. in the old 
pioneer days. Quanah Parker, the last and greatest chief of the Comanches, 
lived and died -there. Geronimo, the Apache chief. J was- held a prisoner at 
?ort Sill for many years and died in the post in 1911. 

The mountains lie almost in the center of the former range . of the 
great Southern buffalo herd and were a noted hunting ground in the early 
days. Besides buffalo the area once teemed with antelope, white-tailed 
deer, and elk; and turkeys, quail, and other- game birds were unusually 

In 1901, when the old Indian territory was opened to settlement, 
Congress set aside some 61,000 acres of these mountains as the TJichita ITa- 
tional Forest. In 1905 President Roosevelt designated it also as a nation- 
al game preserve. 

a number of clear mountain streams flow out of these hills, running 
at times through deep mysterious canons or along high cliffs capped with 
huge boulders or ornamented with odd geological formations - spires, 
towers, and balanced rocks. Here and there the streams have dug out great 
deep shadowy pools with clean sandy bottoms which furnish admirable places 
for "swimmin' holes." 


When the area was first placed in charge of the Forest Service 
there were but 19 "hi te- tailed deer and a fevr quail left out of the 
former dense game population. Urn's greed ard thoughtlessness had elim- 
inated all the rest. She American Bi'scn Society of New York offered to 
stock the area with "buffalo and shipped 15 head from the Hew York Zoolog- 
ical Garden for that purpose. The wild turkeys to restock it had to be 
captured in Virginia and shipped out. Antelope came from Alberta, Canada. 
Odd indeed to secure the "seed' 1 ' for restocking from such distant sources I 
The city of V/ichita, Kans. , had a single bull elk on their hands which in 
1908 they donated to the cause. He reigned solitary and alone until in 
1910 a shipment came to keep him company from the Jackson Hole elk herd 
in we stern Wyoming. 

All these animals have done exceedingly well except the antelope. 
They, poor little chaps, so far haven't seemed to thrive. The forest 
officers, however, hope the present little herd will increase. The buf- 
falo and elk have increased until the pastures are too heavily stocked. 
Individuals are therefore being sold or riven away, either for stocking 
other game preserves or for food. The turkeys have multiplied' and are 
overflowing into the surrounding cultivated country in considerable num- 
bers. You see them in the ^oods in big flocks everywhere you drive. 

To the people of southwestern Oklahoma and near-by Texas the 
Wichita Mountains are a place of refuge from the heat of the open plains, 
and they have made the Wichita Forest their outdoor recreation center. 
It is their "one little ewe lamb" when it comes to a recreation area and, 
as with Rome, all roads in the region lead to the Wichita Forest. 

There are a number of established camp grounds on the forest and on 
a fine Sunday - and down that way all Sundays are fine climatically - from 
500 to 600 autos are to be seen at a single camp ground. Somebody- re- 
marked that the swimming holes are •Oklahoma' s public bath-tubs, and they 
are certainly well patronized during the bathing season. The near-by 
cities - arid near-by means ™ithin a radius of 100 miles - vie with each 
other in establishing and fitting up these camp grounds, calling them by 
their city names. Also there are "Kiwanis," ."Rotary," "Chamber of Com- 
merce," "Elks," "Automobile" and other such camp grounds equipped and 
cared for by members, of these organizations. The Boy and Girl Scouts 
from all over the region, have camping outings on the area, and so great 
is the demand that .the forest supervisor has to keep a book account with 
these boys' and girls' organizations so there may be no conflicting dates. 
He gives each a definite week to occupy and enjoy the area set aside espe- 
cially for this class of recreationists. My, what good times those kids 
do have too I There isn't a rock or cliff within 10 miles of the "Scout 
Camp" that those adventurous youngsters haven't climbed all oyer, or a 
cave or crack or cranny- they haven* t explored thoroughly, 


Thanks to the dogged determination of Frank Rush, former super- 
visor of tine 7i chita, the headquarters "buildings are most attractive in 
design and everlasting in construction. Rush and his wife were the- de- 
signers, architects, landscape gardeners, cement workers, "bridge "build- 
ers, road constructors, and general planners of it all. 

There have been many big days on the Wichita, "but the greatest 
so far was in the summer of 1925. The National Editorial Association, 
en route east from a trip to the Pacific Coast, was invited "by the city 
of Lawton, Okla. , 24 miles from the T7ichita Forest, to stop off and visit. 
Incidentally they were offered a trip to the ""buffalo pasture," as the 
forest is locally called, with a whole barbecued buffalo for dinner and 
a general round-up of Indians and of buffalo, elk, and other game animals. 
Naturally the editors "accepted with pleasure." The Lawton people called 
on Supervisor Shanklin for help. There were to be 2&0 editors and their 
families, and invited guests from Lawton and other near-by cities. Would 
the supervisor arrange to entertain and feed them if Lawton would pay the 

Out at "Buffalo Lodge" the supervisor called his four rangers to- 
gether for consultation and as an equally important move he called their 
wives too. How those women, led by the supervisor's wife, rose to the 
occasion is a matter of local history, and good history at that. 

Lawton paid, the bills - the women did the work. They bought sev- 
eral hundred pounds of potatoes and onions, and with gallons of vinegar, 
mounds of salt and pepper, and whole sides of bacon they constructed ten 
bushels - ten, count 'em - of potato salad. They boiled the spuds in a 
huge galvanized water tank and at 4 in the afternoon those devoted forest 
women began "building" the salad. They pulled the long dining room table 
out to its full length and spread over it a great oilcloth cover, and they 
peeled and sliced potatoes and onions for four long hours, until there was 
a huge potato and onion mountain the full length of the table. Then \7ith 
shovels and "spading forks" the men set to work to do the mixing while 
the women under the skilled direction of Mrs. Shanklin poured over it li- 
bations of vinegar, salt and pepper, celery, and chopped bacon, '"/hen the 
job was complete the ten bushels of salad were placed in galvanized iron 
tubs for future use. It was 4 o'clock in the morning before this job was 

Meanwhile near the picnic ground a great open pit was dug, 8 or 10 
feet deep, 4 wide, and 15 long, across which steel bars were placed. 
This was filled to the top with dry oak logs which were burned down into 
one grand heap of glowing coals. The rangers went out into the buffalo 
pasture, roped a fat young buffalo, dragged him up to the vicinity of the 
pit , and killed and dressed him. 


Then a man famous in all that region for his ability to roast a 
-hole "buffalo at one sitting took charge' and turned out a finished prod- 
uct the like of which those wandering editors never before put between 
their jaws. Like the little girl, when buffalo meat is good, it's very, 
very good. .This was good. The rangers and their wives brewed gallons 
of strong black coffee over another fire and provided barrels upon bar- 
rels of lemonade cooled with ice from Lawton. The baker's wagon from 
Lawton hove in sight at the right time ^ith a full load of rolls fresh 
from the oven. Also arrived 2,500 fine specimens of Eskimo pie for des- 
sert, together with "eatin' tools" in the shape of knives, forks, paper 
plates, cups, and napkins. 

A lot of men had been busy doing things with a couple of loads of 
lumber with which they turned out long lines of tables and rough benches. 

Meantime the word got around that part of the United States that 
there was to be a VJi.ld 'lest Show pulled off at the '.Vichita Forest on a 
certain day, and on that day all business in the region was suspended. 
Everybody and his wife and family forthwith loaded themselves into the 
family flivver and struck out for "Buffalo Lodge." Largely they all ar- 
rived in a bunch. 'Then Supervisor Shanklin awoke to his responsibility he 
decided he needed help and needed it badly. A phone message to the com- 
manding officer at Fort Sill brought 200 soldiers, properly officered, to 
his rescue. They were mostly cavalrymen; the balance were on motorcycles, 
-hey were organized into a huge traffic squad and under their direction 
the more than 3,000 cars that blocked the one road leading to the "feed 
lot" were untangled and some semblance of order restored and maintained. 

Having cleared a place along the high buffalo fence where the gaests 
could park their cars and see the show in some orderly manner, the super- 
visor and his rangers, aided and abetted by some 200 or 300 Indians in 
full dress costume, rounded up about 200 buffalo in the buffalo pasture, 
together with 50 or SO giant bull elk that usually graze with them. Over 
a prairie hill a mile or so distant, thundering down the slope towards 
the spot where the editorial visitors were parked, came the herd, making 
a noise like a thousand railroad trains on a covered bridge. The Indians 
also assisted mightily in the volume of sound. To them chasing that herd 
of buffalo was almost a sacred rite. The animals seemed to enjoy the 
affair and charged derm toward that mob of cars and people with a reck- 
lessness and abandon that threatened to carry them right through the fence 
into the crowd. Fortunately the men ^ere able to swing the leaders at the 
critical moment and the whole herd tore grandly down the fence line, giv- 
ing the crowd the thrill of their lives, one they didn't get over for a 
month. Then a band of Indians did some fancy riding and arrow shooting 
and the crowd turned their attention to the food, ^hich had been placed 
on the tables ready for the assault. After the 700 visitors had done their 
Torst there was still an ample supply, pnd the uninvited but equally hungry 
crowd were asked to "sit into the game" and eat a bite. Their number was 
estimated at from 10,000 to 12,000, big and little, young and old. 


'.Then the battle Fas over there'wasn 1 t ;a shred of "buffalo meat 
left, the hones were picked clean and mostly carried off for souvenirs. 
Every bit of those ten bushels of potato salad was out of sight, the 
coffee pots were empty, and the lemoiadre barrels as dry as Jonah's gourds. 
All that was left was a great yellow mound of lemon peels. The whole 
forest force, including the five wives, went to bed and slept for two 
full days. 

Forest Supervisor Shanklin says the whole forest was dressed for 
the occasion as if on parade. The day Was perfect, there had been sever- 
al fine rains, the prairies were all as green as emeralds, and the wondei 
ful array of wild flowers made them look like flower gardens. To those 
eastern visitors it was a sight and experience long to be remembered. 
A good time was had by all. 

Thinning for Christmas Trees 

The Pike national Forest in olorado has thousands of acres of 
cccrt-ftdd-.t/oung Douglas 'fir stands. It also has in the near-by cities of 
Denver and Colorado Springs a strong market for Christmas trees and ever- 
green boughs. But heretofore there has been some difficulty about thin- 
ning the stands in the way most beneficial to them and at the some time 
satisfying the common desire to "go to the woods for a tree. 

This season Supervisor Hamel made a contract with a responsible 
man for the sale of about 12,000 trees to be cut shortly before Christ- 
mas. The purchaser sent most of these trees to the cities by auto truck, 
but he also set up in the sale area a roadside booth where those who want- 
ed to select their trees !I in the woods" could do so. Each tree bore a 
small tag showing that it had been cut on a national forest in a thinning 
that would improve the stand, and carrying the inevitable message, l; Be 
careful with fire in the woods." The results were a satisfied public and 
100 acres or more of well-thinned stands. 

The purchase included the green brush, and by December 3 more than 
50 tons of boughs had been taken out. Some of these were to be used for 
Christmas decorations, others would be woven into coarse mesh wire and 
used to relieve the dreariness of cemeteries during the winter months in 
a region too dry for evergreen trees but with little or no snow. 


Incidentally, the steins of marked trees, if large enough, were 
saved for hewn ties or mine timbers. Everything was put to use except 
dead limbs. 

In this instance the idea' of getting Christmas trees from thinnings 
was seized upon as news. The papers played it up in illustrated articles, 
and a movie photographer was sent out to the forest to film the cutting. 

Limber Pine the Most Bibulous Rocky Mountain Forest Species 

Tests of seedlings of seven Rocky Mountain species indicate that of 
all the local conifers limber pine makes the greatest use of water, and 
Engelmann spruce the least. 

In these tests, made by the Rocky Mountain Forest Experiment Sta- 
tion, the small trees were given all the water they would use. Specially 
constructed pots prevented the loss of water except by evaporation from 
the trees themselves. By frequent weighings and the addition of water as 
needed a uniform water supply for each' tree was maintained. 

:<•; Preliminary results of' the tests give the following figures, repre- 
senting for each species the number of ounces of water that the average tree 
will use for each ounce in dry weight of wood it puts on: 

Limber pine . . 1 ,000 

7estern yellow pine' . . . 900 

Bristlecone pine 800 

Lodgepole pine 725 

Pinon pine 680 

Douglas fir 550 

Engelmann spruce . 450 

These tests will be continued and enlarged during the coming season, 
if possible under more natural growing conditions than the present method 


Nutritive Ratio of Locust and Rocky Mountain - '" 
; Yellow Pino on the Kaibab 

By 7. a. Dayton, U. 3. Forest Service 

On the Kaibab Rational Forest it has been 'noted that Her Mexican 
locust ( Robinia neomexicana ) is being badly injured by the deer. This is 
of interest in view of the fact that New Mexican locust is a ;2;ood goat 
browse on the Gila and Lincoln -Forests. - It is notoriously dangerous to 
hitch a horse to the eastern locust ( R. pseudacacia ) ; horses have been 
known to die from chewing its bark, and' Dr. Pammel of Iowa State 'College 
reports that all parts of the eastern locust contain a toxic albuminoid, 
robinin. Supervisor Marin, of the Kaibab Forest recently sent to Washing- 
ton for chemical' analysis samples' of three of the species of woody plants 
that are being most heavily grazed by deer on that forest, cliffrose, 
Mormon-tea ( Ephedra viridis ) , and Rocky Mountain yellow pine. Analyses 
by the Bureau of Chemistry ahd - *? a number of items of interest, notably 
the very high nitrogen-free extract percentage (52. 52) for the cliffrose 
(alfalfa bay has 37.1 per cent) , which represents digestible carbo-- 
hydrates ,' sugars., starches, etc.-, arid the remarkably high percentage 
(8.19) in protein, for the yellow pine sample - which compares favorably 
with 12.4 per cent for wheat and 10.1 per cent for field corn. Evidently 
the short-leaved form Of western yellow pine ( Pinus brachyptera, P. 
ponderosa scopulorum , or whatever it is) is a plant of considerable "'. 
nutritive value I : 

Total r e ceipts from national forest- resources during the fiscal 
year 1925 were $5,000,137. Timber sales brought -in $2,940,393, and 
grazing fees $1,725,377. ".Then. 25 per- cent of- the total has been paid 
to the States to be spent on roads, and- schools in the counties in which 
national forests are located, and 10 per cent has been set aside for 
building national forest roads and trails, $3,231 ,680 will remain to be 
paid into the general fund of theU. S. Treasury. 


Tim ber G a ins and Losses of the Great Southern Lumber Go. 

The Great Southern Lumber Co. reports satisfactory results from 
the planting of 3,500,000 trees at Bogalusa, La., one year ago, about 
85 per cent of the seedlings surviving. This fall and winter it is 
planting 6,000,000 slash pine seedlings raised from seed sown last 
March - . The little trees, which now average 12 inches in height, are 
being set at intervals of about 5 feet in furrows opened 8 feet apart. 
A home-made iron dibble is the planting tool used, and a man and a boy 
can plant from 1 to 2 acres a day. 

The tip moth, which has injured the loblolly pine set out during 
the past few years, causes almost no injury to the slash pine, doubt- 
less because of its -more vigorous growth and free flew of resin in wounds. 

Fires on the timber lands of the Great Southern Lumber Co. during 
1924-25 covered about one-twentieth of the total area of 200,000 acres. 
In view of the exceedingly severe drought conditions and the limited 
patrol, this is counted as a good record. Most of the loss occurred in 
Mississippi, where as yet there is no State fire-protection organization. 
The company's Mississippi land agent states that according to the results 
of a careful survey its losses by forest fire in the winter of 1924-25 
amotonted to 600,000 feet of timber, valued at $60,000. On one area of 
10,000 acres, fire killed 600,000 feet of heart pine and 400,000 feet of 
sap pine, the latter being counted as practically a dead loss. He also 
states that since the year 1900 fires have reduced the total stand on the 
company's timber land in Mississippi by 25 per cent, a : 'forty :l which at 
that time had 800,000 board feet now has only 375,000. 

J. K. Johnson, forester of the company, relates an experience illus- 
trating the high degree of cooperation which it has attained with neigh- 
boring Louisiana farmers in fire prevention. On Thanksgiving Eve, 1924, 
during very dry, windy weather, a fire broke out in one of the fenced 
reforestation pastures about 4 miles from Bogalusa. Mr. Johnson got to- 
gether some 20 men who had worked in the mill all day, and about 8 o'clock 
started with tools and provisions expecting a severe fight. On their -.'ay 
the party met men returning from the fire, and learned that a group of 
* farmers and other neighbors had voluntarily attacked it and fought it out 
before it could spread to a large planted area near by. 


Small Trees Refuse to Fay Costs of Cutting 

W. '7. Ashe of the Forest Service lias for many years beer, telling 
the lumbermen that what they get out of a little tree does not pay for 
the cutting of it. His fig-ires showing the high cost of operating small 
timber and the low volume of its products have been presented in many 
talks and published repeatedly. Recently an Arkansas lumber company 
has risen to testify in his support, ^fter installing a new circular 
mill which could easily cut 200 or more lo^s a day this firm issued in- 
structions that pine logs should thenceforth average 50 feet. They soon 
found that they were- operating at a loss. A close study of their prob- 
lem followed in which they made use of a paper presented ^j Mr. Ashe 
at meetings of the Southern Logging Association in 1914 and 1917. This 
paper includes six tables giving comparative figures for the average 
costs of cutting small logs and large ones, and the value of the lumber. 
Having tested all Mr, Ashe's tables in woods and mill the firm wrote, 
" Je were forced to conclude that he was conservative in all his figures." 
They went back to a 70-foot average and expect to continue this to the 
end of their operation. 

T imber Depletion and Railroad Junking 

A, recent study of the causes of railroad junking, the results of 
which were summarized by ITorman C. McLoud in the Baltimore Evening Sun 
of December 16, indicates that the most important cause of the abandon- 
ment of railroad lines is the depletion of natural resources. The 
study was based on facts set forth in published opinions of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission with reference to 120 cases of abandonment 
authorized by the commission since ITovember, 1920. "Consciertiously 
classified," says Mr. McLoud, "the reasons show that the chief offender 
was 'exhaustion of natural resources.' ... The mileage thus tabulated 
represented roads originally constructed for logging or mining operations. 
Viewed under the microscope provided by the Interstate Commerce Commission, 
these roads constitute 73 lines and branches - nearly two-thirds of the 
whole - and a combined length of 1,411 miles, or close to three-fifths 
of the entire mileage sent to the discard 

"A striking instance of 'exhaustion of natural resources' came to 
light in the case of the Alabama and Mississippi Railroad, ^ith 75 miles 
of track constructed for the marketing of timber products. 7/hen the tim- 
ber had all been marketed the agricultural products of the territory fur- 
nished the road with but three carloads of freight within a period of 12 
months prior to the abandonment of the tracks." 


Some Oorer^ - gt^oi;3 o i t hu L i _£a:£xlL. j^Jdak^l-::- ' ^'° ~ t - ? '- 
3y W. H. Chapline, U. o. Forest Service 

Forage conditions throughout the West were on the whole about 
average or hotter during 1925. Only in a few places that had been short 
of rainfall was there a shortage of range forage, a changing sentient in 
regard bo economic conditions is clearly noticeable among the stockmen.. 
■The sheepmen are in a fairly prosperous condition, are beginning to liqui- 
date their debts, and expect to continue to make profits. The cattle in- 
dustry is looking at the situation from a much different point of view than 
in the past few years. Prices have strengthened a little, there are more 
buyers, and it is much easier to sell surplus animals, A good market 
for calves has been maintained throughout the West, stockers and feeders 
are in demand at better prices, and the opportunities for the sale of cows 
for breeding purposes and shipment to market are better than they have been 
for a number of years. 

In general there were not so many cattle on the range in 1925 as 
in the past. This is particularly truecf parts of California and the South- 
west. In much of New Mexico a large proportion of the cattle have been 
shipped out in the past two years, owing to continued droughts and deterio- 
ration of range by overgrazing. The stand of forage is much below what it 
has been, ard on extensive areas the better grasses have been killed out 
and the range taken by annuals and weeds of lower value. 

It is clearly evident that the heavy stocking of range areas with 
both cattle and sheep in the past has tended toward uneconomic production. 
Other things being equal, fewer and better livestock and better management 
will prove more profitable. The sheep industry is tending toward ex- 
pansion. During the past season prices were unusually high for lambs, 
many selling on the range for 12 and.- 13 cents a pound, and occasional bunch- 
es as high as 14 cents. Prices for breeding ewes and ranch property suit- 
able for sheep production are so high, however, that the best of manage- 
ment will be required to obtain economic production from present purchases 
of sheep outfits. The low point in the cattle industry has undoubtedly 
been reached, and the present situation offers advantages to the person 
who has the nerve to step in, buy breeding cows and suitable ranches cheap , 
and aid in building up the industry. 

A pine turn of 2QQ acres which George P. Brett, president- of the 
McMillan Co., New York, has developed near Fairfield, Conn., is said in 
American Forests and Forest Life to contain specimens of 300 species and 
varieties of conifers from all parts of the ^orld. 


Census Bureau Issues Lumb er ar.d Farm Woodland St a tistics 

Statistics on the distribution and consumption, as well as the pro- 
duction, of lumber have just been given out by the Bureau of the Census 
for the first time, in a booklet entitled "The Principal Lumber Indus- 
tries." The figures are for the year 1-923. They show that in' that year 
26 States consumed. more lumber than they produced. ^Washington stood first 
in volume of lumber shipped to other;' States'. -Others that led' in supply- 
ing lumber for use outside their own boundaries were Louisiana', Oregon, 
Mississippi, Alabama, and Arkansas.- >-, 

California consumed more than four billion board feet, producing 
less than half as much. , Consumption exceeded one billion board feet in 
Illinois, New York, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Ohio, Washington, Texas, and 
Indiana - and of these' only Washington and Texas met their own require- 

The national lumber output for the year' totalled 36 billion board 

The' 1925 agricultural census, preliminary, summaries of which have 
been delivered, not only shows the area of farm woodland in every county 
in the United States but classifies those areas as pastured or unpastured. 
This is the first time the Bureau of the Census has furnished figures on 
this classification. 

One r esult of the .B erkeley T Calif., fire_of 1923 stands on Grizzly 
Peak, east of the campus of ths University of California, in the shape of 
a fire lookout station. The to^er is equipped with an electric siren. 
Code signals blown from the tower reach Berkeley and the' hills region, and 
besides carrying messages to deputy fire wardens stimulate interest among 
the people of the city. 

The necessity for p atroll i ng a seem ing ly dead fire is. shown its an, 
incident related Everett H, • Stanford , assistant forester of Los Angeles 
County, Calif. A fire on the Big Tugunga Canyon in September-, 1925, 
devastated about 7,000 acres but was subdued after 10 days of difficult 
fighting. Two months later a guard reported that the fire 'had broken out 
afresh in- the trunk of a lonesome pine standing on the edge of the burned 
area. It had been smoldering in the deep layer of mulch; 


Thy It Is Hard to Grow Timber in Porto Rico 

V7. D. Durland of the University cf Porto Pico, writing in- the Jour- 
nal of Forestry on the status of forestry in the island, describes condi- 
tions very different from the usual idea of rapid and abundant tree 

."growth in the tropics.' He states that the- soil of practically all the 
Porto Rican forest lands, "which is volcanic 'in origin, "has under the 
influence of a deforested condition, constant warm weather., and abundant 
rainfall, "been leached out of its original nutrient constituents, and the 
hurnus content excessively decomposed or completely washed away»" These 
soils "are extremely heavy and pack and puddle badly, even to the extent 
of beina: impervious to both air and water," This condition of the so\l 
discourages tree growth but does not affect the growth of competing vege- 
tation. The "maleza" - grass, weeds, shrubs, ferns, and vine growth -•■ 

"grows so rapidly, occurs so abundantly and so densely, and reproduces so 
prolifically and completely under any and all, conditions of soil and cli- 
mate that it requires continual attention to keep:: it from destroying young 
tree growth.... or.nce it readily returns to its former state of existence 
even when apparently completely destroyed, the expenses of 'maleza 1 destruc- 
tion necessary to, preserve a forest plantation almost immediately amount 
to an expenditure prohibitive of profit from the enterprise. Most native 
tree species are yery susceptible to the ill effects of this competitive 
growth even when assisted by soil preparation and "•eeding. Pew, if any, 
can sufvive it in direct competition; none, capable of producing quality 
wood material. Conditions require the selection and development of hardy 
types of seedlings of desirable tree species, having adequate and suitable 
root and stock arrangement, which, with a small amount of care when placed 
in the field, will dominate the area and grow to maturity within a period 
of time conducive to profit." 

Prom Alfalfa- to Pine 

Five years ago Jud^e John E. Pox of the Dauphin, pa. , County Bench 
decided that a hillside on which he had been raising alfalfa, was too steep 
for the growing of agricultural crops. He had been making a study of for- 
estry, and decided to plant it to pine. He recently sold 3,000 of the 
trees for .a three times as great as the total cost .of the planting, 
and has 6,000 left. The fillers have been sold for transplanting, a car- 
load going to Kentucky. ■ Only 3., 000. of the trees, which are now from 3 to 
5 feet high, will be left to mature, so. 3, 000 are still for sale. 


Seeing is Believing 

Myron R. T7atson, extension forester, writes of a 29-year-old stand 
of white pine in East Newport land, Somerset County, Maine, which contains 
22,240 board feet of round-edge lumber to the acre. T7ild stock from neigh- 
boring woodlands were planted at intervals of 6 feet in rows 10 feet apart, 
on a lot 67 by 284 feet, and there are now 556 trees in the lot. Part of 
the stand has been pruned to a height of 12 or 14 feet, the remainder is 

One old lumberman on seeing this plantation exclaimed, "I never 
believed before that timber planting was worth while 1!' 

A stand of loblolly pine in McCormick bounty, S. C, was recently 
examined by Extension Forester Tryon to appraise fire damage. Borings 
showed the trees to average 50 years in age. The growth for the first 11 
years was unusually good, running about 0»66 inch a year; but for each 
of the succeeding years the increment was only 0.21 inch. Inquiries in the 
neighborhood brought out the fact that the railroad which passes close by 
the tract was built in 1886, and was the first operated in the section. 
The sudden and permanent decrease in growth dating from that year would 
seem to be attributable to the , forest fires which now occur in these woods 
every year. 

An instance of the firing of a lightning- struck hardwood tree is 
reported by Assistant State Forester Geo. R. Phillips of Indiana. This 
occurred at Turkey Run State Park, Marshall, Ind. f on August 13, 1925. 
The victim was an old stagheaded tulip tree. Eire started in the dead 
wood at the top and was soon blazing merrily. A man climbed the tree and 
put cut the flames with a fire extinguisher. 

Hunting permits are issued by the Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co. , Century, 
Fla. , to several hundred individuals each year. The form adopted by the 
company concludes with: "Forest Fires injure Timber, destroy game, and de- 
crease the value of lands for grazing -purposes; so use every precaution to 
prevent fire in the woods. LET'S ALL PRACTICE CONSERVATION i" 



Reorganization of Belgian Forestry '7ork 

Only 17. 7 per cent of Belgium^ territory is covered with forests, 
and three-quarters of the nation's wood supply must be imported. Y/ith 
the purpose of remedying this situation the Belgian Government in 1896 
established a forest research station. First trials were made, with 
meager funds, in the nurseries at Groenendael , near Brussels. The Bel- 
gian organization was affiliated with the Union Internationale des Re- 
cherches Forestieres, and the sixth and last congress of the union was 
held in Belgium in 1910. 

In 1919 the Belgian service was reorganized and again established 
at Groenendael, where an arboretum, nurseries, and a forest museum have 
been created. All the documents which had been assembled by the service 
were lost or destroyed during the 17ar, and the present national budget 
allows only 55,000 francs a year for forest research exclusive of sala- 
ries. In spite of these handicaps, the present organization has carried 
out certain experiments, especially in problems of reforestation, with 
most encouraging results. Belgium is very poor in good woods, and the 
service has directed a great deal of attention to the introduction of 
ezotic species, establishing 24 arboretums throughout the country in dif- 
ferent kinds of soil. Its principal activity has been in the afforesta- 
tion of uncultivated land, especially in the sandy soils of the "Campinc" in 
the north of Belgium, 

In 7/ood and Bronze 

The memory of a departed forester is sometimes kept alive by a bit 
of woods he grew ? but we do not often hear of one being honored by the 
erection of a monument. Such an occurrence is reported from Cauterets, 
France. In 1833 the population of Cauterets were much alarmed by the fall 
of numerous large boulders which became detached from the mountain of 
Peguere and threatened to destroy the celebrated baths of Raillere and 
Mauhourat at the foot of the mountain. They appealed to the Government , 
and M. Demontzey, chief of the reforestation service, came to the rescue. 
After engineering preparation which included the construction of a road, 
the removal of rocks about to fall, and the building of some retaining 
walls, he succeeded in stabilizing the situation by reforestation. For 


years now there has been no repetition of the fall of rocks. Recently 
the 'Touring Club of France and a civic organization of Cauterets decided 
to commemorate this work on the site. A large assemblage of people of 
the community, including high officials, met for exercises. After dedi- 
cating a commemorative placque at the entrance of the road built by M. 
Bemontzey, they proceeded to a bridge near the falls of Cerisey and un- 
veiled a medallion showing his face. The celebration was concluded with 
a reading by Mme Dussane of the Comedie Francaise. 

Forest Experiment Organization in Russia 

Before the World War the bulk of Russian forests belonged to the 
State, and experimental work on them was carried out only by the Forest 
Service Bureau of the Russian Government. These forests were divided into 
administrative units, each headed by a forester. The size of the divi- 
sions depended largely on the economic value of the forest products, and 
generally diminished from north to south. Some of these forest districts 
were specially selected for experimental forest work, usually on problems 
characteristic of the region. 

Such forest experimental divisions were established in the north 
of European Russia - in Archangel and Petrograd Provinces; in Central 
European Russia - in Orel and Valdimir Provinces; in the Volga region - 
in Samara and Kazan Provinces; in ^outh P-ussia - in Yfckaterinoslav, 
Veronozh, Kiev, and Tambov^Provinces; in the mountainous region - Taurida 
Province (Crimea). 

The foresters were, as a rule, graduates of forestry institutes, 
and their activities were supervised by the Central Forest Administration 
in Petrograd. 

One of the notable features of the State forest service was the 
organization of most of the field and office workers into corps of for- 
esters. Thus the personnel of the central administration, in general, 
worked in close harmony with foresters in the field and professors of the 
forestry institutes, which also were under the Forest Service Bureau. The 
cooperation of these three agencies was well developed, because the person- 
nel was easily shifted from the central office to the field or forest in- 
stitutes, and vice versa. This system was largely responsible for the pro- 
ductive results of the work of the experimental staff, based on scientific 
research, closely following the demands of practical foresters as suggested 
■by local problems. 


It is assumed that this work has "been continued since that time, 
although no specific data on this subject have come to the attention of 
the U, S. Forest Service, 

Motor-truck units of the Canadian Forestry Associatio n are carry- 
ing- a forest protection appeal to many villages in remote parts of the 
Dominion. In the seven months beginning with April, 1925, they held 
almost 1,000 mass meetings, at which the average attendance was 232. 
Each of the units includes motion picture equipment and is manned by 
two men. In this campaign they have traveled a total distance of more 
than 17,000 miles. 

Deforestation Moves a City 

A striking instance of the disastrous effects of deforestation 
is included in a report of the annual meeting, held at Lacanau.. of the 
naval stores operators of Southwest France, published in Bois ct Fesineux. 

"Certainly Lacanau is no longer the powerful city that it was 300 
years before Charlemagne, when the pool of Lacanau was not yet in exist- 
ence, when a river watered the land, and when its outer harbor of Fort 
Maurice which gave anchorage to vessels of deep draft made it comparable 
to Bordeaux. As a result of reckless deforestation the dunes began to 
encroach, closed up the estuary, and formed the vast pool of Lacanau. 
Port Maurice, la Canau, disappeared;, the sea advanced, swallowing up the 
land; and the dunes advanced ahead of the sea. Such were the disastrous 
effects of deforestation. In 1760 Lacanau had become a city of minor im- 
portance. The dunes then began again to encroach, banking up the waters 
of the pool ahead of them. The inhabitants fled in alarm and a kilometer 
farther away rebuilt the city, which is the Lacanau of today. Thanks to 
management of the forests along the shore, the dunes and the pool have 
been stabilized and life, security, and prosperity have returned to the 
town. The question of the conservation of the forest on which their liv- 
ing depends is one which the naval stores operators have closely at heart, 
and the fa.ct that they are meeting in this city which has several times 
been ruined by the destruction of the forest is regarded as of great 
symbolic interest.' 1 


Finnish Lumber Reaches AmerJ car. Ports 

The first shipment of lumber to the United States from Finland 
arrived in Boston in October. Another was already on its way to New 
York and a third was being loaded for Florida. 

These shipments were experimental in nature. The promoter, a 
Finn, shipped a variety of sizes and kinds cf lumber to be sold in com- 
petition with similar kinds and sizes of American lumber. 

Bruno Kivikoski, charge d'affaires, Legation of Finland in Wash- 
ington, states that the current selling price of lumber is about the 
same in Finland as in New York. It is doubtful, however, if the cost 
of manufacture is so low there as in the United States. In' Finland 
freight charges make up a much smaller percentage of the final selling 
price than in this country. Although freight charges are lower from Fin- 
land to New York than from the Pacific Coast to New York, the difference 
in manufacturing cost may prove too great a handicap for the Finns. 

Sawmills in Royal Hunting Ground of Polond 

The American Lumberman recently printed a letter from S. 0. John- 
son, a member of the National Lumber Manufacturers' Association living 
in Paris, about a visit to some forests in Poland. One of these was at 
one time the hunting ground of the kings of Poland and later of the czars 
of Russia. Apparently nothing was cut from it for a period of about 300 
years. The czars maintained in it a herd of 900 buffaloes, and built in 
the center of it a. very magnificent castle. 

During his campaign in Poland General Von Hindenburg made his head- 
quarters in the czars' castle. He proceeded to kill all the buff aloes 
for food, and his man built three sawmills containing about 18 or 20 
small gang saws. They did not succeed in getting much lumber cut, how- 
ever, before the war turned the other way. 

The area of this forest is 300,000 acres c-olid, with only one clear- 
ing in the center where the castle stands. According to Mr. Johnson's 
calculation there are 250,000 acres that T-ould average between 20,000 
and 25,000 feet to the acre of timber that runs 70 per. cent Scotch pine, 
or what is known in Europe as Sylvester pine. Most of the pine in Europe 
is between 50 and 75 years old, but the Scotch pine in this forest is 
from 200 to 300 years old. The remainder of the timber is excellent 
quality white oak, ash, and maple, with a fe^ other hardwoods. The 
ground is "just as level as the "heat fields of North Dakota.'" 

The Polish Government has £iyen a concession to cut 400,000 cubic 
meters (about 120,000,000 board feet") a year from this forest. The price 
paid for this timber is less than that paid for southern pine, Mr. John- 
son says, and labor is both abundant and efficient. The railroad rates 
also are reasonable. 



Torn Gill has resigned from the Forest Service to accept a position 
on the staff of the American Forestry Association. Soon after the begin- 
ning of the new year he will become associate editor of American Forests 
and Forest Life, and will take charge of the association's educational 
puolicity. Mr. Gill entered the Forest Service almost immediately after 
his graduation from the Yale Forest School in 1915 and has been connected 
with it continuously except for two years in the Air Service. He leaves 
the position of assistant chief of the public relations branch, Washing- 
ton office. 

State Forester F. U. Besley of Maryland was elected president of 
the National Association of State Foresters at its annual convention in 
California on October 10. C. P. Uilber, of New Jersey, was elected vice 
president and Chapin Jones, of Virginia, secretary. 

'*;. C. McCormick, formerly assistant supervisor of the Cache Na- 
tional Forest, Utah, on January 1 becomes assistant State forester of 
North Carolina in charge of forest fire protection vrork. Mr. McCormick 
has been with the Forest Service for 10 years. 

Myron E. Krueger has been appointed associate professor of for- 
estry in the University of California. He is taking charge of courses 
and investigations in logging engineering. Mr. Krueger has studied for- 
estry both at Cornell and at the University of California, and has had 
10 years of experience as a logging engineer. 

Spence D- Turner has been appointed county forester of Pomona 
County, Calif., where he served for many years as assistant to the former 
county forester, the late Stuart J. Flintham. 

Cyril B. Webster has been appointed extension forester for Texas. 
Mr. YJebster is a graduate of the University of Michigan, 


Eilhard ,/iedeman, professor of forestry at Tharandt, Saxony is 
studying m this country under the auspices of the Rockefeller Interna- 
tional Board. He will spend most of the winter in Minnesota studying 
the work of the Lake States Experiment Station and visiting the neighbor- 
ing national forests. He intends also to visit the Appalachian F orest 
Experiment Station. and stations on the Pacific- Coast. 

Parker Anderson has been appointed extension specialist in forestry 
with headquarters at University Farm, University of Minnesota. Mr. Ander- 
son is a graduate of the forest school of the University of 'Minnesota. 
^s extension forester he will represent the University, Department of "For- 
estry, and Agricultural College of Minnesota, and the U. S. Department of 

Otto Brown has been appointed an extension forester with head- 
quarters at the Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Ala. Mr. Brown 
is a graduate of the institute and was formerly employed there as a horti- 
culturist. For two years he served as chief of the division of plant in- 
dustry of the Alabama State Board of Agriculture. 

Filibert Roth died on December 4, at Ann Arbor. 

Professor Roth came to the United States from Germany 
as a boy, and studied at the University of Michigan from 
1885 to 1893. After five years as a member of the staff of 
the U. S. Bureau of Forestry he joined the faculty of the 
New York State College of Forestry, at Cornell. From 1901 
to 1903 he was administrator of the national forest re- 
serves. He then went to the University of Michigan to 
organize the department of forestry which he headed until 
1923. From time to time he contributed many books and 
articles to the literature of forestry. 

Professor Roth was a beloved teacher, and was one of 
the most distinguished leaders in the forestry movement 
in this country. 



Books and Pamphlets 

Horner, R. P.., and others: Mine Timber: Its selection, storage, treat- 
ment, and use. 118 pp. illus., pi. U. S. Dept. of the Interior, 
Bureau of Mines, Bulletin 235. Washington, D. C. , 1925. 

Humphrey, C. J., and Miles, L, E..: Dry-rot in Buildings and Stored Con- 
struction Materials and How to Combat it. 24 pp. illus. , pi. 
Alabama. Polytechnic Institute, Extension ^ervice, Circular 78, 
Auburn, Ala., 1925. 

Klar, M.: Technology of Wood Distillation. ' (Translated by A. Rule.) 
496 pp. Chapman & Hall, ltd. London, 1925. 

Mac Donald, G. B.: The Growth, Returns, and Uses of Planted Cottonwood 
in Iowa. 35 pp. illus. ,'diagrs. Ames, la., 1924. 

Maddox, R. 5. , and Parkins, A. E.: Our Trees and How They Serve Us. 
180pp. il., pi., maps. Chas. Scribner's Sons. N. Y. , 1925. 

Maine Forest Commission. Fifteenth Biennial Report, 1923-24. 57 pp. 
Augusta, Me., 1925. 

Massachusetts Tree Wardens* and foresters' Association. Proceedings, 
14th Annual Meeting. 22 pp. Salem, Mass., 1925. 

Mayr, H-: Waldbau auf Naturgesetslicher Grundlage. 2d ed. 568 pp. 
illus., diagrs. P. Parey, Berlin, 1925. 

New Jersey Department of Conservation and Development, Division of 
forestry and parks. Forestry for Profit. 2d ed. 88 pp. 
illus. Trenton, IT. J., 1925. 

Quebec Department of Lands and Forests, Forest Protection Service. 
Report on the Protection of the Forests, 1924. 55pp. diagrs. 
Quebec, 1925. 


Recknagel, A. B.: Ten ]Fe&rs of Management of the Cornell University 

.oodlots. 27 pp. illus. Cornell University, New York State College 
of Agriculture. Cornell Extension Bulletin 113. Ithaca, N. Y. , 1925, 

Tides trom, I,: Flora of Utah and Nevada. 665 pp. pi., map. Smithsonian 
Institution, U. S, National Museum. Contributions from the U. S, 
National Herbarium, vol. 25. Washington, D. C. , 1925. 

U. S. 3ureau of the Census. Census of Manufactures, 1923: The Principal 
Lumber Industries. 70 pp. diagrs. • Washington, D. C, 1925. 

U. S. Bureau of the Census. Forest Products, 1924: • Pulpwood Consumption, 
and Wood-pulp Production. (Compiled in Cooperation with the Forest 
Service). 13 pp. Washington, D. C, 1925. 

Viscose Company. The Story of Rayon; the Newest Textile Yarn. 61 pp. 
illus., diagrs. New York, 1925. 

Waldron, C. B.: Trees, Shrubs, and Plants for gtorth Dakota Farmsteads. 
28 pp. illus. North Dakota Agricultural ollege, Agricultural Ex- 
tension Division, Circular 67. Agricultural: •ollege, N. D, , 1925. 

'./right, W. G.: Statistical Methods in Forest-Investigative Work. 36 pp. 
Canada Department of the Interior, Forestry Branch, .Bulletin 77. 
Ottawa, 1925. 

Articles in Periodicals 

Journal of Land and Public Utility Economics, Oct., 1925.— Wilderness as 
a form of land use, by A.Leopold, pp. 398-404, 

Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station Bimonthly Bulletin, Sept. -Oct., 1925.' 
Forest protection in Ohio, by B. E. Leete, pp. 131-142, 

Saturday Evening Post, Nov. 14, 1925. — The stockmen and the national 
forests, by W. B. Greeley, pp. 10-11, 80, 82, 84. 

Southern Lumberman, Oct. 3, 1925. — The paradox of the lumber industry: 
a great industry runs full blast and breeds prosperitjr but enjoys 
none, ^ay W. Compton, p. 33; Logging: the key to forestry, by P. L. 
Forbes, pp. 34-35. 


Southern Lumberman, Oct* 31, 1925. — The need for a new log rule, by D. 
Bruce, pp. 39-40; Forest conservation, by F. 5. Norcross, p. 44; 
Saving for grades featured at portable sawmill demonstration, pp. 

Southern Lumberman, ITov. 21, 1925. — Cutting to increase the margin of 
profit, by iT. '.7. Ashe, pp. 39-40. 

Timberman, Hov. , 1925,' — To burn or not to burn, by F. H. Lamb and 0. C. 
J°y» PP. 76-82 a 

Recent Publications of the Forest Service 

New Volume Tables 

"Volume Tables for the Important Timber Trees of the United States," 

a handbook in three parts compiled by E. N. Munns and R. M. Brown, 
has just been published by the Forest Service. 

Part I deals with western species and contains volume tables for 
both old and second-growth timber; Part II contains all the available 
volume tables for the eastern conifers, and Part III the volume tables 
for the eastern hardwoods. 

Bound copies of any one or all of these parts, or separate copies 
of the tables, may be obtained on application to the Office of Forest 
Ezrperiment Stations, U. S. Forest Service, 'Washington, D. C. 

Advice on Selling Black Ualnut 

The Forest Service receives almost daily requests from farmers 
and small timber owners for information on how to market their walnut 
timber to best advantage. In order to meet this demand the service has 
recently issued a farmers' bulletin entitled "Selling Black 'Talnut Tim- 
ber." The general aim of the publication is to show what timber is of 
high value and what is of little or no value, as well as what are the 
best ways of marketing walnut. The price paid to the timber owner de- 
pends on how much timber he has that is marketable as well as on quality 
and the distance from railroad and mill. Owners are advised to sell 
their timber in the form of the log. Generally speaking, mills which 
specialize in walnut, cutting both lumber and veneer, pay the highest 
prices for walnut logs, because they produce a hi,oh-grade product. 

A list of mills specializing in walnut will be supplied by the 
Forest Service to anyone requesting it. 


Map Folders: Roads and National Forests of Montana and Idaho; 
Uncompahgre,, and Holy Cross National Forests* 

Department Circular 295, Basic Grading Rules and Working Stresses for 
Structural Timber (Reprint) « 

Miscellaneous Circular 47, What the National Forests Mean to the Inter- 
mountain Region; Miscellaneous Circular No. 53, When ^ire is Ban- 
ished from the Land of the White Oak; Miscellaneous Circular 44, 
Forest Fire Control. 

Yearbook Separate 847, How the Public Forests are Handled (4th Reprint), 


Glwnst'ii A^rlcultura! College 
oi South Car; 


MARCH, 1S26. 




■ ■ 


March, 1926 

Published bimonthly by the Forest Service, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, T . r o.3hircton, D. C, 



Announcement s 3-10 

State forestry departments and organizations . 11-18 

Education end extension 19-26 

Forest Service note 3 27-32 

General forest nev/3 33-36 

Foreign notes 37-42 

Personals 43-44 

Bibliography . . . . . . . . 45-47 


■ :.■;.: AEJGPHCg.EHTS 

American Fore s t Week— April 1Q-24, 1926 



These two- thoughts are the keynote, for the observance of American 
Forest Week this year. .; ,;• ■ ■ «, 

Timber growing, its importance and its possibilities, must he em- 
phasized more if the ITation is to "bo saved from a timber shortage.. 

"Strange as it may seem," said President Coolidge in his address 
before the V/ood Utilization. Conference lest year, "the American people, 
bred for ir&ny generations to, forest life, drawing no small measure of 
their wealth from the forest, have not yet acquired the sense of timber 
as a crop.... Fully one-fourth of our land area ought to bo kept in 
forest — ...not poor dwindling thickets rof scrub, but forests of trees 
fit for bridges and houses and ships. Handled by the best timber- 
cropping methods, our present forest lands ; could be made to grow even 
more timber each year than we now use. But much of our cut-over land, 
lying idle or half productive, is now an immeasurable loss.... Our 
forest problem is a land problem of the first magnitude." 

Primarily this is because of the tremendous force of inertia, 
habit, and point of view. If as a people we understood how to grow 
timber and why growing timber i.s becoming more and more prof itable, 
large numbers of forest Ion dinners., largo and small, would be doing it; 
most fanners would be doing .a.'tj jaany firms, and corporations of the wood- 
using industries would-be doing it. It would be in the air. If every- 
body were to begin to say "Grow timber.' The thing to do for our forests 
and with our forests is to grow timber," timber growing would spread 
ama singly. 

American, Forest Ifeek ; • 

Chairmen .of State Committees 

Further advances in bringing about the observance of .'vmerican 
Forest Week, both locally and nationally, are expected this year from 
the extension of the system of State committees throughout the country. 


State chairmen have already been selected and the organization of the 
Committees is going forward in many of the States. These committees 
will serve to broaden the scope of the observance of the week and at 
the same time correlate the activities of the various supporting organi- 
zations. Ehey will not, however, take the place of any organization al- 
ready in the field or lessen the need for active work on the part of 
those which have been engaged in the work in the past. 

Everyone who has at'-heo^rt the protection and perpetuation of our 
forests should give his support to the committee in his own State as well 
as to the national movement* . , '-'y-': ■■ ■• 

A list of ' the State chairmen Lis given below. In some cases 
acceptances have not been received from -the men chosen at the time the 
FOREST Y/ORZER "goes to^prdss,'" but the list is correct' for the most ; part. 


■ Chairman 



John L. Kaul 


Alaska : ,-■ 

Arizona. -. . 





He lav/are. ,. 

Florida <' 


Judge • Charles E. Bunnell, ,. :. .-. v 
Pres. , Alcvska Agricultural , >... ■ 
College and School-' : of Mines ;■ Fairbanks 

Fred' J.- Elliott *' F ,, ..' •'•Phoenix^.., 

F. U. Scott .;...■•; Huttig 

Francis Cuttle. Riverside 

John; Evans, International Denver 
.Trust. Co. ■ 

T. S. Uoolsey, Jr. Hew Haven 

Dean \T. A. LlcCue, University of , Newark '. 
Delaware Experiment!:*! Farm 

XL 'L*S. Sarnett . . Mount Dora 

Col. Henderson Hallman,. Room 731 Atlanta 
Candler BldgV 

Prof. F. C-. Miller, University 

of Idaho ■■'•-. ' Moscow 




I owa 








Mis souri 


He va&a 

Hew Hampshire 

C M; irma n 

Lev/is B. Springer 

lean Stanley Coulter, Purdue 

E. T. Meredith 

Prof. Albert Diclceris, Horticul- 
turist, Kansas State Agricul- 
tural College 

Tora Wallace, Louisville Tines 

Col. W. H. Sullivan, Pres., 
G-rcat Southern Lumber Co. 

Forrest II. Colby 

Maj. Geo. L. Uood, Continental 

Harris A. Reynolds 

T. F. Marston, Sec'y, Northeast 
Michigan Development Bureau 




Pes Moines 





Bay City 

Clorence B. V.'inter, Ex Vice Pres., Minneapolis 
Minnesota Tree Society, 756 
Builders' Exchange 

Charles Green, Pres., Eastman, 
Gardiner & Co. 

J. H. Allen, Pres>, Continental 

Tie on d Timber Co. 

Joseph M. Dixon 

Lloyd Thomas, Sec*y 3 Hastings 
Commercial Club 

George D. Oliver 

XI. R. Brown 


St . Loui s 


Hoba.rt Mills 



Now Jersey 
Nov/ Mexico 

Hew York 

North Carolina 

ITSrth Dakota 



Rhode Island 
South Carolina 
South Dakota 






West Virginia 


Charles Lathrcp Pack 

Dana Johnson, Editor, Santa Fe 
New Mexican 

Hon. John D. Clarke 

Col. Joseph H. Pratt 

Prof. C. 3. Waldron, State 
Agricultural College 

Mrs. W. W. Milar, 405 Croshy St. 

John Sasley 

P. A. Elliott 

Dr. Henry 3. Drinker 

Howard L. Hitchcock 

C. F. Prettyman ' 

Chas. W. Pugsley 

ISajo Put ledge Smith, Pros*, 
Tennessee Forestry Ass*n, Cum- 
herland Lodge Bidg. 

B. A. Gilliam, 901 Cedar Kill 
Ave,, Station A 

Wm. H. Bywater 

Mortimer R. Proctor 

William D. Tyler, Clinchficld 
Coal Co„ 

Dean Hugo Winken\ .-order, College 
of Forestry, Univ. of Washington 

Geo. P. Whi taker, Wheeling Steel 



Santa Fe 

Agricultural College 




Merion Station 

West Kingston 





Salt Lake City 





— o — 

State Chr irman Eg si do nee 

Wisconsin Lawrence C. Ehittet, 3ec ? y, Milwaukee 

Milwaukee Chamber of Commerce 

Wyoming A. D. Faville, State Cora. Agri., Cheyenne 

Capitol Bldg. 

Amer ican Forest Week 

Forest So Issues Wow Publications 

The following new publi cat ions are being issued by the Forest 
Service for use during American Forest Week. It is erpected that they 
will bu ready for distribution not later than March 15. Eo charge will 
be made either for the publications or for postage, 

GROW TREES — A 16-page pamphlet covering the essential facts about 
timber growing and the observance of American Forest Week. 
Specially prepared for tine week. 

FORESTRY FACTS — A 16-page pamphlet of short items designed partic- 
ularly for the use of editors, speakers, teachers, and club 

PRESIDENT'S PROCLAMATION — Should be used as a poster in schools, 
post offices, libraries, and other public places. 

AITB GIRL ORGANISATIONS-- Contains prose and poetical selections 
for use in exercises. 

ARBOR BAY — Farmers' Bulletin 1492 — A new 32-page pamphlet. Traces 
the history of Arbor Bay and contains planting suggestions and 
a discussion of municipal forests. 

PIKES FOR PROFIT— Hew leaflet dealing with growing pine timber 
in the South. 

Envelope stuffers 





American Forest Week 

The Pennsylvania Han 

The plan of the Pennsylvania Department of forests and Waters 
for observing American Forest Week has been worked, out with a view of 
directing attention to a certain phase of the forestry movement on each 
of the seven days. Although the plan as a whole may not he adaptable to 
other States, it may contain valuable suggestions for all. With that 
idea it is given here in outline. 

Sunday, April 18— Trees and Religion Day. 

Trees end forests as beautiful and beneficent works 
of nature, and as friends and servants of man. 

Monday, April 19 — Forest Protection Day. 

Fundamental importance of protecting the forest 
from fire, insects, and diseases. 

Tuesday, April 20— Forest Recreation Day. 

Forests as recreation grounds. The recreational use 
of public forests — national and State* Game and 
fish on the forests. 

Wednesday, April 21 — Community Forest Day. 

The value of the community forest for revenue end recrea- 
tion. Lessons from community fores fcs owned and mm aged 
by towns and counties in Europe and America. 

Thursday, .April 22 — Tree Study Day. 

Getting acquaint el with the native tree species. 

Friday, April 23 — Arbor Day. 

Tree planting Qy schools and other organizations. 
Study of tree planting and timber growing on cut- 
over or other idle land. 

Saturday, April 24 — Forest Improvement Day. 

What neeas to be done to better our present timbered 
areo.s. Improvement cuttings. Removal of material that 
hinders the best growth of the valuable trees. Slash 
disposal. Cleaning out insect and disease infested 
trees. Roads and trails to make the fcrests accessible 
for use and to improve and protect them. 

International Congress of Plant Sciences 

An international congress for all v/orkers in the plant sciences 
is to be held at Ithaca, U. Y. , August 16-23. The invitation is extended 
to every country in the world and includes investigators and teachers in 
botany, plant chemistry, plant pathology, "bacteriology, agronomy, horti- 
culture, and forestry. This will be the fourth international botanical 
congress, and the first such conference ever held in the United States. 
Plans include formal programs, round table discussions, noncommercial ex- 
hibits, and inspection tours. For about one-fourth of the available time 
the participants will be grouped into sections. The sections thus far 
authorized, with their secretaries, are as, follows; 

Agronomy — R. G. Wiggans, Cornell University, Ithaca, IT. Y. 

Bacteriology-- J. M. Sherman, Cornell University, Ithaca, F. Y. 

Cytology — L. W. Sharp, Cornell University,, Ithaca, 11. Y. 

Morphology, Histology, and Paleobotany^—!). S. Johnson, Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore, lid* 

Ecology — H. L. Shantz, U. S. Bureau ,of Plant Industry, \'feshington,D.C, 

Forestry — R. S. Hosmer, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Horticulture — A. J. He ini eke, Cornell University, Ithaca, IT. Y. 

Physiology— 0. F. Curtis,- Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Pathology— Donald Reddick, Cornell University, Ithaca, IT. Y. 

Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany; — H. V/. Youngken, Massachu- 
setts College of Pharmacy, Boston, Mass. 

Taxonomy — K. II. Wiegand, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Mycology — H. II. Fitzpatrick, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Genetics— C. S. Allen, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Communications regarding the congress should be addressed as indi- 
cated below; 

1. Concerning round tables and other strictly sectional matters — 
to the appropriate sectional secretary. 

2. Concerning exhibits and general program natters — L. W, Sharp, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, IT. Y. 

3. Concerning excursions, collecting trips, inspection tours, local 
arrangements, transportation, etc. — H. H. t/hetzel, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, IT. Y. 

4. Concerning the congress in general — 3. M. Duggar, Missouri 
Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Mo. 


Hoy.' to Got Japanese Tree Seeds 


Dr. I. Miura of the Imperial •University of Tokyo writes that 
he has an arrangement v/herehy the Society of Forest Chemistry, 
in the Institute of Forest Chemistry, Tokyo Imperial University, 
Komaba, Tokyo, Japan, undertakes to handle European and .American 
orders for seeds of Japanese forest trees.. Payncnt may he either 
in dollars or in pounds. Doctor Miura states that orders for seeds 
of- the larch should he placed not later than the, end of May, 1926. 
The prices per kilogram quoted for seeds of the, most popular species 
are as follows: ■• .... 

Larix leptolepis, G-ord 35 shillings 

Crypt oraeria japonica, Don. . . , , . . . 4 

Pinus densiflora, Sieb. et Succ 6 

Pinus thunbergii, Pari 6 

Abies Teitchii , Lindl >., 2J3 

Thuja japonica,, .Maxim. . . <. . . 3() 

Ginkgo biloba,.-I»v. . . . « 2 

Castanea pubinervis , .Schneid. . . .,. 3 

Pasania cuspida'ta Oerst .-. , 3 

v Quercus myrsinaefolia, Blume. , 2 

Ilex crenata, Thunb .......... . & 

Il&x pedunculosa, llig 6- 

' Paulownia tomentosa,- Bail 16 



Orders should be sent direct to Doctor Miura and not to the For- 
est Service. • ' . ... 



M ississipp i Fores try "a LI Gets a 7 l yu ig Start 

The forestry bill Introduced in the Mississippi Legislature as 
a result of a special message of Governor Whitfield has passed the House 
by a large majority* 

Under the provisions of this bill a State forestry commission v/ould 
be created including the governor, the commissioner of agriculture, the 
State land .commissioner^ and six citisehs selected for their knowledge 
of arid interest in forestry and the use of forest products. Under the 
direction of a State forester the commission v/ould be authorised to in- 
stitute an organized forest fire control system, investigation and study 
of forestry conditions, cooperation with the Federal Government, 

other State departments, municipalities, corporations, and individuals 
in reforestation and timber production, and on educational campaign in 
behalf of forestry.. ■ These activities v/ould be financed chiefly through 
license taxes from the forest products industries, and through Federal 
cooperative funds and contributions frcm private landowners,. Hot more' 
than vSOj.OOQ of the annual income from the' privilege license tax received 
from the forest products industries would be devoted to the forestry fend, 
Provision would be made for the creation of State forest preserves and 
parks through gifts, and the Federal Government would be given permission 
to create national forests in the State. The public schools and State 
colleges would be directed to take up the study of forestry. 

In addition to this bill the Mississippi Legislature his pending 
before it a resolution providing for an amendment to the State constitu- 
tion, as follows; 

"For the purpose of securing reforestation of cut -over or partially 
or completely denuded lands, the legislature may provide a special mode 
of assessing and taxing such lands and the timber thereon, and through a 
State agency, created by the legislature, may, contract with the owners of 
such lands to reforest such lands in accordance with the rules and regula- 
tions of the United States Forestry Bureau, and provide in such contracts 
for a fixed assessed value on the land, apart from the timber, for a speci- 
fied number of years, not exceeding fifty* The sole tax on the timber 
grown thereon shall be paid as a severance tax, when and as cut , end shall 
not exceed ten, per cent of the value thereof.':' 


The stc.teir.ent of the special legislative commission appointed 
to draft the bill reads in part as follows: 

"There are about 2,100 sawmills, large and small, in Mississippi, 
The lumber industry of Mississippi employs about 40,000 persons annually, 
with a payroll of more than 4>35,000,000 a year. The State produces more 
than three billion feet of all kinds of lumber per year. Forest prod- 
ucts bring in an annual revenue of more than $166,000,000. The forest 
products industries pay about 56 per cent of all taxes paid by all manu- 
facturing industries in Mississippi and the capital invested by the for- 
est products industries is about 60 per cent of the capital of all the 
manufacturing industries in the State. 

"About 500,000,000 feet of lumber is consumed in Mississippi each 
year and this total will be increased in the years to come. According 
to the best estimates, there are about 30 billion feet of Southern pine 
of commercial size and 25 billion feet of hardwoods of commercial size 
now standing in Mississippi; the annual lumber cut of the State is about 
2-g- billion feet of pine and half a billion feet of hardwoods." 

"There are 19 million acres of cut-over and unimproved lands in 
Mississippi, the vast proportion of which are not now needed or are un- 
suited for agricultural development. Virtually all of this area is idle 
land and producing no revenue at present although the owners are obliged 
to pay taxes on it. Idle lands are a liability to the State and to the 
individual owners. Until these lands are needed for agricultural or 
other purposes, virtually all of them could be made to yield revenue if 
put to growing trees." 

"There are 17,000,.000 acres ;of forest land in Mississippi and of 
this area about 7,000,000 acres, or more than 41 per cent, consists of 
farm woodlands which for the most -part are owned by the farmers, Missis- 
sippi farmers derive a revenue of ^16,250,000 per year from their wood- 
lands. The average annual income of the Mississippi farm from its timber 
products is about $240. Farmers of the State are receiving from 03 to 
v?7 per thousand feet for their' sawlogs out from their woodlands. Many 
farmers in Mississippi are making from &50 to OlOO a month selling pulp- 
wood, crossties, fence posts, and sawlogs from their timber holdings." 

"More than one-third of the 19,000,000 acres of cut-over and unim- 
proved lands in Mississippi are owned by farmers and small land holders." 

"The amount provided for the work of the proposed Mississippi State 
Forestry Department is notably small when compared to the budgets of 
other southern States, many of which have smaller 'stands of mature timber 
and less areas of young tree growth and cut-over tracts. However, for 
beginning the forestry work in Mississippi, it is believed the amount pro- 
vided for in the bill, together with contributions as may be made 
by timberland owners, will be sufficient for initiating and carrying on 
the essential work that should be done." 


Forestry Commission Proposed for' South Carolina 

In. considering the forestry "bill introduced "by Senator Spivey 
the Legislature of South Carolina is dealing with a matter of exceptional 
importance to that. State. "More than half the total area of South Carolina 
is covered x: it h some sort of forest growth. Farm woodlands comprise not 
much less than half of the 12,426,675 acres included in the farms of the 
State, and would comprise more than half that area if the farm lands nov; 
standing idle had been planted to trees. Only the three staple farm 
crops of cotton, corn, and tobacco rank higher in value than the annual 
farm timber crop. In, addition tb" its more than 5,000,000 acres of farm 
woodland the State contains almost as great an area of forest in larger 
timber tracts.," . ,...!'.'■ 

The peak of lumber production in South Carolina was reached in the 
year 1909 with a cut of 897,660,000 board feet. Since then, in spite of 
dwindling timber resources, the' mills have maintained an average annual 
output of 750,000,000 board feet. Meanwhile great quantities of the 
State 1 s timber have annually been destroyed or injured "by fire. Even with 
ve.ry imperfect facilities for getting reports of fires the area burnt over 
annually during the period 1916-1924 is known to hare averaged at least 
851,043 acres. In 1923 the 7,000 fires reported covered an area of more 
than 4,000,000 acres. Measures for protecting and ■growing timber are thus 
much overdue, and 'it is not surprising that public sentiment for such 
measures has been developing' strength for some year's. 

'The forestry bill 'which' is how pending before the General Assembly 
of South Carolina and has been favorably reported by the Senate Committee, 
proposes the creation of a State commission of forestry to consist of 
five members appointed by the governor: two lumbermen, one farmer who is 
a landowner, one member selected from the public at large, and the presi- 
dent of Clemson Agricultural College'. It would be the duty of this commis- 
sion to report to the legislature annually upon forest conditions in the 
State; to take action and afford the necessary organized means to prevent, 
control, and extinguish forest fires; to furnish advice and assistance to 
private Landowners and develop public appreciation of the advantages of 
forest culture and preservation; to cooperate with the Federal Government; 
and to appoint and employ a State forester who would be charged with the 
direction of the forestry activities authorised by the act. The bill 
does not call for a "direct State appropriation, but would provide the 
funds necessary for the conduct of State forestry work by means of a spe- 
cial severance tax on timber. ' 


Forestry Botes from Arkansas 
By W. R. Mat toon, U. S. Forest Service 

(Mr. Matt o on has just completed a five-week, tour of Arkansas, on. 
which, he conferred with members of the" agricultural extension service of 
the State university and with the county agents of 16 counties.) 

It seems likely that by next July Arkansas will hare an extension 
forester employed by the College of Agriculture of the University of 
Arkansas with the aid of Federal funds allowed under the Clarke-McFary 
Act. In the opinion of Dr. A. C. Millar," the leader of the forestry 
movement in the State, what forestry in Arkansas needs most is an exten- 
sion forester working among the county agents and a teacher of forestry 
at the university. It appears that the failure of the bill" proposed last 
year for the establishment of a State forestry department was due to the 
fact that the farmers had vevy little information about it and suspected 
that it was designed primarily for the benefit of the lumbermen, many of 
whom worked. for the bill.. 

, Bo less than eight, lumber companies of Arkansas are now working on 
the basis of a perpetual cut of timber. These are all located south of 
the Arkansas River, in, the short leaf-loblolly pine belt. The Crossett 
Lumber Co. of Crossett and the Fordyce Lumber Co. are guided in their 
woods operations by Wm. K. Williams, graduate forester. The Diercks Lum- 
ber Co., with some 300,000 acres of timberland in the State, employs Wm. 
L. Hall, formerly of the U. S. Forest Service. Other lumber companies 
conserving their timber are the Union, with a mill at Hut tig, and the 
Long-Bell, with 200,000 acres in. the Stat.e. The latter employs as its 
forester C. E. Baxter, who . is not technically trained for forestry but 
has won, the confidence and good will of the country people and in a re- 
gion formerly badly burned each year has been successful in developing "a 
public sentiment against burning. The Louisiana Pulp and Paper Co., with 
its mill just over the line in Louisiana— where it uses natural gas for 
fuel — also has a place on the conservation list. The latest to join it 
are the Malvern and Wisconsin-Arkansas Lumber Cos., located at Malvern, 
which have recently decided to grow timber instead of selling off their 
cut-over lands and closing out. 

In the great northwestern section of Arkansas, lying south and west 
of the Ozark national Forest, timber is scarce and high priced. In Pope 
County, for example — the county whose seat, Russellville, is headquarters 
for the Ozark Hational Forest— every tree for at least 10 miles around the 
town has a good money value on the stump. Wood is used extensively for 
fuel, and all kinds, including oak, hickory, .and elm, are valued at 75 
cents a cord on the stump. Good coal is mined near-by but brings such a 
high price that former coal users are being driven to the use of wood. 


Mine timbers, also railroad ties, are in.higli demand, and trees suitable 
for sawlogs are scarce. This situation is largely accounted for bj the 
extreme waste in the past in cutting cooperage stock and in clearing 
"new lands" — which after being worked for a few years only were "turned 

One hundred miles from Russell villc, near the northwest corner of 
the State, is Fayetteville , the seat of the University of Arkansas. County 
Agent IvIcMurray of this place recently reported that the scarcity of timber 
suitaTble for farm buildings is greatly slowing up the development -of dairy- 
ing, for which the county}- is otherwise well suited. Farmers living 10 or 
15 miles from the railroad are buying lumber and hauling it out to their 
farms, because the native timber is so nearly gone. 

The rural population of Arkansas in general have not yet formed the 
habit of thinking of the future timber needs of the State. Recently a 
farmer who strolled into a 'county agent's office and v; as told that the 
subject of farm forestry was to be taken up in the county remarked with a 
sneer, "I reckon our sassafras bushes can take care; -of -themselves." "But 
aren't we going to need some timber in the future?" the agent asked. The 
farmer's reply was "Yfell I'll be gone then, and the other fell ow can look 
after his own self." 

Four kinds of timber are being "mined" in large amounts in Arkansas — 
pine, oak, gum, and hickory. Except in the coastal plain, occupying the 
southern fourth of the State, there are many hickory mills, turning out 
automobile and wagon spokes ana handles for hammers, sledges, picks, axes, 
and peavys. One wonders what those 6-foot hickory billets can be intended 
for until he sees a car being loaded with 6~foot peavy and cant-hook handles 
for the lumbermen of the Pacific ITorthwest. The National Harvester Co, 
alone requires irany carloads of singletrees and doubletrees for horse-drawn 
implements. For all such purposes the Arkansas forests supply annually 
' more than 20 million board feet of hickory. 

Revenues from Pennsylvania State Forests 

The income from the State forests of Pennsylvania during 1925 amount- 
ed to $107,499. lluch of this was derived from the sale of chestnut timber 
killed by blight. Receipts from the sale of recreational privileges 
reached their highest mark at $12 ,S11. 

In 1900 the receipts from the State forests of Pennsylvania were 
only $l p 227. In 1912 they reached $12,585. Great increases have occurred 
in the three-year period 1923-1925, with receipts- composing 48 per cent of 
the total for the past 25 years. ' 


• • Connecticut Highway Shade Tree Conference : • . : 

The first Connecticut highway tree conference was held in 
Hew Karen on February 6 under the auspices of the Connecticut Forestry 
Association and the Yale School of Forestry. In a statement accompany- 
ing the announcement of this conference Dean Graves of the Yale forest 
School said: 

"The scenic features of Connecticut constitute one of its great 
assets. V/e have: no lofty mountain's or great lake's, hut there is a charm 
about our country-side that is distinctively its own and which is bring- 
ing into the State great numbers of people as residents or visitors. The 
preservation of the scenic features of the highways is therefore of ut- 
most importance. The defacement of wooded slopes by fire, the stripping 
of beautiful forests adjacent to the traveled roads P and the cutting of 
ancient avenues of maples and Other trees planted by those who have gone 
before impair the attractive areas of the State and are a public injury. 
Yfe are building a system of highways unmatched anywhere. Vfe can greatly 
increase their scenic value to the people by intelligent roadside plant- 
ing; we can preserve the unique character of many beautiful stretches .of 
road by protecting the existing trees or strips of woods that border upon 

E. C. Uelden, deputy State highway commissioner, explained how 
under modern traffic conditions the public safety often necessitates the 
removal of fine old trees. He stated that the establishment of definite 
boundaries for highways, authorized by the 1925 legislature, is the first 
step in conserving roadside beauty; also that the highway commission has 
recently appointed an expert to study the landscape improvement of the 
State's highways and hopes soon to plant certain short sections of aban- 
doned locations. P. L. Buttrick, secretary of the Connecticut Forestry 
Association, showed a series of slides 'demonstrating that it is possible 
to reconcile roadside trees and electric wires without appreciable sacri- 
fice of either beauty or utility. 

Resolutions adopted by the conference declare that authority 
should be given to the State highway commission to care for as well as to 
plant shade trees, and that the necessary appropriations should be made 
for both purposes; that local tree wardens' should be placed under the 
supervision of some State department, preferably the State park and for- 
est commission; and that existing legislation regarding pruning of trees 
on. public highways should be clarified. 

Bills to amend Section 2 of the Clarke-McEary Law have been intro- 
duced in both houses of Congress. They would do away with the certify- 
ing of accounts by State auditors and authorize the Secretary of Agri- 
culture to make Federal expenditures on the certificate of State foresters 
or similar State officials. 


Ton Forestry Meetings in './est Virginia 

Ten meetings in as many cities and towns of Y, r est Virginia are sched- 
uled for the period March 18-May 12 by the \7est Virginia Forest, Parks, 
and Conservation Commission.. The commission asks that representatix T es 
of farm "bureaus, chambers of commerce, clubs, timberland owners, and lum- 
bermen, come to these meetings prepared to define local forest and farm 
woodland problems and the conditions which w ill justify local landowners 
in replanting forest areas, and to state whether there are any outstanding 
sites in their sections deserving consideration as game refuges, State 
parks, or State forests. The schedule announced is as follows: 

March 18 - Wheeling 

" 19 - Parke rsburg 
" SO - Huntington 
April 5 - Martinsburg 
" 7 - Keyser 

April 9 - Slkins 
" 19 - Beckley 
" 21 - Sluefield 
" 23 - Mar lint on 

May 11-12 Clarksburg 

Mistakes that Make Large Fires 

Maryland had an exceptionally bad forest fire year in 1925. More 
fires were reported than in any other year on record. On the other hand, 
the number of acres per fire was smaller than for any other year, and the 
total area burned over, 34,061, represents a reduction of nearly 20,000 
acres from, the total of either 1923 or 1924. About 1,5 per cent of all 
the woodland in the State was burnel over during the year. At that rate 
the average piece of woodland would be liable to a burning about once 
every 75 years. 

"what makes the yearly average (of the number of acres burned) so 
large?" The answer is this: Through the mistake of some individuals, 
each year a few fires become very large, dwarfing in si::e the usual run 
of fires. 

"The mistakes which make large fires can all Toe classified under 
the fallowing heads. 1. Failure to report fires. 2. Ileglect or tardy 
action by forest wardens. 3. Failure to arrange for sufficient help in 
advance end to bring enough men and tools to the fire. 4. Unwise use of 
backfire. 5. Leaving a fire without patrolmen before it is entirely out, 
resulting in breakovers and the 'Second day r fire." 

Hews Letter, Maryland State Department cf Forestry, January. 


New England's Planting Total 

Approximately 59 million trees have been planted in the Hew England 
States, according to the Green Mountain State Forest Hows. It is esti- 
mated that 49,100 acres have "been reforested "by this planting and that 
of this total area 45,000 acres are veil stocked at the present time. The 
approximate figures given by the Vermont Forest . Service for the individual 
States are as follows: 

\ Number of trees -slanted on Total number 
. ->. tianicipal: 'priv te . . of trees 
State State Ia n d s lands , lands planted 

Maine , 5,000,000. 5,000*000 

New Hampshire 1,000,000 • 1,000,000 4,000,000... 6,000,000 

Vermont 2,000,000 1,000,000 8,000,000... 11,000,000 

Massachusetts .10,000,000 5,000,000 5,000,000 . 20,000,000 

Rhode Is lend . - • 6,000,000 6,000,000 

Connecticut 1,000,000 1,000,000 9,00 ,000 11,000,000 

Total 14,000,000 3,000,000 37,00.0,000 59,000,000 

New Association to Protect Timber lands in North Carolina 

A new timber land owners' forest protective association has been 
formed in the southeastern section of North Carolina with a membership 
representing soma 100,000 acres of timberland. The new. association is the 
first of its kind to be organized in North Carolina since the passage of 
the Clarke-McNary Law. There are very extensive timberland holdings in 
this section of the State and it is expected that the area of association 
lands will be very materially increased when the State is able to allot 
larger funds to match the private assessments. 

At the initial meeting the association decided to follow closely the 
Southern VJest Virginia Forest Protective Association in the matter of organ- 
ization. It is the purpose of the association to cooperate in the most 
practical way possible with the North Carolina Forest Service. The assess- 
ment of 1 cent per acre per year will be paid into the State forestry fund 
to match an equal allotment of State and Federal funds. In this way the 
State, and through the State members of the association,will receive the 
maximum benefits under the cooperative provisions of the Clarke-McNary 

I. R. l.'alter has been elected as the first president of the associa- 
tion. For a time K. E. Kimball, district forester of the North Carolina 
Forest Service, will serve as secretary. As soon as the area of associa- 
tion lands increases sufficiently to justify it, a secretary-manager will 
be employed. 



The Conference of Extension Foresters 

By G-. H. Collingwood, U. 3. Forest Service 

A conference of foresters discussing anything but forestry seems 
impossible. Yet that is largely what happened on January 11, 12, and 
13, when extension foresters from 23 States met in Washington, The 
conference was arranged jointly by the Extension Service end the For- 
est Service of the Department of agriculture. These extension for- 
esters are all members of the agricultural extension services of their 
States, and their work has been stimulated by, if not actually estab- 
lished as a result of, the passage of the Clarke-McFary -let. The pro- 
gram was arranged with the idea of first introducing them to the organi- 
zation and then telling them how to use it. 

At the first session Forester Greeley urged the fullest coopera- 
tion between the extension workers, and the State foresters, :«n& made 
fo\ir suggestions which colored the subsequent discussions: (l) to pre- 
sent forestry not exclusively in terms of future timber supply but 
largely as a profitable use of land; (2) to free forestry from the concep- 
tion that it is a deeply mysterious practice, and start out with what 
farm people already know and have worked out for themselves; (3) to ex- 
press forest values to the people in common, everyday, homely figures 
of speech that bite in; and finally (4) to convince landowners that 
there is value in young growth. 

Dr. C. B. Smith, chief of the office of cooperative extension 
work, pointed out that the extension foresters are a pert of a great 
national educational organization numbering 4,883, of whom 977 ere 
subject-matter specialists and 3,432 are county agricultural agents, 
home demonstration agents, and junior club leaders. To support this 
organization Congress appropriates annually nearly ^6, 900, 000, which 
States and counties match and further supplement with more than 
$12,500,000, making a total of nearly 119,500,000. 

To say that the men listened to talks on extension methods of 
teaching, the building of a forestry oxtonsion program (together with 
ways and means of getting that program adopted), boys' and girls' 
club work, exhibits, :nd motion pictures, might imply that they sat 
quietly, with pencil and notepaper before them, and listened. It would 
be more nearly true to soy that these subjects were discussed oy the entire 
group. Hone of the questions discussed were straight forestry questions. 
All were questions of the teaching of forestry. Occasionally there arose 


discussions concerning tlio size of tree stock used, for planting wind- 
breaks in Iowa as compared with that used in Minnesota, of the forest 
fire menace, and of the value of young forest growth; hut these auto- 
matically resolved into a discussion of the ways and means of getting 
forestry ideas across to the public, , 

The subject of forestry work with boys and girls through the 4-H 
Clubs met with hearty interest. All recognized that this channel offers 
a remarkable opportunity for getting a widespread acceptance of forestry 
principles. Reports from the men present indicated that Hew Hampshire 
is tclzing the lead in forestry work with young rural people, but a number 
of the other States have very promising plans for such work during the 
new year. 

Committees reported on the making of a, forestry program* the plan 
of work for carrying it out, forestry work with boys' and girls* clubs, 
and suggestions for more effective cooperation with the State foresters 
and other agencies within the States. Copies of these reports are to be 
distributed for the guidance of forestry extension activities in all the 

Sach of the men expressed the wish that this conference may be the 
forerunner of many others, in which more time nay be allowed for discuss- 
ing forestry as well as the means .of teaching it. Y. r e hope that this sug- 
gestion will be carried out in the form of regional- conferences in coop- 
eration with the forestry research workers. Such conferences i7ould be 
most helpful during the field season, when discissions concerning silvi- 
cultural problems could be supplemented by observation. 

Boys' and G irls* Clubs Study Forestry 

Six boys* and girls* clubs have been organized. .in Vermont for the 
study of forestry. This year they are working on a course which Exten- 
sion Forester Callward calls "the first grade of forestry." The children 
arc being taught to identify trees common on the farms of Vermont and are 
learning something about the growth habits and commercial value cf differ- 
ent species and something about wood utilization. The chief object of this 
course is to increase the children's appreciation of forests and especially 
to acquaint them with the value of the woodland that forms a part of prac- 
tically every Vermont farm. 


Correspondence Course in Gra zing 

John 1). Jones, assistant district forester in charge of public 
relations of the Forest Service in the Southwestern District (Arizona 
end Hew Mexico), reports that a correspondence course in crazing has 
heen -worked out in that district that has proved very popular with the 
field men. Ihe course covers about- 140 'single— spaced mimeographed pages. 
It consists of 11 lessons, with subjects as follows: 

I - (a) Determination of : the class of sto'clc* to which range is 
"best suited* ; lb) Grazing periods. ' 

■ . ■■:, ' \ " ..a ; . ' ,, "" ••'..•, 

II - Grazing capacity. . . ..;•,..:■:. 

Ill - Counting cattle, with detailed information as to various systems 
actually used, including grazing trespass experience, 

ITT - Salting, with detailed information on Santa Rita Range Re- 
serve experience. ,:■■■■ 

n -•''" 

V — Cooperation. 

VI - LtajiagGnent- of sheep on the range. ■■ 

711 r Range rescedin; and deferred and rotation' grazing as applied 
to Southwestern District conditions. 

VIII -"wild life. l {••• 

IX - Range reconnaissance and range inspection, including use of 
reconnaissance material in management plans. 

X — Range management plans* 

XI - "Use of sample plots in administrative work, and a statement 
of the district's general objectives in adjustment of graz- 
ing to timber and watershed protection. ' 

.1 few copies of this course, 25 at most, are available for distribu- 
tion and will be sent on request to forest schools or to extension for- 
esters or other persons interested. . Requests should be addressed to 
Kr. Jones at Albuquerque, IT. Ilex. 


Forestry in Vocational Schools 

(Extracts from a letter received from James 3. Berry, supervisor 
of the vocational schools of C rev/ford County, Pa.) 

You asked me once to write you something about how we handled the 
subject 3i forestry in the vocational schools, of which we ha ve five in 
Crew/ford County. 

The subject of farm forestry is allotted two 40-minute periods and 
one double period of 80 minutes per week in the .third-year work in voca- 
tional agriculture (fruit growing, forestry, animal husbandry, and shop 
work). However, the schedule is flexible and considerably more time may 
bo devoted to one or another of the subjects to fit weather conditions 
and farm activities. 

The preliminary work by the teacher of agriculture , conducted dur- 
ing, the summer t consists of a community survey which includes data related 
to the farm woodlands and their utilization. In the utilization of wood 
there is considerable correlation with the farm shop portion of the sur- 
vey. The teacher, in the light of his community survey, decides, what 
farm woodland enterprises are of importance in the community - for example, 
(1) reorganization of the farm woodland on a profitable basis, and (2} 
the planting of waste lands and areas not required for agricultural pur- 
poses. The teacher then proceeds to analyze these enterprises., the analy- 
sis leading to the designation of the forestry practices, (problems and 
jobs) which nay serve as a basis for study, the equipment and materials 
needed in teaching, the reference materials required for study. The 
teacher should have his "teaching" thoroughly organized before beginning 
the year's work. % ■ 

VJhen school opens the teacher organizes his classes and proceeds to 
guide his pupils in the malysis of the enterprise under consideration, 
listing the factors which control production and utilization and the for- 
estry practices which have been developed in the control of these factors. 
The analysis is copied in pupil notebooks, where it may be referred to 
frequently. For example, the .analysis of a farm woodland enterprise con- 
sisting of "the reorganization of the farm woods on a profitable basis" 
might be as follows: 

Factors which control production and utilization: 

1. .drea 5. Utilization 

2. Stock . 6. Marketing 

3. Culture 7. Records and accounts 
-i. Protection 


Forestry practices developed in the control of above factors; 
Pac t or Forestry pr 'no ti ces 

1. drea 1. Surveying irea 

2. Happing area 

5. Selecting portion adapted to v/ood production 
and not needed for agricultural crops 

4. Determining fain needs for wood 

5. Determining local market needs 

6. reteunining area to be used for wood production 

2. Stock 1. Determining amount of growing stock 

2. Surveying areas not fully stocked 

3. Culture 1. Determining material to be removed in cultural 

2. Determining method, of regeneration 
5. Procuring seedling stock 

4. Planting unler stocked areas 

5. Polling 

S. Cutting into -merchantable form 

7. Storing logs, c^rdwood, etc. 

4. Protection 1. Protecting woodland from fire 

2. Fighting fire 

3. Eemoving diseased and insect-infested material 

4. Protecting woodland from grazing stock 

5. Protecting young trees from rodents, etc. 

5. Uxilisation 1. Measuring product 

2. Sawing logs into boards, timbers, etc 

3. Seasoning 

6. Marketing 1. Determining fan,: needs 

2. Determining local market needs 

3. Selling surplus products 

7. Accounts and 1. Keeping labor records 

Secords 2. Keeping recounts 

3. determining costs 

4. Figuring income 

It is of coiirse understood that the purpose of the analysis is (l) 
to give the pupil a bird's— eye vie - .; of the scope of the enterprise, and 
(2) to bring the study down to the basis of local problems. Consequently 
the analysis will v-ry somewhat from ono locality to another. Undoubted- 
ly the analysis methed-of organizing the study o.ctirity is one of the 
best in the stimulating of purposeful thinking, and this is a very 
objective of education. 


I/hen the analysis is completed the teacher guides the pupils of 
the class in the selection of sons practice (problems and jobs) which 
is important and timely (seasonal sequence), and this particular prac- 
tice becomes the basis for the study of all facts which arc related to 
it. For example, the pupils may decide that the practice of immediate 
importance is "determining; the material to be removed in cultural opera- 
tions," under the factor "culture." From his previously prepared analy- 
sis the teacher then lists on the blackboard the study outline related 
to this practice, which nay be as follows: 

Farm V/oo aland Practice 

Determining material to 
be removed 

Supervised study outline 

Identification of trees (References! 
Trees adapted to site (Peferonccs! 
Trees supplying material needed on 

farm (References) 
Form of tree (References) 

All reference material (books, bulletins, circulars, etc.) should 
be listed oy page, in order to conserve the time of the pupils. The use 
of a considerable mass of reference material is of benefit to the pupil, 
since it teaches him the sources of information* 

The next step in the 'learning process is practice work in the par- 
ticular forestry practice under consideration. This is achieved by means 
of the "case method," in a piece of woods under the control of the school. 
Under the direct supervision and guidance of the teacher the pupils put 
into practice the things Studied; the teacher must be satisfied that the 
pupils understand the application of the things studied and develop the 
rudiments of skills (habit formation) in the particular practice. For 
example, in one school the teacher and pupils were given full control of 
a woodland tract of 5 acres. During the school year the pupils, under 
the direct evidence of the teacher, made improvement cuttings, determined 
the .amount of growing stock, undcrplaiitod with seedlings from the State, 
and put the woodland in productive condition. In another case the school 
leased some 17 acres from the State and the pupils, under the guidance of 
the teacher, put into -practice the cultural operations required* 

The learning process is not completed, however, until the pupils put 
into practice, under actual farm conditions and with full pupil responsibil- 
ity, the things studied in school and in comae ct ion -with the school wood- 
land. Each pupil is therefore required to conduct a home project of suf- 
ficient scope to demonstrate to the teacher his ability to think purpose- 
fully in the enterprise. He is not required to perform all of the work 
connected with the project, but he must satisfy the teacher that ho can 
use the knowledge gained and can perform with skill the jobs involved in 
the forestry practices, more especially the "improved" practices. The final 
"testing out" of the pupil's ability to think purposefully is perhaps the 
moot important step of the teaching process, and until it is completed 
there exists doubt as to the extent of the learning process. 


Our greatest difficulty is that the subject of forestry is seldom 
include! in the teacher-training curriculum. Of course we secure help 
from the State forestry commission raid from the extension service of 
Pennsylvania State College. Usually the school project woodland is list- 
ed by the extension specialist as an extension project end is visited 
once or twice a year by him. It seems to me that one of the most impor- 
tant duties of the State and extension foresters should be to assist 
teachers of vocational agriculture to put over the proper teaching of 
farm forestry in the vocational schools and departments, listing these 
as cooperative enterprises. 

Econ om ic Survey in t he Southwest 

The Texas, New Mexico, and Utah Agricultural Colleges and the Uni- 
versities of Arizona and Nevada are to cooperate with the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in a ranch organization and ranch economic survey 
throughout the Southwest, On January 15 and 16, representatives of these 
schools and of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, the Bureau of Animal 
Industry, and the Forest Service met at Las Graces, II. Hex., to consider 
plans for the survey. At the conclusion jf the conference they visited 
the Jornada Range Reserve to observe the plan of management under which 
the Forest Service operates that experimental cattle unit. Present plana 
call for several months' study of some 300 representative ranches in the 
region from west Texas to southern Utah, southern Nevada, and ,'erizona, 
with a view of determining production costs and deciding what organiza- 
tion will accomplish the best economic results. Data will be taken in re- 
gard to organization, business methods, and costs of production on each 
ranch. Uith these data as a background the study will probably be contin- 
ued on a more intensive basis for a number of years. 

Re cent Gifts to Forest Schools 

A forested tract at La Grande, Vfash., has b^on presented to the 
College of Forestry of the University of Y/ashington by Charles Lathrop Pack. 
Located on one of the principal highways of the Ucst, and with a read front- 
age of about one mile, this tract has special advantages as a demonstration 
forest. Its present stand is estimated at one .and one-half million board 
feet. Mr. Pack has recently presented the Forest School of Yale Univer- 
sity with an addition to its demonstration forest near Keeno, in southern 
New Hampshire. A third gift mode by him within the last few months is a 
fund of ^2,000 established at Iowa State College to provide prizes for 
forestry students. Uith the double purpose of improving the spoken and 
written English of the students and of bringing forestry ideas before the 
public, it is planned to offer two manual prizes, one of ,75 sad one of 025. 

Forest School Cooperates v;ith Scouts Boy Scouts of Bingliamtoh, N. Y» , have a 70-acre camp ground on 
Cincinnatus Lake near Smi'thflald Flats, Eu Y. This area contains a stand 
of second-growth hardwoods, and the scouts have "been promised the cooper- 
ation of the Hew York State College of Forestry in putting It under 
f ore'iftry rr^nagcra ent . Last summer Prof. E. R. Fenska of the college made 
a preliminary survey and marked two acres for a thinning and improvement 
cutting which was then made by the scouts. It Is planned to repeat this, 
each year until the thinning is completed,, 

One thousand 3'oy Scouts of Spr a nt on , Pa., are to plant two trees 
apiece on one of the city*s principal: parks this spring. Each hoy is 
to he personally responsible for the care of the trees he plants. 

The Col lege of Agriculture of the Unive rsity of Ari zona, expects In 
the near future to undertake range grazing experiments, under the direc- 
tion cf an experienced investigator. It also plans to develop a course 
in range management . 

Br. C. „. Sc benck, of L armst^dt, Germany , is concluding a course 
of lectures on silviculture and forest economics at the University of 
Montana, "he course comprises six lectures a week for about three months. 

Doctor Schcnck plans tc sail from Few York on April 3 with a group 
of foresters whom he will conduct on a two months* tour through Europe. 
Fhe party will visit interesting municipal, State, end private forests 
in seven different countries and will spend a week at the International 
Forestry Congress in home. They will also observe the work of forestry 
associations and schools. 

The publi c sc hools of Wisco nsin are to introduce courses in con- 
servation in tho seventh and eighth grades. In planning this work the 
State superintendent of public instruction has asked for the assistinco 
of States which have already developed such courses and for that of the 
Forest Service, 



The Value of Woods Humus as F ertilizer 

By XL R. Hat to on, U. S- Forest Service 

•Gash Value at Present Market Bates 

How much is the organic matter of the forest floor worth? As 
one of the items of money loss "by fire in the woods we must include 
the loss of humus, or, in the farmer* s language, vegetable matter. 

In his article on "The Conservation of Fertilizer Materials from 
Minor Sources," in the Agriculture Yearbook for 1917, C. C. Fletcher, 
associate chemist of the U. S. Bureau of Soils, gives the percentage 
of , fertilizer materials contained in oak loaves, according to lilis 
figures a ton of oak leaves contains fertilizer materials as follows: 

ITitrogen (or ammonia) (dTK3) 16 pounds 

Phori-horic acid (P2O5) 7 " 

Potash (KpO) . 5 " 

Mr. Fletcher recently stated that pine needles contain approxi- 
mately the same counts of these materials as oak leaves. On the oasis 
of experience in hauling away the yearly accumulation of four oak trees 
growing in Maryland, just outside the District of Columbia, I estimate 
that on one acre well stocked with mature oak two tons of leaves are 
deposited yearly. It is likely that pines shed less, also the intoler- 
ant trees s\\ch as the ash, "black walnut, and "black locust. The very 
tolerant beech is known to have a very heavy foliage. 

How much is the yearly crop of oak leaves worth per acre? nitro- 
gen, or ammonia, costs the farmer at wholesale rates from 12 to 20 cents 
a pound, phosphoric acid about 5 to 6 cents, and potash at its present. 
very low price about 5 to 6 cents. Or. this basis two tons of oak leaves 
have a fertilizer value as follows: 

ITitrogen 16 lbs. x Z a 32 lbs., & 15# = $4.80 

Phosphoric acid 7 " x 2 = 14 " " * 5^ - .70 

Potash 3 " x 2 =» 6 " " 5c' = .30 



Thus the yearly crop of oak leaves on an acre is worth >5.60 for ferti- 


In the burning of leaves, as is well known, little or none of 
the phosphoric acid or potash is lost, these materials remaining in 
the ashes. With allowance for this fact and for some natural loss 
of nitrogen "by leaching and volatilisation in woods that are not "burned, 
vd-.OO probably represents conservatively the money value of the fertil- 
izing element that goes up in smoke and gas when a single year's crop 
of oak loaves on one acre "burns. With 4 to 6 years* accumulation of 
organic matter on the ground — decomposed and unde composed — and an aver- 
age loss, say, of Vr 3.00, in that time from natural causes, a fire would 
easily destroy a value of §12 to $15 an acre. This does not take into 
account the indirect damage resulting from the removal of the spongy 
protective, soil covering, with the consequent compacting of the soil and 
damaging erosion from run-off of rainwater on hillsides. 

Hov; -Woods Humus Makes Field Crops Grow 

Chemical analysis is one thing and actual test, or demonstration, 
is another. 

C. E. Baxter, forester in charge of 60,000 acres of the Long-Bell 
Lumber Co's timberlands in. Arkansas, once made an experiment to find out 
just what woods humus would do to make field crops "grow. He raked and 
scraped the humus from one acre of the forest .floor of a heavy oak woods 
in Gibson County, Tenn., and spread it over one acre of ordinary crop 
land, working it into the soil. The land was then planted with ordinary 
field crops, such as cotton and corn. A careful record was taken of the 
yield on this acre, and on a similar but untreated acre adjacent to it 
which received the same 'cultivation. 

The first, year's crops from the acre treated with woods humus were 
worth $20.65 more than: those from the untreated acre; the second year's, 
v 14.80 more; and the thirl year's, ^13. 00 more. The aggregate return 
for three years was C'48.45 greater, owing mostly to the nitrogen, phos- 
phoric acid, and potash contained in the humus. (The other element in 
the gain was the better water relations of the soil.) Gathering the 
fertilizer and applying it to the field cost only 016.OO; thus it was a 
very profitable piece of work. The story is incomplete because the com- 
parative records of yields wore taken for only three years, but at the 
end of that period the land, fertilized with woods humus was going strong 
in producing heavier crop yields than those of the adjacent untreated 

Incidentally, Mr. Baxter is making good headway in winning local 
public sentiment among farmers in Grant County, ..rk. , against the sui- 
cidal method of burning their own and each others' woods. 

If any reader has information on this much neglected phase of fire 
damage and loss, many of us, I am sure, would like to hear about it. 

-2 a- 

Additional Forest Experiment Station Legislation . 

Since the legislative developments relating to the Federal for- 
est experiment station program which were outlined in the ^FOREST Y/ORKER 
of January, 1926, the Agricultural Appropriation Bill has passed both 
houses of Congress with an item providing $30,000 for the establish- 
ment, in 1926, of a forest experiment station in California. In addi- 
tion thC; Senate has adopted an amendment to the bill, proposed by Senator 
Overman, which would increase the r-mount available ' for forest research 
by 018*000., This amendment replaces Senate Bill 1161, which would have 
provided for the material enlargement of the Appalachian Forest Experi- 
ment Station. The Agricultural Appropriation Bill now goes to con- 

A bill (H.R. 95951 has been introduced by Resident Commissioner 
Uavila of Porto Rico which would provide for a tropical forest experi- 
ment station in Porto Rico, and 'appropriate ' J40,G00 for its investi- 
gative work. 

House Bill 9388, introduced by Representative Edwards of Georgia, 
would provide $50,000 for a forest experiment station in Georgia on the 
site of the "Old Stockade," a famous Civil War prison.. The bill would 
also make this tract a national X )a -rk. 

Senator Fess of Ohio has introduced a bill to provide $30,000 for 
a forest experiment station in the Ohio-ilississippi Valley, that is, the 
region including Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri* This bill 
corresponds to the one introduced earlier in the session by Representa- 
tive Fitzgerald of Ohio. 

Senator Reed of Pennsylvania has introduced a bill to authorize 
van appropriation of $75,000 for a Pennsylvania forest experiment 'sta- 
tion which would serve Pennsylvania and near— by States. This is simi- 
lar to a bill introduced in the past by Senator Pepper. 

Recruiting the Tax Investigative Staff 

In. addition to Dr. Fred R. Fairchild, the 'director, three members 
have now been selected for the staff which will conduct the -forest tax 
investigation authorized by the Clarke -McKary Act. These are H. H. 
Chapman, professor of forest roanagement in the Yale Forest School; 
R. C. Hall of the timber section of the U. S. Bureau of Internal Revenue; 
and L. S. Murphy of the Forest Service. 

Prof. Chapman's career in forestry, principally in t lie education- 
al field, is too well known to call for a description here. His assign- 
ment to the staff of the tax study will extend from June, 1926, to 


September, 1927. Mr. Hall, a member of the 1908 class of the Yale 
Forest School, ras with the Forest Service from the time of his gradu- 
ation until 1917. During the later years of this period his work was 
in connection: v;ith"tbB^acq.uisit ion, of lands for national forests in 
the southern Appalachians. Since the war : he has .been engaged in the 
valuation of forest property, in connection with the enforcement "by the 
Bureau of Internal Revenue' of the Federal income,' cbrporation, -. and ex- 
cess profits tax lawJsj.. ATith this experience in land Acquisition and ,. . 
forest valuation he is radmirably prepared for the valuation work which 
will form an importaait' part o-.f the tax study. ; Mrv ; Murphy has been with, 
the Forest Service vddntinuously -since his graduation from ,t)bjsr Ta$e For- 
est School 'in l 1907. His work was at first almost : exclusively alon^ the 
lines of forest valuation, in . connect ion. with national- forest 'timber. ,.' 
sales' and land exchange work -and the preparation of working plans and 
advice in the management of private' forest' holdings* Since 1911 or. 
1912 he has specialized in forest' taxation. ' F6r : the last four years he 
has devoted practically all his time to a reexamination and amplifica- 
tion of the theoretical -basis of .forest taxation and to a study of the 
results of its practical application in the various -States, together 
with' a more cursory canvass of the forest tax situation in certain for- 
eign countries. : ' .: 

It is' -hoped 'that the staff may be strengthened by the addition of 
at least one' other trained- and experienced economist.- : 

The -Cinderella of the Cypress Swamps 

Cypress swamps <?.f the South have yielded richly in valuable tim- 
ber, but have not heretofore been regarded as' profitable for reforesta- 
tion. The "wood eternal," as it has been advertised, has been cut out 
clean, leaving only the "poor relations" of the swamp land, • chiefly 
, tupelo gum, a tree long considered to,bc of very little worth. 

Now comes 'E. W. . Hadley of the Southern Forest Experiment Station 
to say that tupelo gum, the Cinderella of 'the swamps, is coming 'into its 
own silviculturally and may be the saviour of these dismal areas. Cypress 
will not reproduce rapidly or dependably enough to reforest them, but 
tupelo reproduces promptly and adequately. The growth of industry in the 
South and the demand; else where for southern woods promise an outlet for 
this wood. Tupelo gum is now used by the million board feet for boxes, 
• crates, and veneer, and is .beginning to be sought as a paper-pulp wood. 

The total area of cypress-hardwood land is estimated as 32 million 
acres, or more than ono-fourth the area of the combined southern pine 
forest's. On the land already cut over are plenty of tupelo^ -seed trees, 
and practically none of cypress. Stands of tupelo in the lower 
-i-tchafalaya River basin of Louisiana are growing at the rate of one cord 
of peeled wool to the acre each year, which is almost the average rate 
of growth, of the southern pines. v . . 

Pr ogress of Br evi comi o Infestations in So uthern Orego n 

The 2,500,000 acres of yellow pine in Klamath and Lake Co-unties, 
Orcg. , which have not been protected against damage "by 0. bre vico:.iis_ 
are estimated to contain 16 billion board feet of timber. The D. 
brevicomis damage in these areas is estimated "by the Bureau of Ento- 
mology as follows: 

1921 . . 40 million "board feet 

-lQOO /n it U II 

1923 50 " " 

1924 80 " " " 

1925 60 

One—third of the 271 million hoard feet of yellow pine hilled 
in the five-year period is concentrated on less than 4- pur cent of the 
survey area.. 

The Selway na tional Forest, Idaho, with a protected area of 
1,250,000 acres, daring the 1925 fire season had no man-caused fires 
whatever. The 254 fires controlled during the season covered only 
231 acres. This record was made without the help of unusually favor- 
able weather, precipitation at forest headquarters during June, July, 
and .August being about 12 per cent below normal. 

A display^of forest seeds and s eedling s prepared under the 
direction of C. G. Bates of the Maniiou Sxporimont Station of the For- 
est Service was part of the fourth Colorado Pure Seed Show., held, this 
winter at Colorado Springs. The seed show, which is arranged by the 
Colorado Chamber of Commerce, has come to be an annual event of great 
importance. This time it included 5,000 entries by 500 exhibitors. 

'orest Service films have just been released. "What the 
Forests Mean to You," in two reels, brings out the. usefulness, and 
beauty of forests, and shows in detail the processes of lumbering 'aid 
milling. "Trees of Righteousness," a three-reel film, deals with the 
practice of setting fire to woodlands in order to improve forage. The 
setting of this picture is a rural "ponKiunitv/, nd the treatment of its 
story introduces strong elements of human interest end religious appeal. 


On goros .t Land 

a song for American Forest \7eek 
By L. C. Everard, U. S. Forest .Service 
(u?c lie sung to tunc of ".My Maryland",) 

Great forests crew in lays gone "by 
On forest lane, on forest, 
Where now Dare sands ana "blade stumps lie 

On forest land, on forest land; 
For saw and a:: in careless Land 
Hare swex>t the trees from forest land, 
And fire ha? flung his glowing brand 
On forest land, on forest land. 

The acres burned, the acres bare, 
On forest land', on forest l*and. 

The acres wrecked by lack of care, 
On forest land, on forest lands. 

How spread their millions, barren, Acad, 

".There no man works, no game is fed; 

And muddy streams their banks overspread, 
On forest land, on forest land. 

Drive out the fire that seeks to spoil 

Our forest land, our forest land, 
And save the trees and save the soil, 

On forest land, on forest land. 
'.".c*ll cut our logs with careful hand, 
Leave, seed to grow a lator stand, 
And plant with trees the idle land — 
Make forest, land a harvest land. 



Richmond Conference Urges Forestry Education 

Forestry education for the public, young and old, was the lead- 
ing subject of discussion at the joint meeting, in January, of the 
American Forestry Association and -the Southern Forestry Congress. 
"Our plans and our hopes here," said George D. Pratt, president of the 
American Forestry Association, in addressing this important Richmond 
meeting, "will he unfulfilled unless we return to our homes and our 
work determined to redouble our efforts for popular education in forestry." 
Daniel Carter Bear!, national Boy Scout commissioner (better known as 
Dan Beardj , who was the first speaker at the evening meeting following 
a banquet, said, "We ate making a desert of the United States. The only- 
way to stop this devastation is to teach the youth of the country the 
value of trees." 

At the conclusion of a. two-day program of addresses by representa- 
tives of State, Federal, and private organizations, including lumber 
companies, the conference adopted resolutions urging that the States 
individually undertake fact-finding surveys with the purpose of formu- 
lating adequate forestry policies,' and that the States of South Carolina, 
Florida, Mississippi, "ill Arkansas enact forestry legislation at the next 
sessions of their general assemblies. Other resolutions indorsed the 
plans of the national Academy of Sciences for a world survey of forest 
resources, the campaign of the American Forestry Association to convince 
the public of the necessity for forest fire prevention, and the effort 
of the Save the Redwoods League to acquire representative tracts of red- 
wood forest. In the field of national logislc tion the conference ex- 
pressed strong opposition to "any legislation 'which would give stockmen, 
rather than the Secretary of Agriculture, authority to regulate grazing 
anywhere in the national forests"; recommended the passage of pending 
bills for the establishment of a. national arboretum near Washington, 
D. C, and of the McKary-Woodruff bill; and appealed to Congress to make 
increases in the sums recommended by the Budget Commission for the ac- 
quisition of forest lands from $1,000,000 to A3, 000 ,000, and for coopera- 
tion with the States in the . prevention and suppression of forest fires 
from 0660,000 to $1,500,000. 

*he Society of American Foresters at its annual meeting in Decem- 
ber at Livlison, Ais., adopted a resolution declaring that forest research 
in the Unite! States should' be recognized by special legislation such as 
that providing for the agricultural experiment stations. Other resolu- 
tions indorsed the position of Forester Greeley in regard to the proposed 
grazing legislation and favored the McHary— .Too druf f bill. 

The second convention of the national Conference on Outdoor 
Recreation , held in Washington, D. C, on January 20 and 21, brought 
together 250 delegates representing organizations in all parts of the 
"United States. The conference in its resolutions indorsed the ten- 
year program for acquisition of national forests which is embodied 
in the McNary-Woo&ruff "bill and protested against legislation that 
would release grazing on the national forests from strict administra- 
tive control, stating that "unregulated grazing has "been the primary 
cause of forest destruction in rrany countries and in every portion of 
America where it has been permitted, and such unregulated grazing 
would destroy the national forests and defeat the purpose of their 

Wisconsin Paper Coapany Goes in for Forestry 

A large-scale private forestry project in Wisconsin is being 
launched by the Eekoosa-Edwards Paper Co. of Port Edwards, Wis. This 
company has employed F. G. Kilp as its forester and placed him in 
charge of 3,000 acres of land, of which at present about 1,000 acres 
are practically barren, some 500 acres are partially covered with 

trees, and the remaining 1,500 acres are well forested. About 100,000 
jack-pine seedlings will be set out this spring and the company hopes 
next year to plant 300,000 seedlings, mostly of jack pine but includ- 
ing srra.ll numbers of white pine, Norway pine, and white spruce. Forest 
supervision and fire protection will be extended to the whole area. 
The corrpany plans also to raise planting stock to bo sold to the public 
at cost. 

Cottonwood* s Hot So Slow 

L. J. Leffelman of the State forester's office at Wooster, Ohio, 
has been making growth studies of cottonwood plantations in Ohio. Hot 
all of his data have been worked up, but he has given out the follow- 
ing preliminary statement — which indicates that cottonwood may have 
more virtue than foresters have usually credited it with: 

Growth of Cottonwood (spacing 9x9] 

Age D.3.H. Height 




47.1 ft. 








52.3 " 




59.7 " 




41.2 " 




42.02 " 

At this rate llj^ acres of cottonwood will yield 211.5 cords in 
14 years. At $8 a cord this yield will bring in $1,692, or $10.28 per 
acre per year. 


Arkansas Company Practices Forestr y and Close Utilization 

The Crossett Lumber Co. of Crossett, Ark„ , has put its forest 
lands under management. It is developing a comprehensive system of 
fire protection. On cut -over lends the ties are pulled up from the 
old tramrcads and the soil is plowed, kept clear, and worked. Single 
furrows are plowed for fire checks and have demonstrated their effec- 
tiveness for that purpose. An organized fire patrol is maintained dur- 
ing dry seasons. Oil-burning engines furnish the traction power on all 
loaders and logging engines and also on the main railroads crossing the 
company's lands — the Arkansas Central, owned hy the company, and a branch 
lino of the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific. Under the direction of a 
trained forester, Y&H- K. Williams, seed trees are spotted in areas to he 
logged and in thinnings every tree to he cut is marked. A mininram diam- 
eter limit of approximately 14 inches is maintained. On several thousand 
acres a cutting method lias been tried out which leaves a large amount of 
timber of diameters up to about 18 inches on the. stump for an early sec- 
ond cut. In logging to the yardings along tramroads horses and mules are 

The company is awake to the importance of research, and in some 
half dozen different locations has established sample plots. These are 
fully marked as demonstration areas, with signboards that have aroused 
much curiosity and interest in the subject of growing timber as a busi- 
ness enterprise. 

Lastly, the mill is utilizing and marketing everything that comes 
from the saw except sawdust, bark, and mere splinters of wood which are 
used for fuel. A trip through the two pine mills, the hardwood mill, the 
planing mills, and the box mill, is a joy to anyone interested in timber 
conservation. Every piece of mill "waste" 1 by 1 by 12 inches or larger 
is saved, sorted, and stacked in designated sections in the sheds. The 
salesmen on the road pick up orders for toy and novelty stock and for 
small boxes, which utilize all of this material. A carload of slats for 
bottoms for 8-inch grape baskets was being loaded last month, for ship- 
ment to Penn Yan, IT. Y. , and one of blocks from 2-inch cut-offs to be 
used in packing automobiles in box cars. 

The Interstate Tr u st a nd Banking Co. of New O rleans each year offer: 
every high school in Louisiana and Mississippi a medal to be awarded for 
the best essay on some subject of vital interest to the people of the 
two States. The topic chosen for the essay contests of 1925 was: 

"The ways and means of reducing the present great danger of the ex- 
haustion of our supply of timber and the direct effects on certain of our 
industries and the indirect effects on the ha/ppiness and prosperity of 
our people if the depletion of our timber tin-ough fire, waste, absence of 
reforestation, and lack of econc-ityyin the use of timber by architects, 
builders, and the public generally is allowed to continue." 


Farm 'Forestry in Ohio 

By Forrest \'L Dean, Extension Forester, booster, Ohio 

J. S. Clinker of Burgoon,' Sandusky County, Ohio, has 17 acres 
of woods where, he recently marked 269 trees as ready for the market. 
These trees were estimated, to contain nearly 150,000 board feet of 
lumber, and were sold to a local buyer for 04,000 on the stump. This 
was an average stumpage price of more than v35 per thousand for all 
species.. Most of the trees \vere elm, red oak, and white ash. The 
elm brought $S5 per thousand board feet, tile oak $35 per thousand, and 
the white ash ^45. Other species included in the sale were basswood, 
burr oak, hickory, black ash, butternut, and sycamore. 

Mr. CTinger's woods are actually in better condition now than be- 
fore the cutting. There remains about 56,000 board feet of timber-, the 
trees ranging from 13 inches to .4-0 inches in diameter. In addition there 
is an excellent stand of seedlings and saplings.' Except for four or five 
acres which are included in a permanent pasture the woods are kept free 
from live stock, and there is practically no danger from fire. Under 
these conditions the woods promise a continuous forest crop, and a demon- 
stration of private forestry .that will be of increasing value and influ- 

The c ity of Seattle is spending ab out 03 0,000 a year on the devel- 
opment of its forest property. This municipal forest, • which is one of 
the largest in the United States, is located on the city's watershed on 
the west slope of the Cascade Mountains. It is under the direction of 
Dean Hugo Winkenwerder of the College of Forestry of the University of 
Vfashinrrton. ... 

T he city c o uncil of Freder i ck, Md. 9 Lave voted 01,000 for the erec- 
tion of a lookout tower, which will be operated as a part of the fire- 
detection system of the State. They are also planning to purchase about 
1,200 acres of land as an addition to the city's protected watershed. 

Senator Capper has rei n troduced hi s for estry bill ;, which would pro- 
vide for Federal control of timber growing on privately owned lands through 
a system of taxation and of bounties to operators harvesting forest prod- 
ucts in accordance with standards set by the Secretary of Agriculture. 



If you Plan to Plant a Forest, Look up its Ances tors 

By \7. N. Sparhawk, U. S. Forest Service 

Pedigree may count in raising first-class timber even more than 
in growing corn or "beef, judging from a report of the Austrian Forest 
Experiment Station, 

In order to test the influence of ancestry, acorns of pedunculate 
oak obtained from 2.1 localities in various parts cf Europe, were planted 
near Vienna in 1904. The seedlings were transplanted in the field in 
1905, and have been measured at intervals. 

At the start the results confirmed the findings of other investi- 
gators, larger seed generally producing more vigorous seedlings. The 7 
heaviest lots of acorns (average 74 to the pound) produced seedlings 
averaging 9 inches tall at the end of the first year, while the seed- 
lings from the 7 lighest lots (average 145 to the pound) averaged only 
G inches in height at that age. After 7 years the plants from the 
heavier acorns were still 25 per cent taller. At the end of 18 years, 
however, the advantage duo to size of seed had completely disappeared 
and the trees from the light acorns were slightly taller than those from 
the heavy acorns. The shortest trees (12.1 feet tell) came from heavy 
acorns (88 to the pound], ana the tallest trees (19.3 feet) from rela- 
tively light acorns (112 tc the poun^). 

The oaks that grew the fastest were descendants of fast-growing, 
well-formed mother trees growing in regions with climate similar to that 
of Vienna, The descendants of mother trees growing in distinctly differ- 
ent climates, particularly those from regions with a mild, humid, oceanic 
climate, did not do so well. The acorns from southern France, for in- 
stance, were collected from a tree of unusually rapid growth, yet the 
young 'oaks which grow from them grew the slowest of the 21 lots. The 
oaks from mild climates suffered severely from late frosts after growth 
commenced in the spring, while those from cool regions, such a s Sweden, 
were not injured. The influence of atmospheric and soil moisture condi- 
tions of the homeland was also found to affect the rate of growth. The 
extreme drouth of 1917, when only 35 per cent of the normal precipita- 
tion fell during the growing season, practically stopped the growth of 
trees whoso parents grew in southern France and neon' the Adriatic coast, 
and also of those from moist bottom lands in central Europe. It re- 
tarded the growth of trees from localities with moisture conditions 


similar to those of the planting site only moderately, and that of trees 
from dry sites in northern Europe not at all. The oaks from warm re- 
gions generally put out new shoots late in the summer, which were at- 
tacked "by oak mildew; those from cooler regions did not, and were free 
from mildew. 

But even trees of a favorable cliratic race did not grow well if 
thoir mothers were short-holed, bushy crowned, crooked, or otherwise ill- 
formed. The plots showed very plainly, as has also been found in Denmark, 
that the individual characteristics of the mother tree may be handed down 
to the offspring. Ihile 40 to 50 per cent of all the trees on the best 
plots had straight boles, on two plots planted with acorns largely from 
bushy crowned trees every stem was crooked. Moreover, the degree of 
crookedness was found to increase with increase in percentage of Crooked 
stems, and the straighter stems had the larger average diameters. The 
trees on several plots can never produce anything but firewood. 

The report urrjes that seed to be used in reforestation be obtained 
from localities with climate and soil moisture conditions as nearly as pos- 
sible like those of the planting site, and that it be collected only from 
well-formed, thrifty, narrow-crowned mother trees of rapid growth. 

Quebec Debates the Christmas Tree Question 

At the annual meeting, on January 26, of the East Townships Asso- 
ciated Boards of Trade of Quebec, it was proposed that the Canadian Gov- 
ernment prohibit exportation of Christmas trees to the United States. 
Members opposed to such action argued that the Christmas-tree trade pro- 
vides the farmers of the Province with profitable employment in an other- 
wise dull season and that the thinning of congested evergreen thickets by 
the cutting of Christmas trees is good forestry practice. They said -also 
that in many cases Christmas trees were obtained by clearing pasture lands 
of scrub growth that would never have developed into valuable timber. 
Those favoring the ban replied that the amount realized annually by the 
farmers of the Province from the Christmas-tree exports, exclusive of 
labor, was only about $55,000, and that each year's crop of Christmas trees 
if permitted to groi7 for twenty or thirty years could at the present price 
of pulpwocd bring in at least v l, 250,000. They stated that present cuttings 
are by no means limited to the scientific thinning of young growth but are 
sacrificing the finest trees and leaving defective ones. 

The meeting adopted a resolution authorizing the president of the 
Eastern Townships Associated Boards of Trade to prepare and present a memo- 
rial describing the damage which is resulting from the cutting of Christmas 
trees and requesting the Dominion Government and the Government of Quebec 
to take drastic action to prevent this damage. 


xVu.3 tra.lian Trees in Alien Lands 

By E. MacKay, late conserves tor of forests for Victoria 

(Excerpts from a lecture delivered before the Forest League, Melbourne, 
and reported in The Gum Tree, official organ of the Australian Forest 
League, for December, 19S5-) 

"In dealing with this subject, it is of interest to shov; in the 
first place how for Australian trees, and especially eucalypts, have 
spread over the world in 'the search of foreign nations for good forest 
hardwoods. In South America Argentina, Peru, Venezuela, c ad Chile have 
established plantations, end in Chile especially the plantings have al- 
ready attained a respectable area. In North America the States of Cali- 
fornia, Arizona, and Florida have devoted much attention to the growing 
of this group of trees. In southern California clone the plantings have 
reached some 25,000 acres, and this is in a State which has such fine 
indigenous conifers as redwood, Oregon or Douglas fir, Port Orford cedar, 
and sugar pine. In South Africa, where extensive areas have been long 
denuded of the fine native trees, such as yedlowwood, sneezewood, and 
stinkwood, the planting and sowing uf eucalypts and v/attlos has been a na- 
tional necessity for timber as well as fuel, and at the present tine the 
Union has over 100,000 acres of eucalypts, apart altogether from the 280,000 
acres of black feather-leaf "wattle, which is nearly all in the province of 
Eatal, and owned by private companies. 

"In the Hilgherry Hills, Madras, British India, large plantations 
of blue gum, exceeding 1,600 acres, have long been cstablisned, and yield 
regularly large supplies of fuel. In the Punjab, plantations are stead- 
ily being laid down along the new irrigation channels; and in Upper Egypt 
■and the Sudan hardy guns, as well as co.suarinas ana acacias, are now sown 
and plant ed on the river silt of the ITile, with marked success........-" 

"France, we are told, was the first country to introduce the seed 
of eucalypts into Europe. la 31 liar die re, the botanist :>f the 
French naval expedition near the end' of the 18th century, first collected 
seed of the blue gum neo.r Hospital Bay, or. the Huon River, in southern 
Tasmania, and some of this seed was tried both at Paris and in the south 
of France. .-.■■* .-.-At the present day, from Mont pelBler eastward through Mar- 
seilles, Toulon, Nice, Graose, and Monaco, and along the great Corniche 
road into Italy, fine "belts or groves, as well as solitary trees, may be 
seen, mingled at times with the native olive, Corsican pine, end pinaster 
which clothe the hills of red sandstone along" that .... .." 

"(in Italy) what attracted me most were the eucalyptus plantations 
at the old Abbey Trc-Fontane, come four miles soxith of the city, on the 
edge of the Canpagna. Here, .for. a long period, the inhabitants suffered 
from malaria, the mortality at times being high. Several monastic orders 


occupied it in succession, and had to abandon it, till at last the Pope 

granted it to the French Trappist monks In 1870 the monks obtained 

from Von Mueller, in Melbourne,. ...a supply of blue-gum seed for plant- 
ing, in the hope of gradually drying up the drift water and swamps which 
after heavy rain filled the valleys. Ehe long, rolling hills above the 
main valley composed of porous red volcanic soil, end no system of 
proper drainage could be carried out save at great expense. In the first 
year over 55,000 young trees were j:>lanted, the monks walking to and fro 
from their temporary quarters in the city to do the work. ...She mechanical 
absorbent effect of these quick— growing, strongly-rooted' trees, with 
some simple surface drainage, soon made an improvement, and to-lay the 
abbey is regarded as quite a healthful p lace c - ..* The trees first planted 
were spaced 12 to 16 feet wide, and produced much branch-wood. In 1917-18 
the older portions were cut out for the fuel supply of the city. At the 
present time further cuttings are regularly made for the city's firewood. 
..«.«0n the plantation new sprout growth springs vigorously from the stump, 
and thus, on the rich soil, with, ample subsoil moisture, regular crops for 
a long period are assured.," 

Are the Australian Forests Lwindlinr;? 

A report to the Australian Government by C« A. Lane-Poole, Common- 
wealth forestry advisor, on the subject of a proposed Federal forestry 
policy reads in part as follows; 

"^"e are importing 4£„18 per cent of our requirements in timber, a 
figure which in view of the youth of Austral!:- and its relatively small 
population is very di s quiet ing„" 

"Since the war American woods have male up the "bulk of our imports, 
.and of these 90 per cent was Oregon, or, as it is called in Canada, Doug- 
las fir« Canada supplies a proportion, but the United States are respon- 
sible for the heaviest shipments." 

"\7estern Australia is cutting out her Jarrah and Karri forests six - 
times as fast as they are growing, Uere she to cut according to forestry 
rules, i„ e„, cut only the increment of her forests, she would have no 
timber for export overseas. Her our; lus is, therefore, really only tempo- 
rary., and the exports have been dwindling as the available forests have 
been butchered." 


Hungarian Forests oral Forest Planting 

The forests of Hungary cover 2,920,000 acres. The State owns 
115,000 acres and the municipalities 430,000 acres, leaving 78 per cent 
of the total forest area in private ownership. The oalc timber forest in- 
cludes 930,000 acres, the oak tannin forest 620,000 acres, "beech forests 
1,250,000 acre3, and pine the remaining 120,000 acres. About 300,000 
acres of waste lands, including scrubs and barrens, not included in the 
above figures, are in need of planting. Since 1920 a total of 39,040,000 
trees have been planted on 16,800 acres of land. Of this planting 70 per 
cent has been on forest lends denuded by cutting and fire, and the rest on 
the so-co.lled "waste lands." 

Hungary is divided into 6 regional .districts, to which, are assigned 
27 forest inspectors. Each of the 82 forest stations (forests) is super- 
vised by a technical forester ani has a corps of rangers and guards. 
Each official in charge of a forest unit is a graduate of the Royal Hun- 
garian Forest College. Forest rangers ruust pass an examination at a train- 
ing school maintained by the State. 

Owners of large forests ore required by lav/ to employ expert for- 
esters, and owners of small forests nay do so jointly. 

Public Forests in Bulgaria 

In Bulgaria half the forested land is in community forests and one- 
third is owned by the Government, so that more than 80 per cent of the 
total is in some kind of public ownership. Is in the United States, the 
Federal forest lands are situated principally in the mountain regions. 
The community forests ore chiefly in those portions of the country that 
are least heavily forested and where presumably the communities feel most 
acutely the need for timber. For many cf the communities in the south 
and east the community forests are the principal source of timber, and in 
some cases they are practically the only source. 

Among the most important species in the Bulgarian forests, which 
total some 3,000,000 hectares, are the hardwoods oalc, beech, ash, elm, 
maples, linden, birch, poplars, alders, .and willows, and the conifers 
Scotch pine, spruce, fir, and Nepaul pine. About 85 per cent of the 
species are hardwoods, of which the oak is about half. 

(From oan article by Th. Zacharieff in the Swiss Forestry Journal for Janu- 
ary, 1926.) 

Poland contai n s 21,000,000 acres of forest land , of which one-third 
is owned by the State. On the remaining two-thirds the State has definite 
and specific control of cutting, protection, raid utilization. 

One l.'ay of Eric ourag in g Tree Plantin g 

Pure stands of nature oak are rare in Denmark- But there are still 
to be 'found some old trees— -almost all crooked and' damaged' as the remit 
of excessive pasturing during- -past centuries- -parti aularly in southern 
Jutland, where an ordinance of 1737 prohibited young people from .marrying 
until they had planted 10 young oaks or 15 heeches of good size and had 
taken care of them for three years. 

From the Denmark Forester. 

Ve neer in Japan 

Veneer is another of the modern occidentalisms that has been taken 
up extensively by the Japanese, • Introduced into the country in 1S09 by 
the Japanese Department of igr icu dure , it is now mach "used for durniture, 
doors, car construction., graphophones, toys/ and Airplanes, and for "other 
purposes. One factory is reported as producing 20 million square feet a 
year for domestic use. and export. 

Oak veneer is said to be most in demand in that part of the v;orld, 
but cherry, maple, birch, .and ash 'are also used. 

ITyre Forest, a thousand acres of "ancient oaks in V/orcestersAire., 
England, r/hich in the day's of Robin kood was a. royal hunting ;;. ■■..:' ■-.'', is 
to be .cleared by the modern woodman and replanted in fir and I rah. 
The authorities have decided that the old oaks,' while picaresque., are 
useless and occupy altogether too much 'space for practical purposes. 
Canadian foresters are to have charge of the reforestation. 

The 1926 program of the British Forestry Department includes the 
levying out of more than 15',000 acres in England and Wales. Spruce, fir, 
and cedar seeds have been brought from Canada.. At Thetford karsh the 
department plans to create Britain's largest forest since the days of- the; 

Canada Lufaberman, February 15. 


Paul G. Redington, district forester of the California District, 
has been called to Washington to direct the public relations work of 
the Forest Service. Mr. Redincton has been connected with the Forest 
Service almost continuously since his graduation from the Yale Forest 
School in 1903, serving in many western and southwestern States. He 
has been in charge of the California District for five years. 

Stuart 3. Show is succeeding to Mr. Rc&ington's California post. 
Mr. Show, likewise a graduate of the Yale Forest School, has been with 
the Forest Service since 1910. He has specialized in research, and he,£ 
had extended experience in the forests of California. 

George D. Pratt, of Few York, rcas reelected president of the 
American Forestry Association at its December nceting in Richmond. 
At the sane tine H. L- Kayton, of Savannah, was elected to the presi- 
dency of the Southern Forestry Congress. 

Forest Inspector I. F. Eldredge has resigned from the Forest 
Service to become forest nanagcr for the Western Paper Makers Chemical 
Company. His imncdiate job is the organization of operations on a tract 
of about 200,000 acres, chiefly long leaf and slash pine, in southern 
Georgia. Eli, as he is affectionately called throughout the Forest Serv- 
ice, declares that this is precisely the opportunity he has been looking 
for for years, and that' he is going to show the world how turpentine, 
rosin, and lumber production on a perr.ion.ent basis can be run as a business 
in the United States- Incidentally, this is another case of business 
unlertaking forestry, with a good forester in charge. 

State Forester F. W. Besley of Maryland and Alfred 3. Hastings 
of the Forest Service have been noninated for reelection as president 
and vice president, respectively, of the Yale Forest School alumni Assa 
ciation. • • 


George R. Phillips, for some tine assistant State forester of 
Indiana, has "been appointed State forester of Oklahoma. He has al- 
ready assumed office, with headquarters at Oklahoma City. 

Samuel T. Dana, director of the northeastern Forest Experiment 
Station, was elected president of the Society of .American Foresters at 
its annual meeting in December. Other officers arc: Vice president, 
Paul G. Redington; ■ secretary, G. Harris' Coll irigwoodj treasurer, Samuel 
B. Detwiler; member of executive council, Thornton T. Monger. 

Prof. Uoodb ridge Metcalf , who for 11 years has "been in charge of 
the courses in silviculture, dendrology, and forest protection at the 
University of California, has left that posit ion, t o become extension 
forester for California. He began his new work in February. 

George M. Hunt, chief of the section of wood preservation in 
the Forest Products Laboratory, has just started for Europe, where he 
plans to spend five months investigating the state of wood preservation 
in about twelve different countries. 

John D. Guthrie, assistant district forester, Portland, Oreg. , 
won the v500 prise offered by Charles Lathrop Pack for a paper present- 
ing in a popular way the best contribution to the advancement of forestry 
in 1925. Mr. Guthrie's paper, "The Public Relations of Forestry," was 
one of 14 entered in the contest. 

F. S. Baker, assistant district forester in charge of public 
relations in the Intermountain District, is leaving the Forest Service 
to accept a position as associate professor of forestry in the Univer- 
sity of California. 

F. \T. Dean, assistant forester -at the Ohio Agricultural Experiment 
Station, has been appointed extension forester for Ohio. He will main- 
tain headquarters at "booster* 

William Maughan, a graduate of the forestry department of the 
University of Minnesota in the class of 1925, has joined the staff of the 
Hew York State College of Forestry as instructor in forest engineering. 


Recent Books and Pamphlets 

Baker, P. S. : IThat the National Forests Mean to the Inte mountain 

Region. 21 pp. illus., nap. Wash., D.C. 1925. (U. 3. Lep»t 
of Agriculture. Miscellaneous Circular ITo. 47) 

Barbey, A.- Traite d'Entomologio Forestiere, 2nd edition. 749 pp. 
illus,, pi. Berger-Levrault , Paris, 1925. 

Cannon, William Austin, and Free, Edward Elway: Physiological Features 
of Boots, with especial reference to the relation of roots to 
aeration of the soil. 168 pp. illus. Wash. , D. C.,-1925. 
[Carnegie Institution of Washington. Publication No. 368) 

Chanply, Rene: Le Travail du Bois par l Q s Precedes Moiemes... 276 pp. 
il. Libraire Centrale des Sciences, Paris, 1925. 

Illiclc, J. S-: Guide to Forestry, Book One. Revised edition. 84 pp. 
illus. Harrisburg, Pa., 1925. (Pennsylvania Dep't of Forests 
and Waters. Bulletin 26 J 

Leffelman, L. J., and Hawley, "R. C, : Studies of Connecticut Hardwoods: 
The treatment of advance growth arising as a result of thinnings 
'and shelterwood cuttings. 68 pp. illus. New Haven, Conn., 1925. 
(Yale Forest School, Bulletin No. 15) 

Lonnroth, E. : Untersuchungen uber die Innere Structur und Entwicklung 
Gleichaltriger Natumormaler Niefembestande. 269 pp. diagrs. 
Helsinki, 1925. 

Maddox, R. S., and Parkins, A. E. : Our Trees and Hoy; They Serve Us. 
180 pp., 11. , pi., maps. Chas. Scribner's Sons, N. Y. , 1925. 

Mattoon, U. R. , and Beal, J. 11.: Common Forest Trees of Mississippi: 

How to know them* 30 pp. illus. A.. & M. College, Miss., 1925. 
(Mississippi Agricultural and -.ISechanical College. Extension 
Bulletin ITo. 32). 

Mattoon, W. R. , and Hawes, A. F. : Common Forest Trees of Connecticut: 
A pocket manual describing their most important characteristics. 
44 pp. illus. Office of the State Forester, Hartford, Conn., 


New York Conservation Commission. Fifteenth Annuel Report, for the 
year 1925. 

New York State Uooi Utilization Conference. State— v/ide wood utilization 
conference, Syracuse, IT. Y. , Nov. 12, 1925. 32 pp. Albany, N.Y. , 
1925. (Empire State Forest Products Ass'n, Bulletin 22) 

Pack, C. L.zJThe Forestry Primer. 32 pp. illus. American Tree Ass'n, 

Peets, E. • Practical Tree Repair, rev. ed. 270 pp. illus. pi. R. M. 
. ' McBride A- Co., E-, Y. , 1925. 

Show, S. B., and Kotok, E. I.- Weather Conditions and Forest Fires in 
, California. 24 pp. dia~rs. • "Wash., D. C, d925. (U. S. Dep*t 
of Agriculture. # Lep't Circular 354) 

Stuart, Robert Y. : Recreational Use of Pennsylvania State Forests. 
, 10 pp. Harris"burc, Pa., 1925. (Pennsylvania Dep't of Forests 
and Waters, Circular 30) 

Thompson, 1 1. J.; Effects of Forest Fires on Land Clearing and Crop 

. Production. 23 pp. illus. St. Paul, 1925. (Minnesota Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station. Bulletin 220) 

U. S. Bureau of the Census. Forest Products, 1924: Pulpwood consumpt ion 
. and wo.od-pulp production. .Compiled in cooperation with, the Forest 
Service. 13 pp. Wash., D. C., 1925. 

.U. S. Congress, Senate Committee on Public Lands and Surveys. National 
Forests and the Public Domain: Hearings before a subcommittee to 
investigate all matters relating to national forests and the 
public domain and their administration, pts. 6-8. pi., maps. 
Wash., D. C, 1925. 

U. S. Lep't of Agriculture, Forest Service. Report of the Forester, 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1925. 51 pp. Wash., D. C. , 

Waldron, C. B. s Trees, Shrubs, and Plants for Forth Dakota Farmsteads. 
28pp. illus. Agricultural College, N. 'b. , 1925.' (North Dakota 
Agricultural College, Agricultural Extension Division. Circular 67) 

Western Australia Dep't of Education. A Primer of Forestry. 2nd edi- 
tion. 134 pp. illus., map. Perth, 1925. 

Wirt, G. H., and Meek, C. R. • Pennsylvania Forest Fire Warien Manual. 

45 pp. illus. Narrisburc, 1924. (Pennsylvania Dep't of Forests 
and Waters. Bulletin 36) 

Wright, W. G. : Statistical Methods in Forest-investigative Work. 36 pp. 
Ottawa, 1925. (Canada Dep't of the Interior, Forestry Branch. 
Bulletin No. 77) 

Art i c les in Pe riodical s 

Indian Forester, Lee. 1925.— Sir Willie Schlich, pp. 625-632. 

Journal Forestier Suisse, Jan. 1926.— Stat actuel de l'amenagement des 
fa rets publiques en Suisse, by K. Badoux, pp. 1-5. 

Paper Mill and Wood Pulp News, Pec. 19, 1925.— Development of the 

rayon (artificial silk) industry, by 1.1. G. Luft, pp. 2, 14-10. 

Paper Trade Journal, Jan. 7, 1926. — "he prowth of paper making, by 
B . C . Eve rest, pp . 3 9 —Pi . 

Pulp and Paper Magazine of Canada, Pec. 17, 1925.— Robert Henry Campbell 
and his work, by F. H. 3yshe, pp. 1490—1494. 

Quarterly Journal of Forestry, Jan., 1926. — State control of private 
forests in Finland, by E. Saari , pp. 17-23. 

Science, Pec. 25, 1925. The proposed national arboretum at Washington, 
by F. V. Coville, pp. 579-581. 

Southern Lumberman, Eov. 21, 1925. — Cutting to increase the margin of 

profit, by W. W. Ashe, pp. 39-40. 

Southern' Lumberman, Jan. 16, 1926. — The Federal Government's policy 
for southern national forests, by W. 3. Greeley, pp. 35-36; 
Diameter limit cutting in southern pine , by R. P. Forbes, pp. 36-37, 

Timberroan, Mo v. 1925. — To burn or not to barn, by F. H. Lamb and G. 9. 
J oy> b"P« 76-02. 

Timberman, Jan. 1926. — The need for research in forestry, by R. Zon, 

pp. 50-54. 

U. S. Commerce Report, Jan. IS, 1926. — The pulp and paper industry of 
France, by H. S. Meese, pp. 129-131. 

U. 3. Commerce Report, Jan. 21, 1926. — United Kingdom lumber trade in 
1925 and outlook for 1926, by A. E. Doable, pp. 262-263. 

Rece nt publications of the Forest Se rvice 

Department Circular 112, Timber Depletion and the Answer (Reprint j • 

Farmers' bulletin 1417, Idle Lane and Costly Timber (Reprint). 

Year Book Separate 886, Timber: Mine or Crop (Reprint) 

Year Book Separate 910, Forestry a.d Forest Products 

Map Folders: Crater,, Wallowa, and Road and Information Map of 

Pamphlets: "Grow Trees" and ''Forest Facts." 

Complete List of Forest Service Publications, December 1, 1925 (mimeo- 
graphed) . 


1 ."■ 

Ml | 




IP' I* 


AY, 1926. 




May, 1926 

Published "bimonthly by the Forest Service, 
U. 3. Department of Agriculture, VJashington, D. C, 

i_d u 

Announcements . . . 3-4 

State forestry departments and organizations . 5-12 

Education and extension ....... .... 13-16 

Forest Service not^s 17-26 

General forest news . 27—34 

Foreign notes <• 35-40 

Personals . . . . 41-44 

Bibliography 1-5-49 

1 1 


WG ; 



Forest Service to Exhibit at the Sesquicentennial 

At the Philadelphia Sesqui centennial Exposition, scheduled 
to open June 1 and close December 1, the Forest Service will supply 
one unit of the Department of Agriculture exhibit in the Transporta- 
tion Building. The service has been allotted a space 92 feet long 
and 15 feet deep. In this space will be depicted four phases of 
the history of this country's forests. Each of the four sections 
will consist of a curved, panoramic, painted background and a fore- 
ground of actual trees and other accessories built up to and merging 
with the background. Large white pine trees are being shipped in 
from the Allegheny National Forest for the foreground work. 

The first scene will show a primeval forest of white pine 
such as met the eyes of the first white settlers in America. The 
second will show destructive lumbering. Stark, denuded hills in the 
distance will explain the deserted lumbering town in the middle dis- 
tance, and the foreground will be strewn with a wasteful jumble of 
slash. The third picture will be a forest blackened and smoking from 
recent fire, charred young trees in the foreground raising the question 
of where the forests of the future are to come from. The fourth scene 
will attempt to answer that question, showing scientific forest cutting 
and planting, fire prevention, and careful utilization. One feature 
of this section will be a prosperous small lumbering town in the midst 
of a productive forest region, offering vivid contrast to the deserted 
town in the second group. 

Supplemental exhibits and enlarged photographs will give in more 
detail the points stressed in the main exhibit. 

wbod-G-luing and Kiln-Drying Courses at Madison 

Short courses in the gluing of wood and the kiln drying of lum- 
ber will be given June 7-12 and June 14-25, respectively, at the IT. S. 
Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, '.'is. The gluing course is given 
for executives, foremen, and others from shops or factories where glued 
wood products arc manufactured and for those making or selecting glue 
and gluing equipment. It covers, among other points, the characteris- 
tics of different glues and methods of gluing the common woods, and in- 
cludes demonstrations in mixing different kinds of glues and in maicmg 
and testing glued joints. The attendance limit is 16 and the fee $100. 


The kiln drying course is for executives, foremen, and kiln 
operators engaged in the artificial seasoning of wood. The instruc- 
tion covers the design, construction, and equipment of the types of 
kiln3 used for drying various commercial species, characteristics of 
different species as related to proper drying, drying defects and how 
to prevent them, and comparison of the effects of kiln drying and air 
seasoning. Lumber green from the sav; will be dried in the demonstra- 
tion kiln run which is a feature of the course. The attendance limit 
is 18 and the fee $150. 

Michigan Progress Reports Avai 1 ab le 

Prof. P. A. Herbert of the division of extension forestry, Mich- 
igan State College of Agriculture, has within the past few months com- 
piled progress reports on some of the uncompleted forest experiments 
being conducted by that college. He writes to the Forest V/arker tr say 
that research workers interested in any of these reports can obtain copies 
by writing to him. The subjects are as follows: 

Poisoning of Living Trees 

Chemical Weed Eradication in Forest Nurseries 

Use of Fertilizers in Forest Nurseries 

Forest Tree Breeding 

Germination Records 

Correlation of Maple Sap Flow with Climatic Conditions. 

Missouri Paci fic Looking for Forester 

President L. \'u Baldwin of the Missouri Pacific Railroad writes 
that he wishes to employ a man to do the same work in forestry that the 
agricultural agents of the railroad do in their field; that is, "to edu- 
cate the people and promote reforestation and production of the forests 
along the lines of the Missouri Pacific." 

Anyone interested in this position should write direct to Mr. 
Baldwin at St. Louis. 



Men and Money for Mississippi Forestry 

The Mississippi forestry "bill, provisions of which were outline! 
in the Forest Worker for March, has since "been made a lav;, and an appro- 
priation of $20,000 has been made for carrying on the work during the 
current biennium. Governor Whitfield has appointed the following State 
forestry commission: J. B. Bishop, Pinola; Mrs. F. H. Reeves, Jackson; 
Paul D. P. Spearman, Pulton; Posey Howell, Howison; J. M. Aldridge, 
Michigan City; and D. H. Foreman, 31ectric Mills. 

Clarke-McNary Act Amended 

Congress has amended Sections 3, 4, and 5 of the Clarke-McNary 
Act so that their provisions are now extended to Territories and other 
possessions of the United States under the same conditions enjoyed by the 

Section 2 has also been amended, so as to provide for a simpler 
method of certifying the expenditures made by States and private agen- 
cies in protecting forest -producing lands from fire. The law origi- 
nally required that in all cases the State render "a satisfactory ac- 
counting," and the Comptroller General ruled that this wording made 
necessary (l) a full audit of each claim by the State auditing officer 
in advance of submission to the Department of Agriculture for settle- 
ment or (2) the submission by the State of a complete schedule of ex- 
penditures both by the State and by private agencies for the periods 
covered by each individual claim. Compliance with either of these 
requirements was troublesome and expensive. Under the amended law 
"the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to make expenditures on the 
certificate of the State forester, the State director of extension, ou 
similar State official having charge of the cooperative work for the 
State that State and private expenditures as provided for in this Act 
have been made." 

New Clarke-McNary Cooperators 

Thirty-two States have now qualified for cooperation with the 
Federal Government in forest fire control under the Clarke-McNary Act. 
The most recent additions to the list are Oklahoma and Missouri. Okla- 
homa vill cooperate also in the distribution of forest planting stock, 
and Missouri in farm forestry extension. 


Two other middle-western. States, Kansas and Nebraska, have just 
completed arrangements to cooperate in the distribution of forest trees 
under Section 4 of the act. The Kansas agreement was signed by State 
Forester Albert Dickens, who is also head of the horticultural depart- 
ment of the Kansas State Agricultural College. In Nebraska, where there 
is no State forest service, the rcork will be handled by the State exten- 
sion service. 

With these additions the States cooperating with the Federal Govern- 
ment in the distribution of forest planting stock now number 27. Agree- 
ments covering this activity are being completed also with New Jersey 
and Delaware. 

Forestry in Los Angeles County 

Spence D. Turner, head of the Los Angeles County forestry depart- 
ment, reports that in 1925 the department had the most successful year 
of its existence. It carried out reforestation work on burned-over 
areas of the county's watersheds more extensively than ever before. A 
new system for fire prevention and suppression was adopted by which the 
county is divided into six fire districts, each with its district office 
staffed by an assistant county fire warden and a trained personnel of 
dispatchers, patrolmen, and lookouts. This system proved itself effec- 
tive and economical, and brought about a reduction in acreage of fires 
and in fire damage. 

The county forester of Los Angeles County has a great variety 
of duties, since he is also the county's fire, fish, and game warden 
and chief of the Los Angeles County fire department, as well as dis- 
trict ranger for the California State Board of Forestry. The forestry 
department itself has one division handling reforestation work and 
another in charge of "esthetic forestry" — the protection and improve- 
ment of shade and ornamental trees along highways and roads. 

During the most hazardous period of the fire season Los Angeles 
County keeps a force of experienced fire-fighters continuously employed. 
When these men are not busy with fires they collect seeds. In 1925 they 
collected 880 pounds of clean tree seed, chiefly of Coulter and Sugar 
pine, and 12,023 pounds of seed of several brush species including grease- 
wood, sumac, ani wild cherry. 

Fifty forest planting demonstrations are being carried out in Ohio 
this spring by the State forestry department in cooperation with the 
county agricultural agents. Tuscarawas County, for which the first 
demonstration of the season was scheduled, ordered 200,000 trees. 


Forestry Legislation in. New York State 

The New York Legislature has appropriated $15,000,000 for the 
purchase of additional lands for forest and park purposes, as authorized 
by the bill voted upon by the people of the State in 1924. Of this 
amount ^5,000,000 becomes available to the conservation commission for 
the purchase of land in the Adirondack and Catskill regions and the re- 
mainder is to be used for purchases elsewhere in the State. 

A forest taxation bill indorsed by the New York State Forestry 
Association has been introduced in the legislature by Hon. Clarence 
L. Fisher. Under the provisions of this bill the owner of a tract of 
forest land of five acres or more planted ?/ith an average of not less 
than 500 trees per acre or underplonted with an average of not less 
than 200 trees per acre wouli be entitled to assessment at the same 
rate as if his land were not forested, until the year when his timber 
was to be cut. At that time he would be taxed 5 per cent of the stump- 
age value of the timber. 

Cape Cod Fire Prevention .Sxpariment 

An unusual experiment in forest fire prevention is being made on 
Cape Cod, Mass. This picturesque cape, which has only about 13,000 
year-round residents but attracts a summer population of several times 
that number, long ago lost its original forests and now bears little 
forest growth. Karris A. Reynolds, secretary of the Massachusetts 
Forestry Association, says of the present forestry conditions on the 
cape, "This particular area has probably a higher fire hazard than any 
area of equal size east of the Rocky Mountains, for the following reasons; 
The soil is very dry and sandy, so that it is possible to have a down- 
pour one morning and by the afternoon of the next day a conflagration; 
the forest growth is predominantly scrub oak and pitch pine, both very 
inflammable; the area is subject to exceptionally strong winds; the for- 
est growth at present is of little value and consequently the public 
attitude toward forest fires is bad, the feeling being that they do 
no special harm." 

Fires cannot spread to the cape from outside, for since the com- 
pletion of the Capo Cod Canal it is entirely surrounded by water. This 
fact, together with the conditions listed by Mr. Reynolds, suggested 
the cape as the field of a three-year experiment in educating the public 
to prevent forest fires. 

The educational campaign is being directed and financed by the 
Massachusetts Forestry Association. The association's forester, Arthur 
M. Cook, has been touring the district with 3,000 feet of motion picture 


film which lie has shown, in schools and clubs until he believes every man, 
woman, and child on the cape must have heard of the experiment. Also 
H. IT. Wheeler, of the. U. S. Forest Service, this spring cave popular lec- 
tures on forestry before 17 schools and clubs on the cape, A committee 
of three leading citizens has been organized in each of the cape villages, 
of which there are about forty. ■ Officers of the railroads have met with 
representatives of the forestry association and have agreed to pay for 
having their rights of way turned over by the local forest wardens, to 
try in every way to prevent passengers from throwing smoking materials 
from trains, and to put on trailers after each train when requested by 
the State fire warden to do so. The electric power company which covers 
the cape district has agreed to clear its rights of way under the direc- 
tion of the local wardens, and will instruct its men to assist in prevent- 
ing and suppressing fires. 

Many old roads on the cape have been allowed to close up, until 
there are districts of from Z ,030 to 4,000 acres without, a passable road, 
These old roads are being brushed out to a width of about ten feet so as 
to be passable to fire trucks. This work costs about $25 a mile. To pay 
for it six towns of the cape have appropriated a total of v 5 2,0OO and the 
forestry association has contributed an equal amount. 

A condition that was not foreseen when the fire prevention campaign 
was planned is the Gape Col real estate boom. By causing much clearing of 
land and brush burning, and by bringing in a large number of laborers, 
this has increased the difficulty of the work for fire prevention. 

2he Massachusetts Department of Conservation and the Federal Forest 
Service are cooperating in financing a patrol of the cape during the fire 
season. Hangers will inform tourists and others of the experiment, deter- 
mine the causes of fires, patrol the forest area, and prevent the starting 
of fires in the open without permits from the local fire wardens. 

Discussing the purposes of the experiment, Mr. Reynolds says "We 
have statistics to show the cost of suppression and the acreage burned over 
for many years past, We shall take those data for the three years previous 
to the experiment and compare them with the costs of education, patrol, 
and suppression and the acreage burned over during the three years over 
which the experiment will extend. .. .We believe that if we can show that 
education and patrol will reduce the acreage burned over and that the 
costs are not any greater, it will revolutionize our system of forest fire 
control in this State. Instead of spending money on suppressing fires 
after they are started we shall spend it in advance in preventing fires." 

Fire lookout stations erected by the Fish and Game Commission of 
West Virginia luring a period of about four years number 23. The plans 
of the commission call for the erection of 75. 

Municipal Forests in Connecticut 

Twenty cities and towns in Connecticut own forests that protect 
their water supplies, according to a "booklet on "Town Forests and Parks 
for Connecticut" issued "by the State's forestry association. The total 
area of these forests is 13.000 acres. Hartford's 4,000 acres is the 
largest, and New Britain'- 2',VC0 acres is second. Thirteen of these 
cities and towns have developed their forests partly by planting. 

An additional 3,000 acres in other forests and forest parks and 
4,000 acres in nonf ores ted 3 and that should he forested brings the total 
forest land owned by the municipalities of the State to 20,000 acres,, 
This (almost equals the forest land holdings of the State itself, for 
the total area of Connecticut's 11 State forests is 2 3,495 acres. 

The Connecticut Forestry Association states that at least 
1,000,000 acres of land in the State is "better suited for permanent for- 
ests than for any other purpose. It estimates that in 25 or 30 years 
this land could be put in condition to produce, under the simplest form 
of forestry management, 300 hoard feet of lumber per acre per year. On 
the principle that in partly open and partly forested country, under 
average conditions, not less than 25 per cent of the forest area should 
he publicly owned, Connecticut should have 250,000 acres of public for- 
ests. The State more or less definitely aims to increase its forest 
property to 200,000 acres. This leaves 30,000 acres still to be ac- 
quired by the cities and towns* 

In urging that the town3 amplify their forest holdings the asso- 
ciation points out that "a New England, especially a Connecticut town, 
is eminently suited to engage in this sort of enterprise. Some one has 
said that Connecticut is a federation of self-governing towns. The town 
is a real unit of government, not as in most parts of the United States 
a mere tax district. It is accustomed to owning and managing property 
and to doing things in a cooperative way. Its citizens are proud of it 
and take an active interest in its affairs. It is, therefore, reason- 
able and proper for it to assist the State on the one hand and the pri- 
vate citizen on the other to help solve our forest problem and partic- 
ularly, as every true Yankee will agree, when it can do so to consider- 
able advantage to itself*" 

The State forest nurseries of Vermont report that this year's de- 
mand for forest planting stock is the greatest in their history. The 
orders they have received for spring shipment cover approximately 
1,500,000 trees. These will reforest about 1,250 acres of abandoned 
farm land. In response to the growing interest of the people of Vermont 
in reforestation the State's forest service is planting this spring suf- 
ficient seed to make 5,000,000 transplants available three years hence. 

Nine States Cooperate in Forestry Survey -. 

Nine States of the South and Middle Test are to cooperate with the 
public relations office of Forest .Service District 7 in a survey of re- 
gional and State forestry conditions*, The survey will he made under the 
provisions of Section 1 of the Clark'e-McUary Act and with the object of 
working out suitable systems of forest-fire prevention and suppression 
in these States. Plans for the work were formulated in March, when Dis- 
trict Forester Kelley, Assistant District Forester Scott, and District 
Forest Inspector Sruner met with the State foresters. A meeting at 
Louisville on March 9 and 10 was attended by the State foresters of 
Kentucky, Tennessee, VTest Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, and. 
one at JKaleign, No 0., en March 11 and IE brought together the State 
foresters of Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia and Director Froth- 
ingham of the Southern Appalachian Forest Experiment Station. 

County Forest ry Associations in Tennesse e 

Farmers and other forest land owners of Tennessee are banding 
together in county groups to protect and improve their forests. Six 
county forestry associations have been formed* In each oivil district 
of the counties where these associations are fully organized a citizen 
elected by the association acts as forestry leader* He takes the lead 
in spreading forestry information and directs volunteer work for the 
prevention and suppression of forest fires. In Dickson County, t'jhere 
the latest of the six associations has just been 'formed, a committee . 
of the county chamber of commerce is studying local conditions in prepa- 
ration for a fire-prevention campaign. Later this association will study 
cutting methods. 

The California Legislature has approved a proposal to. amend the 
State constitution so that growing timber may be taxed on the same. basis 
as other growing crops. The proposed amendment will be submitted to the 
voters at the general elections in ifov^mber. 

The American Forest Week proclamation of Governor McLe anT of North 
Carolina ."ilncluded the statement, "Properly managed the timber lands [of 
North Carolina ]can in 25 years be returning as much in money annually 
as the cotton crop and at infinitely less expense for maintenance. Mis- 
managed and neglected, these same lands can in the same time become prac- 
tically barren wastes, of little or no value and a drag on other lands." 

Legislation and Tree Distribution in New Jersey 

Ihe sum of O30-,0'0'0 has been appropriated by the 1926 Legisla- 
ture of New Jersey for the acquisition of State forests. Other appro- 
priations provide for the enlargement of the State's forest nursery 
and for continued cooperation in maintaining an extension forester. 
By a joint resolution the legislature indorsed the program of the con- 
servation and development department for the acquisition of at least 
200,000 acres of State forests-. 

Distribution of forest planting stock by the New Jersey Depart- 
ment of Conservation sand Development began in 1923, when orders were 
filled for 200,000 seedlings. The number has rapidly increased year by 
year until this spring the department is filling orders for 1,100,000 
seedlings. Most of these trees are going to small land owners and to 
farmers, the orders averaging 6,000. 

A new Louisiana reforestation contract covering 48,089 acres in 
Livingstone Parish wa3 signed in March by the Great Southern Lumber Co. 
Under the provisions of a State law the timber growing on this land will 
not be taxed for c, period of 25 £ears. This brings the timberlnnds in 
the State covered by such contracts to a total of 250,000 acres. 

An effort to find out just what progress has been made in refor- 
esting the cut-over lands of New York State will be made by State and 
county officials in June. The survey will be conducted with the coop- 
eration of the State College of Forestry, the forestry department of 
the State College of Agriculture, and the industrial agents of several 

The Florida Beaut if icat ion and Forestry Society has announced 
that owina to lack of funis it is unable to continue its activities. 

Santa Barbara County, Calif., now has a board of forestry , 
created by the board of supervisors to look after forest and water- 
shed protection, game conservation, and park development in the county. 
Meeting for the first time on April 10, the new board appointed as 
county forester F. E. Dunne, a ranger on the Santa Barbara National 


The Forestry Department of Virginia reports that 1925 was the 
most hazardous forest fire year since it "began active operations in 
1915. Although 67 per cent of the fires occurred during March and 
April, one or more fires were reported in every week of the year except 
two. Fires in the protected area numbered 804. Of this numher 25 per 
cent turned over more than 100 ~acres and 3 per cent burned over more 
than 1,000 acres, the average acreage per fire "being 159.5. 

Three forest fire protection associations have "been organized in 
Virginia since July 1, 1925, 'When Federal funds for private cooperation 
"became available under the Clarke-McHary Act. The Bath County Associa- 
tion has 124,000 acres listed for protection, the Alleghany Association 
approximately 100,000 acres, and the Bland-Smyth County Association 
60,000 acres. Associations previously organized are the Vfest Eocking- 
ham, the Tazewell-Buchanan, and the Spotsylvania, with a total protected 
area of 304,000. The assessment is 1^ per acre per year. The associa- 
tions have built 42 miles of telephone line and 8 lookout towers. 

The Minnesota Tree Society has been organized for the promotion 
of forestry within the State. Governor Christ ianson is the honorary 
president, and the dean of the department of agriculture of the State 
university is one of the vice presidents. The technical advisory board 
consists of the State forester, the head of the State forest school, 
and the director of the Lake States Forest Experiment Station. 

The Eothrock State Forest, Pennsylvania , with an area of 36,000 
acres, has had no forest' fires in the past two years. In the years 
1921-1923 it had but eight fires, and these covered a total area of 
only 147.5 acres. 


eltjcation and exteitsioii 

Cali f ornia Ext ens io n Forester* a Prcgrrm 

Prof. V» oo abridge Metcalf of the University of California, who 
has "become extension forester of the State, has outlined his plans for 
his first year of extension work &3 follows: 

"1. Development in several counties of a comprehensive county 
forestry program including a community demonstration forest, a county 
board of forestry ,> refcre station of burned- -over areas in the county, 
and the giving of some forestry instruction in the schools,, 

"2. Preparation of the first cf a series of manuals for the 
small timber owner in California. This will deal with important tim- 
ber trees of the State and their identification. 

"3. Assistance to owners of stands of second-growth yellow 
pine to the end that this source of future lumber supply may be bet- 
ter protected and managed* 

"4. A survey of windbreak conditions in several sections of 
California in order to develop a satisfactory windbreak standard for 
each section*" 

One t.ho'isand_acres of forest land, has been given by the Great 
Southern Lumber Co. to the Louisiana State University. The tract is 
located between Bogalusa and Franklinton, on one of the State's best 
highways. It offers an opportunity not only for experimental work 
but for the development within a few years of a valuable stand of tim- 
ber. The students will begin work on the new school forest this spring. 

Los__Angelss school children are t© reforest 40 to 160 acres of 
burned-over land with trees of their own growing. Everett R. Stanford, 
assistant forester of Los Angeles Crunt2 r , •riginutei the plan. The 
trees will be grown in the 160 or more garden plots and nurseries of 
the Los Angeles schools and will be planted, under the supervision of 
Federal and county foresters, on the Lns Angeles National Forest. 


Mexican Fores'oers Study Forest Service Methods 

Four graduates of the forest school of Mexico have "been sent 
by their Government to study forestry in this country under the super- 
vision of the U. S. Forest Service. Cne is stationed at the Forest Prod- 
ucts Laboratory as a student of the utilization of forest products and 
the others have been assigned to the Monument Nursery at Mo nutrient, Colo. , 
the Southwestern Forest Experiment Station at Flagstaff, Ariz., and 
the Sierra National Forest, Northfork, Calif., for the study of refor- 
estation, silviculture, and forest administration. 

J apanese Forest Tree Seed Beceived 

A shipment of seed of Japanese forest trees has just "been re- 
ceived "by Prof, V/oo abridge Metcalf , extension forester of the Univer- 
sity of California, from Prof. M. Fuji oka of Kyushu Imperial Univer- 
sity, Japan. This gift is a return for a shipment of California for- 
est tree seeds sent by the California university to the Japanese For- 
estry School in December* It contains about forty different kinds of 
seed. California conditions are known to permit satisfactory growth 
of Japanese trees, for several Japanese varieties are already growing 
well in the nursery on the campus of the University of California. 
These include the Sugi or Cryptomeria (a tree closely related to the 
California redwoods), Japanese red and black pines, Hinoki cypress, 
camphor tree, and two varieties of Japanese oaks. Ten-year-old trees 
of the red and black pines are growing in height at a rate of more than 
1-g- feet a year and are already bearing fully developed cones - a fact of 
great interest to foresters experimenting in the cross-breeding of timber 
tree species. 

Some of the seeds will be sent to State Forester M. B. Pratt for 
sowing at the State forest nursery near Davis f Calif. The remainder 
will be planted in the forest nursury on the Berkeley campus. 

Boy Scou ts Enlist as Conn ecticu t Forest Guides 

Boy Scouts of Connecticut are practicing forest protection under 
the guidance of the State forestry department. During the paat three 
years State Forester Austin F. Hawes, acting en recommendations by 
local scout executives, has appointed 249 of them as Connecticut forest 
guides. Each guide pledges himself to protect and conserve forest trees, 
wild plants, birds, and harmless animals; to urge others to do likewise; 
to be careful with fires at all times and in all places; and, when called 
upon, to help fight forest fires. He receives a badge, and a certificate 


signed lay the State forester. The duties of the guides include patrolling 
fire hazards during the picnic, camping, end hunting seasons; tagging 
autos parked in the v.oods "by hunters and campers and warning them about 
leaving camp fires "burning; posting fire warnings; distributing forestry 
information; and assisting to prevent and suppress forest fires* 

In the spring of 1925 Boy Scouts of Norwich, Conn., aide! in ex- 
tinguishing eight fires, and one troop constructed a lookout tower in 
the top of a large hickory tree in ITorwichtown from which scouts scanned 
the country for miles around during the fire season. 

Maryland Townspeople Sign a Pledge 

School children of Frederick, Md., during .American Forest Week 
pledged thousands of their townspeople to "be careful with fire in the 
woods and otherwise to "foster and protect" the woodlands of Maryland. 
The local Lions T Club had offered pri zes of school equipment worth s ;25 
and >;15 respectively to the two white schools ttirning in the largest 
number of signed pledges in proportion to thuir enrollment, and a cor- 
responding prize worth i'}20 to the winning negro school. Before the end 
of the week the pledge had been signed by 40,000 of the town's 60,000 

Ko re than 200,000 trees were ordered for planting by public 
school children of Pennsylvania on the State's two drbor Days of 1926. 
This school planting, che largest of the State's history, included many 
forest trees* 

Sesqui centennial I'ienoiial Tree -s 

George E. Nitzsche, recorder of the University of Pennsylvania, 
has suggested that everj class of every department in th~ university 
commemorate the 150th anniversary of our nation's independence by plant- 
ing a scsqy.i centennial trje ^orrwehare on the campus, on the exposition 
grounds, or in one of the Philadelphia parks. The grounds of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania are already marked with a number of memorial 
trees including scions of the Charter Oak an 1 the Perm T-^aty Elm, 
planted in 1366 and 1896 respectively, ill-. Titssche passes on to other 
colleges and imiversities, ana to public and private schools, the sug- 
gestion tat they c>- l^brate this anniversary of cur nation's bxrth by 
planting memorial trees. 



On the Tt.epv.ta'lons of Fore st a 
By Aldo Leopold, U. L. J'oreso Products Laboratory 

Every forester has encountered the fact that the publics idea 
of forestry is often built \ir. on incidental or even extraneous details. 
There are people, for instance, vtfio picture forestry as planting, and 
others who think of it as a possible solution for the Christmas-tree 

But do we realize the fact that our o\m ideas about certain for- 
ests are often likewise founded upon unimportant or irrelevant charac- 
teristics? To those foresters who have not visited them, or to those 
whose professional eyesight is defective, I suppose the Tonto will long 
continue to be a forest full of watersheds but empty of trees; the 
Apache, a place where they throw a wide loop from narrow ponies; the 
Angeles, a place encrusted with two layers of summer homtis; and the 
Sierra, a place where they read Chaucer round the camp fire and argue 
'light-burning with Stewart Edward White. 

Just so, before I saw it, the Arkansas was a place where poorly 
mounted r angers engaged in a pitched battle with an army of ciUggers 
and June 11 claims. 

This is the story of my conversion to a different way of think- 

The trouble is that the repitations of forests were founded in 
the days when everybody had to be so interested in the whereabouts of 
boundary lines, in the lack of barns, and in the profusion of hostile, 
editors that he had little time left to be xnterested in the possibil- 
ities of forestry. 

Rate the Arkansas on its possibilities for the practice of for- 
estry and I doubt if there is a national forest in the country that c;;n 
make a more impressive snowing. Consider, for instance, the virtues 
of its predominant species, short leaf pine,, 

The shortleaf of the Arkansas is first of ail a quality product. 
The virgin stuff has 10 per cent more uppers than similar stands of 
western yellow. Even rapid-growth' stuff of moderate age seems to hold 
a high proportion of good lumber. Some day, of course, our efforts to 
meet a primarily qualitative timber shortage by primarily quantitative 
forestry are going to come down with a tump, but it looks as if our 
good friend the shortleaf would cushion the bump on the Arkansas. 



Seondly, consider promptness of reproduction. Skcrtleaf seeds 
nearly every year; western yellow, every 3-7 years. Short leaf cutting 
areas reproduce almost instantaneously, while in v. T estern yellow the 
reproduction period runs up to 20 years. 

Thirdly, consider safety of reproduction. Burn a patch of young 
shortleaf and it promptly sprouts. It is the only national forest coni- 
fer that coppices. Burn a patch of any other pine, and you either plant 
expensively or wait expensively. This one fact of shortleaf coppice 
seems to rr.e of enorrcous significance in lowering the risk of forestry. 

Fourthly, consider defects. The cull on sales is several per cent 
less than in similar western yellow. Shortleaf has no spike tops, and a 
fungus or fire scar deteriorates a few feet instead of a few yards of 
bole. Shortleaf prunes quickly, and is smooth and straight as the mast 
of a Salem clipper — a pleasure to the eye and to the saw. 

Fifthly, consider that incubus of national forest silviculture, 
the "little-used species." Shortleaf on the Arkansas is not encumbered 
with a single poor relation. Many of our other good forests, if not 
handled with utmost circumspection, are liable to end up with "nothing 
else but." To those quantitative foresters who foresee a future consist- 
ing wholly of puipwood this may not seem much of a point, but to those 
conservatives who think people will continue to like the feel of a real 
board, and that nation:!, forests are one place where such boards should 
grow, it is a point of no small consequence. 

Lastly, consider the precautions which the forester must take in 
such matters as erosion. Scar up a cutting area in western yellow pine 
and your site may end up in the Gulf of California; scar tip a shortleaf 
cutting and your reproduction is just a bit better than ever Moreover, 
there is little danger of it being too good, for shortleaf doesn't stag- 
nate like lodgepole. 

Of course, forestry isn't all roses, even on the Arkansas. There 
is the fire problem. The Arkansas burns o-oer every 14 years, the yellow 
pine of D-3 every 300. But the Arkansas fires are man-caused fires, and 
hence " actionable 9 n If there is a forestry question anywhere that offers 
a more interesting challenge to the brains of foresters than the problem 
of fire prevention on the Arkansas, I should like to know its whereabouts. 

In short, to a young forester looking for a place where he can 
actually practice his profession, I would say "Young man - go to the 


Federal Forestry Legislation 

A law recently enacted "by' Cengress authorises the exportation of 
timber lawfully cut from the national forests, or from public lands in 
Alaska, wherever in the judgment cf the secretary of the department 
having jurisdiction over the land the supply of timber for local use 
will not be endangered by such export. 

2he House of Representatives has passed the Woodruff bill, which 
would authorise expenditures of $2,000,000 a year for the fiscal years 
beginning July 1, 1927, and July 1, 1928, for the acquisition of lands 
under the Yfeeks Law, As originally proposed in the House, this bill 
covered 30 years instead of 2 and an appropriation of #40,000,000.. "he 
bill has not been finally acted cri by the Senate 6 Should it become a 
lav/, the appropriations authorized would not be made at the present 
session of Congress. 

'The Agricultural Supply Bill as amended by the House and Senate 
Conference Committee carries an increase of #18,000 5ji the appropriation 
for -che Southern Appalachian Forest Experiment Station. 

Senate Bill 2516, for a Pennsylvania, forest experiment station, 
has been favorably reported by the Senate Committee an Agriculture for 
$30,000 and is now awaiting action by the Senate. At the hearings Sena- 
tor Seed of Pennsylvania, who introduce! the bill, expressed himself as 
particularly anxious to have it passed this year© 

Senator McKinley of Illinois has introduced a bill which would 
provide for a central States forest experiment station, to be located in 
the State of Illinois; and for an appropriation of #80,000 for its main- 
tenance. This is the largest appropriation proposed for any forest ex- 
periment station up to the present time* 

Representative Asweil of Louisiana has introduced a bill (H.R. 
11605) which would provide #85,000 for establishing a hardwood forest 
experiment station and national park near Colfax, La. The area of about 
375 acres designated by the bill, known locally as Bynam Woods, contains 
a rare hardwood forest. 

A dministration- of the Savanna T T. -.t ional For est, in northwestern 
Illinois, is to be assumed by the Bureau of the Biological Survey. While 
retaining its sta,tus as a national forest, the tract will be adminis- 
tered, as apart of the Upper Mississippi Wild Life Refuge. This refuge 
is under the charge of .317. T» Cox, who was formerly chief of the forest 
management branch of the Forest Service and later forester for the 
State of Minnesota. 


Game, A Forest Asset — and Sometimes a Liability 
By Will C. Barnes, U. S. Fore ! st Service ~ 

A forest without game and "birds is no forest at all. Nothing 
could be more lonesome, dreary, and inhospitable than those dense for- 
ests on our north'vve stern coast where because of the tremendous height 
and number of the trees and the lack of underbrush there are few birds 
and aimost no game animals. The birds and animals are entitled to a 
home In the forests, too, by right of prior occupation. But the Amer- 
ican people have taken quite as little thought for their preservation 
as for that of the trees themselves. 

Fortunately for all concerned, there came •<' with- the idea of forest 
preservation an almost equally insistent' demand for' game preservation* 
in fact the two have gone so closely hand in hand -that there was no 
separating them. With pur national forest officers game preservation 
stands almost second to. forest preservation. It has an appeal to them 
as lovers of outdoor life that makes it a' pleasure and not merely an. 
official duty. '■•■:.:..■ 

The result of this work, the rapidity with which almost gameless 
areas have been restocked-— not by artificial means but merely through 
taking care of what we already had and "letting nature take its course" — 
has been a tremendous surprise to. every man in the' Forest Service. To a 
large extent the general public has not as yet fully sensed this situa- 
tion. Citizens who are otherwise cell posted believe that the "big game 
animals"— -deer* elk, moose, antelope, and bear — are growing extremely 
scarce and are likely to become as extinct as the dodo, or, to take an 
example from our own country, the carrier pigeon* ' ■• 

In particular, the buffalo, like the Indian* is thought of as near- 
ing extinction. As a matter of fact the Indian population undoubtedly 
numbers many more individuals at the present time than it did the day 
the Pilgrims landed on this continent? While the same is not- true, of the 
buffalo, that animal is neither extinct nor liable to become so. We 
have more buffalo today than we know what "to do with,, considering their 
comparatively small economic value. They should, of course, be preserved 
for posterity, just as any- other of our native game animals should be. 

An interesting example of the general lack of information about 
the present status of the buffalo was shown three or four years ago when 
the owners of the herd on Antelope Island in the Great Salt Lake, Utah, 
found the ljuffalo had increased far beyond the safe grazing capacity of 
the Island, which is privately owned. To reduce the herd and in a way 
get a return on their investment, they offered for a certain fee to per- 
mit anyone to go to the island and kill one buffalo. The papers took it 
up, and at once the departments at Washington were bombarded with letters 
and wires demanding that the Government put a stop to the "slaughter" of 


this "practically extinct" animal and take the herd over end preserve it. 
Every western member of Congress received like appeals. And. yet at that 
very time certain Government officials were scratching their puzzled 
heads and trying to find some way other than slaughter iio dispose of the 
surplus in the several big buffalo herds under Federal control, They 
haven* t found it yet and would thank anyone for a plan that will solve 
the problem for them. 

Aa for elk and deer, and game birds such as the wild turkey, they 
have shown large increases in every national forest located in a region 
where such game originally \ms found. In the early eighties the moun- 
tains of Arizona and New Mexico and sovitaern Colorado were fairly alive 
with almost unbelievable numbers of wild turkeys. At the time when na- 
tional forests were established in those States, it is safe to say, the 
turkey was far mere nearly exterminated than the buffalo ever has been; 
and yet today, with on)y partial protection, wild turkeys are rapidly in- 
creasing in these forests* 

Deer, of covirse, are found everywhere. The Kaibab deer herd of 
40,000 which, hemmed in by the Grand Canyon of the Colorado and by desert, 
has "eaten itself out of house and home," is an outstanding example of 
what may be called altogether too strict protection. It reminds one of the 
fable of the man who trained a bear to sit beside him and watch over him 
while ha slept* One day the flies were unusually troublesome to the sleep- 
er. One huge bluebottle insisted on perching on the r;an' s nose. In vain 
did the bear "shoo" it away. Finally the precocious animal ambled off 
and found a huge flat rock, with which he "swatted" the fly. The results 
were satisfactory along but one line. There was too much protection. 
Fly and man were both exterminated. 

A shining example of what has been accomplished through protecting 
the game on the national forests and giving them a fair chance is found 
in a recent report by the supervisor of the Monti National Forest in 
Utah, a comparatively small forest established in 1903. Supervisor Hum- 
phrey of the Manti served there for five years as a ranger, beginning in 
1906. "During the five years I was ranger," he says, "I do not think I 
saw more than 30 deer altogether on the Manti Forest." He left the Manti 
in 1912, returning in 1919 as suxjervisor. "I noticed quite an increase 
in the number of deer on my return," he writes in 1926* "One of the rang- 
ers in 1919 counted something like 50 head at different times during the 
season. The next year he counted 67 head, and the following year 100. 
Last spring, 1925, on the same district the ranger and I counted 58 deer 
in less than half a day's rile, counting 23 in one bunch. In 1924, dxiring 
the open season, 100 bucks were killed by hunters on the same district." 
An official estimate of the number of lar£^ game animals on the Manti in 
1925 shows 2,500 deer and 445 elk. The elk were the result of a "plrnt" 


of some forty head shipped in from the Yellowstone country in 1917. 
The increase in. the leer is particularly remarkable "because deer 
hurting has been allowed' re gularly and also because the Manti is one 
of the most closely stocked of all our national forests*, Practically 
every acre of it is grazed by sheep and cattle, Further, it is in the 
midst of a closely settled farming community, so that the deer have 
none of the advantages of what may be called wilderness seclusion. 

The same situation exists on every national forest in Utah, though 
stock grassing conditions are very much congested. In 3.915 there were in 
Utah 8,470 deer,., 181 elk 7 and 35 mountain sheep. In 1924 the State* 3 
total was 18 s 163 deer, 1„.808 elk, and 22 mountain sheep. Elk have in- 
creased to sach an extent that in 1925 the State game warden authorized 
the killing by hunters of a limited number. In each of the plants in 
the State the elk had outgrown the ranges anl in looking for food were 
damaging farms in the vicinity of their forest range. 

Not long ago a member of a California conservation association 
took the Forester to task for allowing live stock to graze in the 
national forests of that State. "Our deer are practically extinct," 
v:as„hi.s plea, "simply because the cattle and sheep have driven them 
out." When it was pointed out tu him that the geme ceneas which the 
forest officers take every year showed a total of more than 3.80,000 
deer on the seventeen national forests in California, seven of the 
forests having more than 10,000 deer each and one in the Sacramento 
Valley being credited -with 46 ,,000, he expressed great surprise — and 
also some doubts as to the accuracy of the count. Soon after that we 
had a fine opportunity to verify our figures,, by an actual honest-to- 
goodness count, An outfrrs&k of fcot-and-mcuth disease on the Stanislaus 
Forest, in central California, made it necessary to order all live stock 
removed from the ranges of that forest. As deer and all four-footed 
animals carry the disease, it became equally necessary 'to rid the for- 
est of game animals. This was done by Government hunters, who shot dox'jn 
every deer they could find. The campaign, las ted a year. The number of 
deer on the Stanislaus Forest had been estimated at 10,000; but the Gov- 
ernment hunters killed, by actual count, more than 22,070. The census 
as of January, 1926,, shows 10,000 deer still on that forest. Evident jy 
if any errors have crept into our game estimates it is because our men 
have been Under- instead of overestimating numbers. 

Our figures do show, however* that while most game animals are 
increasing in California the one distinctive, outstanding big game animal 
of the Golden State, the grizzly bear, is almost at the point of extermi- 
nation. Cur reports for 1924 shewed only about 800 of these gigantic 
animal3 now alive on the national forests, of which not a single one was 
observed on any forest in the State that carries the grizzly as its State 
emblem. As far a3 California goes, the grizzly seems to be an extinct 
species. kcA by that same token you can't charge this disaster—for 
such it is — to grazing cattle and sheep on forest ranges. 


Then there's the busy beaver. Not rrore than 10 years ago a 
well-known writer on gome animals in an article on thi3 animal stated 
emphatically "The beaver is practically extinct in the West, excepting 
a few colonies in the Yellowstone National Park." Our forest officers 
in Colorado could have toll him a different story, for at that time 
our figures showed something like 20,000 beaver on the various nation- 
al forests in that State, where they were protected against trapping. 
As of January, 1926, these animals v;ere estimated at more than 47,000 
on the streams within the national forests in Colorado alone. And 
this in spite of the fact that during the past two or three year 3 the 
trapping of beaver has been permitted by State law, under certain re- 
strictions, where they are doing damage to farms, roads, and other 
property. From the present number of beaver the State can sell each 
year beaver pelts, taken by licensed State hunters, which at present 
fur values will bring in a revenue of from $103, 000 to $125,000. Year 
after year there have been reports charging the beaver with the block- 
ing of irrigation ditches, overflowing of farm or timbered lands, and 
other damage of that kind. On the other hand these four-footed irri- 
gation engineers, by storing up waters in their dam3, add tremendously to 
the supply of irrigation water in times of drought and water shortage. 
Undoubtedly, the value of this work fully equals the fur values men- 
tioned above. 

The recreational, sporting, and actual meat-pro lucing value of 
game animals in the national forests makes them a national asset of 
no mean proportions. Sometimes, as in the Kaibab case an? again in 
several of the Elk "plants," they become a direct liability. In the 
final analysis, however, the balance is strongly in favor of the gane« 

Four new natio na l game refuges within the boundaries of the Ozark 
National Forest, Arkansas, were established by presidential proclamation 
on April 26. The name3 by which these refuges are locally known, with 
their locations and areas, are as follows: Livingston, Stone County, 
8,420 acres; Barkshed, Stone and Baxter Counties, 5,300 acres; Moccasin, 
Pope County, 3,620 acres; and Haw Creek, Johnson County, 4,160 acres. 
Ihe total acreage is 21,500. With absolute protection of game, these 
relatively small units are expected to serve as breeding places to stock 
the surrounding country. 

The supervisor of the Ozark National Forest will administer the 
new game refuges, with the cooperation of the .arkansa3 Game Department 
and the local residents. 


Government Purchases Forest Land in Michigan 

A 51,000-acre tract in Michigan just purchased by the National 
Forest Commission is the first piece of land ever bought by the United 
States primarily for the purpose of timber production. It is part of 
a purchase unit of 616,970 acres, recently established by the commission 
at the same time with one of 1,628,108 acres in Minnesota. These units 
are the first established since the Ciarke-McNary Act authorized the 
commission to purchase forest land for the purpose of timber production 
as distinct from that of regulating stream flow. The one in Michigan 
was chosen partly because of its suitability for experimental and demon- 
stration work. It embraces large areas which although once re 11 tim- 
bered are now bare, sandy, and unproductive. The efforts of the Forest 
Service to restore it to productivity will be a demonstration of great 
value to the people of the State. 

Other purchases just authorized by the commission include 83,000 
acres in additions to the national forests of the eastern and southern 

Planting on the Pisgah 

This year will see the most extensive planting ever done by the 
Pisgah National Forest staff on the cut and burned areas of Clingman's 
Peak, along the Mount Mitchell motor road* About 86,000 transplants, 
principally of Norway spruce, have been promised to Supervisor Mattoon 
and will be brought from Gladwin Nursery, in the Monongahela National 

In connection with this planting the Appalachian Forest Experiment 
Station will put in a number of experimental plots to determine the suit- 
ability of certain western American, Japanese, and European species for 
planting in the Appalachians. F. W. Haasis of the station staff will be 
in charge of the work. At present about 34 square chain sample plots, 
each containing 100 transplants, have been established. These are 
already giving results for a dozen or more coniferous species. Among the 
3pecies that will be planted this year are Japanese larch, Engelmann 
spruce, lodgepole pine, and. white fir. The station expects to test every 
species that has any promise at all for that locality. 

The boundary between Forest Service Districts 2 and 7 has been 
revised so that in traversing Oklahoma it follows the Indian Meridian, 
12 miles east of Oklahoma City. Administration of the Wichita National 
Forest and Game Preserve, formerly in District 7, will be taken over by 
District 2 on July 1. 

Forestry Films Make a Hit 

Copies of the Forest Service fDrs "Trees of Righteousness" 
and "What the Forests Mean to Yon" have "been aided, to the equipment 
of "the Arkansas fire-prevention, track," the traveling exliibit with 
which Ranger James M. Wait constantly tours the towns and rural communi- 
ties within and near the Ozark and .Arkansas ITationai Forests. T, T. Kali 
of the Ozark staff describes as fellows the reception given the films in 
Russellville> Ark., the town of 4.500 in which are located the head- 
quarters of the Ozark National Forest* 

"The films 'Trees of Righteousness 7 and 'What the Forests Mean 
to You' were received recently,, We went to the Rotary Club of Fussell- 
ville and cold the members about them., and the pictures v:ere given a 
private 'ran' before the executive committee of the rotary and a few 
business men. The rotary promised to do everything thuy could to assist 
us in getting out the crowds. They paid for the print irg of free tick- 
ets for the show. The manager of the Community Theatre promised the 
free use of his theatre for showing the films and placed his entire 
personnel at our command from 9.00 a., nu to 5,. 30 p. D», Friday, April 2, 
and from 9.00 a, m» to 12 m,, Saturday, April 3» A v^y attractive lobby 
was arranged at the entrance of the theatre. It was made up cf fire- 
prevention posters, colore! transparencies effectively lighted, a large 
collection of photographs of the Ozark National Forest each properly 
described with label, a large shield of the Forest Service painted green 
on beaver board, and other appropriate signs- Free tickets were dis- 
tributed to all the school children an the three schools of the town 
and the students at Polytechnic College. The town schools wore dis- 
missed Friday morning and the children came in a body to see the pic- 
tures from 9„0Q a=> m= to IE m. 'The students from Polytechnic College 
saw them on Friday afternoon,. 

"After the children had told their parents at the lunch hour Friday 
that we had seme wonderful, pictures the rush was on. 'Ihey came to the 
theatre and looked the lobby display over. Many were amazed at the 
pictures of wonderful scenery, good roads, etc., within twenty to fifty 
miles of Russellville, We answered their many questions freely, gave 
them printed matter, and sent them into the theatre. Trie films were 
shown to 1 P 900 people on Friday t and to 1^100 people on Saturday morn- 
ing. Many adults saw them through twice and a large number of children 
saw them through no less than four times u Many business men after see- 
ing the pictures got in their cars, wunt home, and brought their wives 
and 'kiddies' to the theatre* Forestry and fire prevention were the 
topics of the day. Many who did not get to see the pictures are inquir- 
ing when they will again be shown here. The films were run seven times 
Friday and Saturday morning. We closed the show promptly at noon Satur- 
day with a large number of people wanting to be admitted to the theatre, 
and there were many requests from the patrons of the regular Saturday 
afternoon show that the Forest Service pictures be shown in connection 
with the other pictures," 

A new co mmitt ee on s ample plot 3 has been appointed." Members of 
the Association of State Foresters appointed to it by President Besley 
include W. E. Kine of Louisiana, Edmund Secrest of Ohio, and W. M. 
Baker of New Jersey. Those appointed by President Dana to represent 
the Society of American Foresters are A. 0. Cline of Harvard, J. A. 
Ferguson of Pennsylvania, J. N. Spaeth of Cornell, and F. S. Baker of the 
University of California, The Forest Service has asked Doctor F. C 
Craighead and Doctor. Carl Hartley of the Office of Forest Pathology 
and the Division of Forest Insect Investigations to represent their 
respective offices and has designated Duncan Donning, G. A. Pearson, 
and E. N. Mums as members from the forest experiment stations. 

The _Advi sory Committee of the Pnlp and Paper Industry to the Tie*" 
partme.nt of ^i^l^^'r^~Fcr^£^so^Z^ 'C'r^'PTl^xTZ 71 Th"e _ co~n'- : 
mittee suggested that the Forest Products Laboratory continue its in- 
vestigations of pulp ana paper work, particularly with reference to 
pulping processes for new woods, the recovery of valuable products from 
the waste, and methods of purifying streams* It indorsed the exten- 
sion of the regional forest experiment station plan by- the establish- 
ment of the Pennsylvania, Ohio Valley, and tropical stations, and 
pointed out that the need of the pulp industry was for additional in- 
formation on growth-. The committee is much interested in the economic 
studies of the Forest Service and Is anxious to have the log and stump- 
age price studies completed soono 

The._ y!5 ,0Q0_fund made available under the tural Bill for 
predictin g f. ocec t- -x '. -q wea the ».• ffiil be divided into shares of approxi- 
mately $10,000 for the West and $5,000 for the Fast, The Weather Bureau 
plans to establish in each of the maipr forest regions a junior meteor- 
ologist who will work chiefly en the prediction cf conditions favor- 
able for the spread of fires. Under the proposed plan one man each 
will be stationed in California, the Northwest, the Northern Bocky 
Mountains, the Lake Xtegion, and the Northeast, 

Printed cat ter sent cut from Washington "by the Forest Service 
for use in American Forest leek observance amounted to 1,290,000 
pieces. This number included 740,000 copies of publications and 
550,000 envelope stufi'ers, bookmarks, and pesters. 



Fa rm 's Facilita te F arm. Lo ans 

The Federal Land Bank of Springfield, Hans., in its business of ,. 
making loans secured by first mortgages on farm real estate, gives spe- 
cial consideration to the timber on the farm woodland. In some areas 
of its district, which comprises the ITew England States, Few York, and 
New Jersey, the presence and condition of timber on the farm is the de- 
ciding point in making or refusing a loan. E. H. Thomson, president 
of the basic, says, "A stand of merchantable timber is a liquid asset, 
and a stand of young timber increases in value each year. These two 
facts make for safety in granting a long-time, noncallable lean. It 
is the bank's experience that farms with _.ood woodlots cell readily, but 
that after the merchantable growth is completely removed their value irj 
apparently depreciate! considerably more than the actual stumpage value 
of the growth removed. For example, a well-timbered farm which will sell 
for v3,000 would not brin^ over §1,000 if stripped of timber that has a 
present stumpage value of $1,000." 

In further explaining the bank's policy TIr. Thomson states: 

"Timber permits the utilization of and furnishes an income from 
lands that would be a liability or. many farms because of the soil, topog- 
raphy, and rugged conditions common to much of this area. It Is a. crop 
adapted to this type of country. It fills in the waste spaces and bal- 
ances out the farm. 

"It is a crop that has steadily increased in value, while other 
farm products have been subject to reinous prices in com,; years. It 
also bids fair to continue to gain in value* 

"A third feature, and one that is given altogether too little atten- 
tion, is the fact that timber readily responds to care and improved meth- 
ods of management o The farm woodlot even with little or no attention 
has assumed an important place on most farms; with Increased attention 
its field of use and value is greatly enlarged. .....Improve! methods 

of forest management •..would be of little use to a farmer v ho has his mort- 
gage to pay off in from three to five years, but they are of inestimable 
value to the man whose mortgage is paid over a 34-year period* 

".Another factor from a credit standpoint is that t Labor is the only 
crop that is held by the first mortgage,, In other words, the first mort- 
gage amounts tea crop mortgage when dealing with timber. 


"Still another feature is that the timber gains in volume even 
though a farm may "be abandoned. While other income, may fall very low 
or cease altogether, the timber crop continues to gain. This feature 
is especially important in maintaining the value of farms in the north- 
eastern States, where other Industries tend to tempt the fanner away 
from agriculture and cause him to neglect the farm business. 

"Timber on a farm is the one crop that furnishes winter work at a 
period wtan both men and teams are not otherwise employed. It thus per- 
mits a batter balanced farm unit, lowering the cost of production of all 
the products of the fain." 

The Federal Land Bank of Springfield requires that its "borrowers 
obtain permits to cut or remove timber in all cases except for domestic 
use. More than 900 such permits have "been granted, largely in the last 
two years. 

In order to encourage better care and management of farm wood- 
lands, the bank sends out with every loan, at time of closing, and when- 
ever a timber permit is granted, a leaflet which "briefly states a few 
reasons why forest products are likely to increase in value in the next 
decade or two, and which emphasizes the importance of using care in 
cutting fuolwood; the improvements that can be made in the young stands 
~by weeding out inferior trees; the danger to white pine from Tblister 
rust; and the benefits of tree planting. The benefits and harm from 
pasturing are 'discussed, and fire protection is urged. Tor more de- 
tailed information on management, the farmer is advised to have the 
State forester or the extension forester look over his woodlot. 

The hank has developed two cruising sticks, one for estimating 
the volume of standing trees and one for scaling logs. These sticks 
have proved very popular. The bank sells them at cost, and ha3 sold 
more than 2,000 sets. 

Standard Thicknesses for Inch lumber 

The Central Committee en Lumber Standards, meeting in Washington., 
D. C, on April 27, confirmed its former agreement as to 'the standard 
thickness of softwood lumber. The standard thickness for industrial 
l/umber, dressed and seasoned, was established at 26/32 Inch, and that 
of yard lumber, dressed and seasoned, at 25/32 inch. The engineers ' 
and architects on the committee, with the support of the Forest Prod- 
ucts Laboratory, urged that the question of standardizing the moisture 
content of lumber be carried further. This would necessitate the devel- 
opment of a practicable method for determining whether the moisture con- 
tent of s. given piece of lumber or of a given shipment corresponds with 
the commercial standard. 


Pr ode c t, s of Hat i onal Committee on Uood Utiliz ation 

On April 28 the National Committee on V/ood Utilization hell a 
meeting in Washington, D. C. Tils committee, of which Axel II. Oxholm 
is director, was organized by the Department of Commerce as a result of 
the Rational Conference on the Utilization of Forest Products sponsored, 
by the Department of Agriculture in 1924. and is male up of twoiifcy-five 
or thirty representatives of lumber ar.d paper manufacturers, lumber lis- 
tributors, tie producers, arid chemical industries. On^ of its main ob- 
jects is to jet into commercial use methods already worked out for the 
more efficient and less wasteful use of wood. 

The lumber grotto adopted two projects which they regard as practi- 
cable and of direct importance'. The first is the development of ways and 
means of marketing odd lengths of lumber. One of the southern pine men 
reported great progress in market i&g; end-matched lumber, which he has 
made a specialty. The second is the Tjromotion of bettor seasoning prac- 
tice so as to reduce seasoning losses throughout the entire trade, in- 
cluding manufacture, retail, and storage. 

The committee adopted a suggestion that the Forest Service be asked 
to develop and offer the trade a, universal log scale adapted to close raeas- 

Project committees w^re created to take up the various projects and 
it was decided to continue the maintenance of a central office, with Mr. 
Oxholm in charge, for purposes of publicity and correlation, 

A census o f p r i vat e f o r e s t ry in the United States is being made 
''oy the Society of American Foresters. Definite information about the 
practice of forestry by private interests in this country has never been 
brought together except in a very fragmentary way. In undertaking a 
fairly comprehensive survey in this field the society will have the as- 
sistance of State foresters, the American Forestry xissocia-tion, the U. S« 
Forest Service, and other agendas. 

At least 85 lumber companies in the ten States of Alabama, Florida 

Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Forth Carolina, South Carolina, Tennes- 
see, and Texas are maintaining fire protection of their timber lands, ac- 
cording to a hasty survey "oy the' Southern Pine Association. In these 
States selective cutting is being practiced by 58 companies and 39 are 
managing their timberlands with a view of permanent operation. 


Mere About Wood s Humus as Fer tilizer 

5he appearance in the March Forest Worker of W. R. Mat toon* s 
article on the value of woods humus as fertiliser has "brought to the 
editor 1 s desk some additional observations on this subject. Mr. Howard 
Andrews, president of the Nashville Tie Co., Nashville, Sfenri. , has given 
out estimates of the fertilizer value of woods litter that greatly ex- 
ceed those given "by Mr. Ma'ttocn. His figures for the amount of fertil- 
izer materials per ton contained in maple leaves, longleaf pine needles, 
and shortleaf pine needles, and their commercial value, are as follows: 

O ak Leaves 

5.2 lbs. of phosphate Q 6^' per lb. $ .312 

15.2 " " nitrogen " 24^ " " 3.724 

6.4 " " potash " 5e " " .420 


Longleaf Pine Needles 

2.8 lbs. of phosphate & 6tf per lb $0,168 

18o8 " " nitrogen " 24-|^ " " 4.606 

7.0 " " potash " 5? " " .550 


Shortleaf Pine Needles 

4.8 lbs. of phosphate © 6^ per lb $0,288 

24.6 " " nitrogen " 24§^ " " 6.027 

9.4 " " potash " ' fy, " " .470 


In a "bulletin on "Loblolly Pine in Maryland" Joshua A. Cope, 
formerly assistant State forester of Maryland and now extension forester 
of the New York State College of agriculture, discussed the use of pine 
needles or "shats" for bedding strawberries and sweet potatoes. He 
described as follows an instance in which the removal of the pine needles 
from the forest floor appeared to have had a pronounced effect on the 
growth of the timber: 

"A 55-year-old stand of pine was found in Worcester County [ Mdj 
divided into two parts by a ccunty road. This stand, like many others 
in the locality, had come up after the Civil War, on an abandoned field. 
The owner had needed only a portion of the needles to carry on his truck- 
ing and so he had allowed the county road to act as a dividing line. On 
one side he raked T shats* each year; on the other side the stand was 


allowed to remain intact. £1.1 other conditions were relatively the 
same, age of stand, quality ox soli, and number of trees par acre, in 
1920 a one-quarier acre sample rlo + , in average c--»nd: bicns, was meas- 
ured, on each side of the county read, with the following significant 

re cult s : 

"Effect of regular removal of pine needles over a period of 
years- Fig-ares on an acre oasis. St; ! 55" years oil, 

: 2 Average : Average : Total r. Total 

Character of ; Number of : d "b.,h. , : height of : ( cuo:l3 • . ir 
treatment ; trees : inches : dominant a,; feet t feet 
: : s feet ; : 

Needles net ; ; : ; : 

■ rented j 2?0 : 1.1,6 : 73 t 5,287 : 24,800 

eeaies removed : 228 ; 11.5 ; f8 : 4= 476 : 18,600 

"It will be noted that the average diameter growth on the two 
plots is surprasingly close and that the nvmbor of trees - ; - almost the 
same. It is in the height growth that the difference occurs. The con- 
stant removal of the needles has served to reduce the quantity of lumber 
which the soil can produce -in a given rumher of years. The advantage in 
favor of leaving the 'shuts' is 6 r 200 beard feet in 55 years- At pre- 
vailing stumpage prloen per ac-e, tins is worth about g-/.";„ In other 
words, the 'chats'' have added ever a dollar' per acre per year to the 
value of the stand," 

Thre e Logs Worth More than a Thousand .Acres 

In 1323 a thousand acres of fine white pine in Indiana County, Pa., 
at the headwaters of the west branch of the SusG.ueha.nna, were bought by 
George Smith for $83 plus taxes-, Smith put up sawmills and cut some of 
the timber; other owners followed and the tract finally came into the 
hands of the Clearfield 3ituminous Coal Corporation. Under the direction 
of E. D. Tonkin, forester for the coal corporation, three white pine logs 
uncovered by the high water of 1924 were taken from the bed of an old 
splash ism used .in the original Smith operation. These logs were in a 
splendid state of preservation and yielded 2,000 board feet of high qual- 
ity lumber worth about ^240. Thus three logs plus one century practi- 
cally equalled three times the value of a thousand acres of fine white 
pine. — From the -Service f^-fcter of the Pennsylvania Department of Forests 
and Waters* 


Prizes nwar d o d for Grade -Marking Devices 

An electrical grade-*narking hammer,, invented by E. E. Tidwell 
and L. A- Lurocher of the Edward Hines Yellow Pine 0o o , Lumberton, Miss., 
was awarded the first prise of ^500 in the contest conducted by the South- 
ern Pine Association for the best suggestion of practical methods and de- 
vices for the grade marking of lumber.. The prize-winning device is op- 
erated by an electric current of either 110 or 220 volts. It weighs tut 
four or five pounds. Pressxire cf the operator's thumb on the push button 
causes the piston, which has a stool die swivel at the and, to slide from 
the magazine and strike the end cf the lumber. Provision is made for 
fastening the d*a to the end of the piston in a dovetailed slot, permitting 
quick changes of dies In marking lumber of different grades. The device 
has a self —inking arrangement, so that the brand is ioth indented and 
inked on the lumber «, 

The second prize, $250, was awarded to J. J. Rettaer of the Long- 
P 11 Lumber Co», Lufkin, Tex», for a device operated entirely by hand. 
Pressure on the handle causes the die to shoot cut with sufficient force 
to indent the lumber. There is an automatic inking device which flips 
out of the way when it comes in contact with the lumber* 

The third prize cf $100 went to J» B. Wilkinson of the Helen White 
Lumber Co« 9 of Clyde, Miss., and C. L» Bice of Laurel, Miss. Their ma- 
chine weighs only a few pounds and fits conveniently into the hand. It 
is operated with a low-pressure air system, requiring only 30 to 50 pounds 
of air. Mien the operator depresses the valve lover "by gripping it with 
his hand, a simple valve mechanism causes the die to strike one sharp 
blow on the end of the lumber. The discs are quickly interchangeable, 
but are held firmly in place with dovetail slots. The die holder is so 
balanced that it will mo ye from either side, so that as accurate an im- 
print can Le made on a board that is not squarely trimmed as on one that 

Three prizes of ^50 each were won by H. w. whited, vice president 
of the Frost lumber Industries, Inc., Nacogdoches, Tux,, R. 2. Cassibry, 
resident manager of the Finkbine Lumber Co., D v Lo, Miss., and E. W. Morton 
of New Orleans. 

The winners 3f the first prize state that the Edward Hines Yellow 
Pine Co* has decided to install their electrical grade-marking hammer in 
all cf its mills, and that* arrangements have been made for manufacturing 
this machine in large quantities. 


Pulp I.Iak:;rs Gro w Timbe r 

The Meade Pulp and Paper Co. of Ohio grows a part of its cottonwood 
requi; iments,, on bottom lands purchased or rented for that purpose* In 
some cases it has paid as much as £50 an acre. In one instance it rent- 
ed 11 acres at an annual rate of £7.50 an acre* After planting, this 
land was cultivated for two or three years. In spite of an allowance 
of $10 -an acre for restoring the tract to its original condition at the 
close of the rental period and 6 per cent interest on all costs, the 
final cost of the pulpwood was enough less than the current prices for 
similar wool in the open market to nut the company about £300 for the en- 
tiro transaction. 

The 2?inch-Pruyn Co. started cut as a lumber company but a number 
of years ago went into the pulp and paper business,. They have gradually 
acquired lands and now have enough, in New York, Vermont, and Maine, to 
supply almost entirely the requirements of their mill. They empley a 
. tester and are making an intensive working plan. Sheir cutting is now 
done under a rough selection system* In spite of a long series of ex- 
penditures to acquire lands, which have come out of earnings, they have 
been paying satisfactory dividends 

The Champion liber Co. of North Carolina has done a good bit of 
planting in an' experimental way. It maintains its own protective organ- 
ization, and has been encouraging the extension of yellow poplar on its 
cuttings. Its forestry work is aone in cooperation with the Appalachian 
Forest Experiment Station* 

Sur v ey of Retail Lumber Indu st r y of Idaho 

A survey of the retail lumber industry of Idaho made recently by the 
University of Idaho School of forestry and the U. S. Porost Service in 
cooperation showed 1S2 retail establishments in the State, with an invest- 
ment of £4,500,000. Some 450 people are employed and the payroll amounts 
to about £700,000. Annual sales of lumber from these yards amount to 
73,000,000 board feet, chiefly we stern yellow pine, larch-fir, coast fir, 
and hemlock. Sales of lath amount to 12,000,000 pieces; posts, 700,000; 
and shingles, 57, 000, 000. The posts and shingles are all reported as 
cedar. A little more than half the .lumber, 70 per cent of the lath, 97 
per cent of the posts, and 5 per Cent of the shingles are produced in the 
State. Practically all the rest comes from Washington and Oregon. 


A fo rest res ea rc h dep artment has been organized "by the California 
White and Sugar Pine Manuf aeturers "' Association. It will be headed 
"by 3. E- Black, manager of' the California Forest Protective Association. 
The fi st major study of the department will deal with the prevention 
of fire in cut-over lands where reforestation is "being attempted. 
Logging methods calculated to encourage second growth will be investi- 
gated at the same time. Finally, a thorough study is to he made of the 
rate of growth and yield per acre of the second growth of all the impor- 
tant lumber—producing varieties Of California,, Every known method of 
producing a second growth of trees. Mr» Black says, will be given a trial* 

How the Virginia Ylo ols Lo oked to t he First Explo rers 

"This Is3.and has many goodly woods, and full of Beer, Coneys, Hares, 
and Fowl, even in the midst of Summer, iri incredible abundance. The woods 
a».e not such as you find in Bohemia, Ivloscovia, or Hyreania, barren and 
fruitless, but the highest and reddest Cedars of the world, far better- 
ing the Cedars of the Azores, of the Ihdias. or of Libanus; Pines, Cypresses, 
Sassafras, the Lentisk, or the tree that eeareth the Mastic; the tree that 
beareth the rinl of black Cinnamon, of which blaster Winter brought from 
the Straits of Magellan; and many other of excellent smell and quality," — 
From Makluyt's "Voyages," as quoted in the Oxf or i Book of English Prose. 

L ong Live the Tree Planters 

"The Great Khan [ Emperor of the Carters, lived 1216-1296] caused 
trees to be planted at both sides of the public roads, giving shade in 
summer, and when the ground was covered with snow they pointed out the 

"He also appointed officers of rank to see that above are properly 
arranged, ■ and the roads kept in order." 

"'The Great Khan is the more disposed to plant trees because astrol- 
ogers tell him- that those who plant trees are rewarded with long life." — 
From The Travels of Marco Polo, quoted in the Newsletter of the Maryland 
Department of Forestry. 

■7. 4- 


Reforestation Associations Proposed "b y French Of f i oial 

The necessity of reforestation as a means cf checking floods in 
the Paris district is discussed in an interview "by It. Jean Burand, Secre- 
tary of Agriculture of France, published in Bois et Eesineux, in part as 

"It is ray ambition to contribute to the limit of my power to the 
reestablishmcnt of our forests, to a general reforestation which will 
regulate the flow of our streams and put an end to the inundations, of 
which deforestation is the sole cause.. Tor this I want to encour- 
age the organization throughout Prance of reforestation associations 
which the Government will aid as much as possible. These associations 
should have a very low membership fee, say one franc, in order to enlist 
large numbers in the enterprise. And, by the way, reforestation is one 
of the fields most favorable for concerted action "by the rural and the 
city population. 

«-.•., The Government will furnish these societies with planting 
stock, which the forest service can supply in sufficient quantity to meet 
the needs for some time Also in order to avoid failures and disappoint- 
ments, the Government will "be prepared to supply the most detailed infor- 
mation on the establishment of plantations in the places where reforesta- 
tion is contemplated* 

The problem may be summed up in this fashion; Befo Testation on the 
high mountains means irrigation for the slopes and drainage for the bottom 


Sub s idi es for Reforestation in Pranc e 

(llotice reproduced from Bois et Itesineux, February 21, 1926) 

Timberland owners who are reforesting their lands are informed that 
the Government encourages and subsidizes the work of reforestation carried 
on by individuals and communities. 

Subsidies are accorded in the form of planting stock and seeds. 
To obtain these, it is sufficient to address an application to the inspec- 
tion service of the Department of Forests and Waters, on a special form 
obtainable from forest officers* 


Such applications should he submitted "before July 15 for fall 

plantings and "before December 15 for spring plantings. 

Tax exemptions or reductions ore granted for 30 years to proprietors 
who refc :est» 

Those desiring to carry on reforestation work an^ who make applica- 
tion to the inspector of forests and waters will be furnished -information 
in regard to species to plant, according to altitude and the conditions 
of the planting site, the method to he used in planting (sowing or plant- 
ing) , and the time whan planting should be done. 

Forest Planting in England 

The Forestry Department of Great Britain, which came into being only 
in 1920, has planted 53,200 acres, and is planning gradual increases in 
the acreage planted each year, beginning with 22,000 acres this season- 
In addition to Crown lands amounting to 120,000 acres, the department 
has acquired 288,000 acres, of which it is planned to plant 150,000 acres 
by the end of 1929* The department also cooperates with local authorities 
and private individuals in planting work. 

The aim of the department is to establish within the present century 
permanent forest industries, providing employment to a considerable body of 
foresters and other workers; and at the same time to provide the nation 
with a portion of it 3 timber needs, which now require the importation 
yearly of wood and wood pulp worth approximately ^300,000,000. Much of 
the land used for planting is waste land which the Government holds under 
long leases — from 300 to 999 years. 

Pines and Potatoes 

How German foresters get a from land newly planted tc forest 
trees is told "by .assistant State Forester Hale of New Hampshire in a re- 
pert published in the News Letter of the Licw Hampshire Department of For- 
estry. In parts of the Rhine Valley Mr. Hale found the foresters grow- 
ing agricultural crops among newly transplanted seedlings. In the town 
forest of Eberstatt near Darmstadt, for example, Scotch pine seedlings 
are planted one yard by one foot apart and two weeks later potatoes are 
planted between, the rows of trees. From 10 to 15 acres are worked in this 
manner each year.- Tne potato crop yields abrut five times the amount 
planted, or 50 bushels per acre, and is sold to the highest hidder. Be- 
sides bringing in money through the sale of the potatoes this system helps 
keep out weeds, without in any way injuring the young trees. After two years 
the pines are well established and the potato raising is discontinued. 


Asso c iation for Reforestation of t he Basque Countr y 

At a combined meeting of scientific* business, and sportsmen's 
associations at Bayonne, Prance, a program was adopted for reforesta- 
tion in the Basque region and an association organized for carrying 
on the work under the designation of "Association for Reforestation 
of the Basque Country." The program of the association includes the 

Compilation of laws protecting reforestation 

Checking excessive or dangerous clearing 

Prevention of fire 

Furnishing financial assistance 

Coordinating the results of experience and research 

Propaganda in favor of reforestation 

Directing and assisting individuals in reforestation work 

Undertaking the reforestation of certain sites, privately 
owned or convaiuial land. 

The efforts of the association are to be localized "by the 
organization of cantonal sections, and sections to carry on school 
and information work. 

The Province of Onta rio saved £32,000,000 in 1924 and 192 5 
by using hydroplanes for forest fire protection, according to the 
estimate. of Hon. James Lyons, former minister of lands and forests 
for the province. Mr. Lyons recently told the public accounts com- 
mittee of the Ontario Legislature that in 1923 the Province spent 
$1,100,000 en forest fire inspection arid had a fire loss of 2,120,000 
acres, and that in 1925 it spent the same amount for protection but 
lost only 10,000 acres of timber by fire- 

Forestry is b.ji rg pract iced in Hond uras under men who have- 
had their training under somewhat the same conlitions in India. The 
Government has cc:r.:ittcd itself to expenditures of considerable suras 
now about $50,000 annually. — Prom letter of Professor S. J. Record 
of Yale in the Yale Forest School News. 


Compu lsory 25 re-Line Luty in Sw elan. 

Extracts from an article by Erik Geete, State Inspector of For- 
ests, Sarna, Sweden, in The World's Health. 

In Sweden every able-bodied man between the ages of 18 anl 60 'has 
to serve in the event of forest fire. If a fife is observed by anyone in 
a forest, and he is "unable to extinguish it by ordinary means, he is 
ebliged by law to report it at once to the chief of the nearest fire unit 
and the people in the immediate neighborhood. All must answer the fire 
summons and report at o'hee at an appointed place, taking with them the 
necessary equipment. If the L->cal fire unit finds itself unable to cope 
with the fire, the chief must ask the governor of the Province for rein- 
forcements. 2To one serving with a fire unit can leave without the con- 
sent of the chief. When the fire has been quelled, the chief has to 
detail a certain number of people to act as guards who remain on the spot. 
itfo employer can stand in the way of any of his employees who are called 

Violation of this lav; [Law of Jan, 1, 1915"] entails very heavy fines. 
The law also defines the duties of citizens. '«« and the penalties incurred by 
people found guilty of carelessness or who refuse to cooperate with the 
rescue work 

Before the fire squads are disbanded, the 'chief of the fire unit 
checks up the names of those present, and makes a list of the absentees in 
order to prosecute them „if they cannot justify their absence* 

During the last 48 years 139,484 hectares of forest have been turned 
over in the State forests of Sweden, an average of 2,916 hectares a year, 
or 0.03 per cent of the total forest area. On privately owned forest 
lands the yearly average for the last 10 years is estimated at about 3,868 
hectares, or 0.015 per cent. The State forests are in outlying districts 
and thus less accessible than those in private ownership, which accounts 
in part for the' greater percentage of loss in the State forests. 

Australian Fires 

Special correspondence to the American Lumberman, appearing in the 
March 13 number, states that .Australia had not for years had such bush 
ana forest fires as ravaged her countryside during the past summer. Heat 
was excessive. In New South Wales and Victoria the fires covered many 
square miles, and not only wiped out extensive farms and squattages but 
licked up immense stands of valuable timber, including several pine 


plantations. One of these, in Victoria, is estimated as a loss to the 
Government of v 300,000 and many years of effort. These pine plantations, 
which were largely in the nature of experiments, were promising well. 
In the dry heat of Australia pines Drought from more humid climates "burn 
with terrible swiftness* 

Severe F ire Laws in So u thern France 

Lxtreinely severe laws for the prevention of forest fires are in 
force in Manxes and L'Esterel, Mediterranean provinces of France, assist- 
ant State iorester Hale of New Hampshire reports- During certain periols 
of the year the use of fire is forbidden within 200 metres of forest or 
brush land except with special authorization. Owners of forest or brush 
land can be require! uy adjacent proprietors to clear fire lines 2 to 5 
metres in width. Eailroads wlso have to clear and maintain fire lines. 
The incendiary firing of cut timber is punishwi by imprisonment , and the 
penalty for an incenliary fire in a forest may be imprisonment for life. 

.Li GwissJ Community Fcrest_ 

The forest of the town of S.eJuff house has a total area of 1,346 
hectares, managed 'ui T a forester. Durir the periods 1864-1868 and 1920- 
1S24 a portion of this forest amounting to 897 hectares gave the fallowing 

1864-8 1920-24 

Gross receipts per hectare 59.16 217.11 francs 

It I! 

" cubic meter 

exploited 15,67 41.64 

Net " hectare 38.91 78.76 

" " cubic meter expl&ited 10.31 14.92 

Bat 1 1 e s end Fl o o dc 

It is reported that as a result of the devastation of the water- 
shed of the Meuse luring the battles on the heights of the Mouse region,' 
floods in the river have become greater and more frequent. Since 1920 
the river has been in flood four times. Reforestation is advocated as. 
a means cf reducing the lander. 


Chemi cal Uti lization of Turpentine 

(Extract from a papjr by G. Lupont, technical director of the 
Pine Institute, Bordeaux, read at the Fifth Chemical Congress of Indus- 
trial Chemists cf France.) 

.»t the time of the Russo-Japanese War two products of turpentine, 
""bomeol" and "camphor," emerged from the laboratory to compete with 
natural camphor, of which Japan has a -monopoly. This was a happy circum- 
stance for the celluloid industry. [Camphor and soluble guncotton are- 
essential constituents of celluloid. — Ed.] Since that time, it is true, 
the Japanese producers have reacted powerfully and have sometimes tri- 
umphed over the synthetic products, but improvement in methods is giving 
these products a more and more favorable position in the market. Besides, 
as the realization on synthetic camphor amounts to only 50 per cent of 
what is theoretically possible, there is room for considerable progress 
in the production of synthetic camphor. 

.also the use of terpine in pharmacy has made a good beginning. 
Terpine is easily made by direct hydration of turpentine with the aid 
of acids. 

Finally, the manufacture of "terpineol," derived immediately from 
terpine, is becoming more and more important among manufactures of syn- 
thetic perfumes. In addition to "terpineol," the perfume industry 
uses some of its derivatives or the de. ivatives of "bomeol" with a dif- 
ferent odor, finer and mere penetrating, especially the acetates and the 
formiates of "bornyle" and "terpenyle." 

Ihese industrial products are enly a very small fraction of those 
which chemistry will obtain in the future as a result cf further study 
of the possibilities cf turpentine. 

For the industries actually in operation Bordeaux turpentine gives 
the best returns. Also, contrary to what is generally thought, of the 
two ordinary constituents of turpentine "nopinene" gives much better re- 
sults than "pinene." 

On account of the oxidation of the turpentine, it is desirable 
t6 treat it as soon as possible and therefore to locate the industries 
which use it near the place of production. For this reas©n the manufac- 
ture of bomeol and camphor and of terpine, terpineol, and their deriva- 
tives is already being carried on in the region of the Lon-ies. 



Richard T. Fisher, director of the Harvard Forest, has been elected 
a fellow of the Society of unerican Foresters. This honor ,. the high- 
est that can he conferred by the profession of forestry in i&ierica, 
has been awarded to only nine foresters since the grade was estab- 
lished in 1900. 

Dean Franklin Moon of the Hew York State College of Forestry, 
Syracuse University, was appointed by Governor Smith of New York to 
represent the State at the World's Forestry Congress in Rome. This 
is the 4ean t s sabbatical year, end after the congress he will travel 
extensively in Europe to study methods of forestry instruction. 

George W. Peavy, lean of the Forest School of the Oregon 
.agricultural College, went to the World's Forestry Congress as a 
representative of the Oregon State Board of Forestry. 

Samuel T. Dana, director of the Northeastern Forest Experi- 
ment Station, represented the Forest Service at the World* s Forestry 
Congress in Rome. He will spend four months in Europe, visiting the 
more important forest experiment stations in Austria, Czechoslovakia, 
Germany, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. William N. Sparhawk of the 
Washington office of the Forest Service was delegated to the congress 
by the Society of American Foresters. Other members of the service 
in attendance were John D. Guthrie, assistant district forester in 
charge of public relations of the North Pacific District, and George 
M. Hunt, chief of the section of wood preservation , in the Forest 
Products Laboratory. 


Roy L. Hogue of the Inter ior Lumber Co., Jackson, Miss., 
past-president of the Southern Forestry Congress, attended the 
World's Forestry Congress and before returning to this country 
will devote sorae time to a study of European forestry practice. 

Prof. Robert Craig, Jr., was accredited to the Y/orl^'s 
Forestry Congress as an official representative of the State of 
Michigan, the University of Michigan, and the Society of American 
Foresters. After the congress and the International Forestry 
Exhibition at Milan Professor Craig plans to visit representative 
forests and the leading forest schools of Switzerland, France, and 

Prof. J. A. Ferguson of the Pennsylvania State Forest School 
has' been appointed to the faculty of the' Yale Forest School as sub- 
stitute for Prof. H. H. Chapman during 1926-27, Professor Chapman* s 
sabbatical year* Professor Ferguson is the nominee for secretary- 
treasurer of the Yale Forest School alumni Association for the coming 

Ralph F. Wilcox has been appointed assistant State forester 
of Indiana, ^ftur graduation from the Pennsylvania School of' For- 
estry Mr. Wilcox served for a time as assistant district forester 
in Pennsylvania. He will take active charge of field forestry work 
in Indiana. 

Hon. John D. Clarke was elected president of the ifew York State 
Forestry dissociation at the annual meeting of thw association on Feb- 
ruary 25.. Mr. ^larke's place on the executive committee was filled 
by the. elect ion of Eon. Francis R. Masters, of th>j Tacoriic'Park Com- 
mission. 'A Vjice presidency was given to T. C. Luther of MedhaniCs- 
ville and Saratoga, the only individual tree planter of the State' who 
has reached the record of a million trees a season fo'r three consecu- 
tive seasons. 

De Courcy \7. Thorn was recently elected president of the Mary- 
land Forestry association. W. McCulloh Brown was reelected secretary, 


Paul R. Dunn is the newly appointed assistant to the State 
forester of Missouri in charge cf the development of a forest fire 
contrc~ plan for the Missouri Osarks. Mr. Dunn is a graduate of 
Iowa State College. 

William H« Stonehurner, formerly supervisor of the Unaka Na- 
tional Forest, on April 1 took up the duties of a district forester 
with the Virginia State Forestry Department, 

Doctor von Monroy, a German forester, is visiting the United 
States under a scholarship of the General Education Board to oetain 
information ahout .American forest conditions., forest organization, 
& 'd logging methods » 

l^he Allegheny Section cf the Society of American Foresters has 
elected the following officers for the coming y^ar; chairman, Co P. 
Wilbur, State forester of New Jersey; vice chairman, George H. Wirt, 
chief forest fire warden of Pennsylvania; secretary-treasurer, 
H. R. Condon, forester of the Pennsylvania Railroad,, 

A. A. Doppel, M. F« Cornell 1925, was recently appointed exten- 
sion forester for the State of Connecticut. His headquarters will he 
at the Storrs agricultural fjxperiment Station, Storrs, Conn. 

D. B. DeMorritt, at present an instructor in the University 
of Maine 9 has accepted the position of extension forester of Louisi- 
ana. He will take up the duties of his new position in the early 


James E. Davis, a recent graduate of the forestry department 
of the hew York State College of Agri culture, is serving on the staff 
of the college as an extension forester* 


Janes L. Averell, a graduate student at the Yale Forest 
School, has been awarded the Auer .lean— Scandinavian Fellowship and 
wil sail on June 1 for a year's study of forestry at Stockholm, 

H. Norton Cope, recently assistant supervisor of the Coconino 
National Forest, on April 1 took charge as supervisor of the Alabama— 
Beuning group of national forests. 

J. A. Groenewald, M. F. Cornell 1923, is now a member of the 
Forest Service of British South Africa with headquarters at Pietors- 


J. F. Aughinbaugh, a member of this year's graduating class of 
the New York State Forest School, has been appointed assistant instruc- 
tor in the forestry department of Cornell University. 

Late Announcement - Forester Wanted 

A forester is wanted from July 10 to August 28 to handle for- 
estry work at Camp Wauwepex for Boy Scouts on Deep Lake, Wading 
River, Long Island. There is a good salary attached, and the loca- 
tion is Ideal. 

John B. Cuno of the 'Washington office of the Forest Service 
would like to hear from foresters interested in this opening. 



Recent Boo ks and Pam phlets 

f< ' '■'■■ ..-..■■• t . 

Anderson, J., R, s„ Tr-Qea. anoXshiubs, food, medicinal and poisonous 
plants of British. Columbia. 165 pp. illus., map. Victoria, 
B. C. Dept. of Education, 1925. 

Blake, E. G. : Enemies .of timber; dry rot and the 'death-watch beetle. 
206 pp„ illus-, pi. Chapman & Hall, ltd. London, 1925. 

Putt rick, P. L-: Town forests and parks for Connecticut. 47 pp. 

illus. (Connecticut Forestry Association, Publication no. 15* ) 
New Haven, Conn.., 1925. 

Cajander, A. K. , and others- Vortrage uber die waldwirtschafi und 

for stwis sens chaft in Finnland. 132pp<. maps, tables. Helsinki, 

31925. » - ■• ." • • 

• * ■■ < ■ 
Crocker, D. A.: PuXpwocd in the Lake States. 64 pp. pi., maps, 

tables. (American P-uycx and Pulp Association. Woodlands 

section series no. •?*■) ' U. Y.,1926<> 

Crumley, j". J. ; Constructive forestry for the private owner. 322 pp„ 
illus. .She Macmillan' Co.- K- Y. v 1926. 

Henderson, H* L-; Pry kiln practice. 114 pp. illus. (Hew York State 
College of Forestry, Bulletin 16,} Syracuse, II. Y. , 1925. 

. Krawany, P.: Internationale papier statistik. 2nd edition. 421 pp. 
1' V/ien, Compass-verXag, 1925. 

Massachusetts r ?reo Wardens' and Foresters' Association. . Proceedings 
of the 15th .annual meeting,' Boston, Mass., Jan. 21, 1926, 

Moon, P., and Belyea, H. : C. :• Forestry for the private owner. 168 pp. 

illus. j, map. (New York State College of Forestry. Bulletin no. 15< 
Syracuse, K". Y. , 1925. 

National Lumber Manufacturers Association. Analysis of State forestry 
legislation with special reference to taxation. 45 pp. Wash. , 
D. C.j, 19.-25. 

New Hampshire - Forestry Dept* Forest laws of the State of New Hamp- 
shire in force Jaiu 1, 1926. 79 pp. Manchester, N. H. , 1926* 


Ifew York State College of Forestry, The Sew York State ranger school 
on the college forest at Wanakena, N. Y. 15 pp. illus. 
(Circular no. 44.) Syracuse, N. Y. , 1926. 

Pavari, A.; Relazione sulla attivita del la stazione sperimentale di 
selcicoltura dal 1 luglio, 1923 al 30 giugno, 1924. 14 pp. 
?ipografia di Mariano Ricci. Firenze, Italy, 1925. 

Pennsylvania - Dept. of Forests and Waters. In Perm's woods. 86 pp. 
illus. (Bulletin 31,- revised). Harrisburg, 1925. 

Quebec - Dept. of Lands and Forests. Report for the twelve months 
ended 30th June, 1925. 122 pp. tables. Quebec, 1925. 

Recknagel, A. B. , an i others: Forest management, 2d edition. 329 pp. 
illus., pi. , diagrs. J. Wiley & Sons, inc. N. Y. , 1926. 

Reed, P. LI. : Red pine in central New England; a preliminary study with 
volume and yield tables. 23 pp., pl», diagrs. (Harvard Forest. 
Bulletin no. 9.) Petersham, Mass., 1926. 

Roth, F. ; Forest regulation, or the preparation and development of work- 
ing plans, 2nd edition. 239 pp. (Vol. 1 of Mi cliigan manual of 
forestry.) Geo. Wahr. ^nn Arbor, Mich., 1925. 

Roth, F. ; Forest valuation, 2nd edition. 176 pp. diagrs. (vol. 2 of Mich- 
igan manual of forestry.) Geo. V/ahr. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1926. 

Southern lumberman's directory of American sawmills and planing mills, 
4th edition. 1,068 pp. Nashville, Cenn. , 1924. 

United States — Dept. of Agriculture - Federal Horticultural Board. 

Foreign plant diseases; a manual of economic plant diseases which 
ar-j new to or not widely distributed in the United States, pre- 
pared by J. A. Stevenson. 198 pp. Wash*, D. C, 1926. 

United States - National Forest Reservation Commission. Report for 

the year ending Juno 30, 1925. 34 pp. pi. Wash., D. C, 1926. 

Washington Forest Fire Association. Eighteenth annual report, 1925. 
34 pp. illus. Seattle, Wash., 1925. 


— • ■ '■' • '-■■ ■"' ' ■ Articles in Pe riodicals 

-American forests and forest life, Fob. 192ft. ~ The grazing menace on 
our national forests, by II. II. Chapman, pp. 85-88. 

Bulletin de la Societe centrals fcrestiete 1 ' de' Belgique, Jan, , 1926.- 
La disette de bois clans lo monde et le placement des eapitaux en 

••■ -foret, by N. J-j -Crahay, pp. 17-25. 

Bulletin of the Pan American Union, Liar. 1926,- Tropical forestry and 
research, by I J Gill; pp. 241-251. 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Jan., 1926.- ilotes on Tilia, by 
. • U. W. Ashe, pp. 27-§3« 

Empire Forestry Journal, 1925. - Sand dune reclamation in Palestine, by 
F»- J. Tear, pp. 24-38 j Forest management and preparation of work- 
ing plans in Burma, by H. R. Bianford, pp. 54-65; The development 
of forest policy in British Columbia, by P. Z. Caverhill, pp. 66-75; 
Afforestation methods in New Zealand, by LI. Sutherland, pp. 245-50. centralblatt, Jan. 1, 1926.- Die grundlagen der 
forstlichun betriebssystem, by J. Eberhard,' pp. 13—31. 

Journal of Forestry, Feb. 1926. - The public relations of forestry, by 
J. D. Guthrie, pp. 114-128; Thirty-five years of national forest 
growth, by E. A. Sherman, pp. 129-135;' Private forestry, by B. 
• . T. Mason and C. S. Chapman, pp. 16G-170. ' 

Journal of Forestry, Kar. 1926. - 2he interdependence of utilization 

and silviculture, 'by E. H« Clapp, pp. 226-232; The role of utiliza- 
tion in a national forest policy, by C. P. Y/inslcw, pp. 233-236; 
Recent developments in forest prolucts research in relation to 
forestry, by J. D. Rue, pp. 237-242; The forest fire situation 
in New England, by A. F. 'Hawes, pp.. 250-259; Analysis of direct 
seeding methods, by VJV M»- Robertson, pp. 260-264; Natural repro- 
duction after forest fires - in northern Idaho, by J. A. Larsen, pp. 

Missouri Botanical Garden Bulletin, Feb. 1926. - The conifers of Mis- 
souri, pp. 25-34. 

Outdoors Pictorial, Mar. 1926. — Be creation in the national forests, by 
V. B. Greeley; pp. 23-26.' 

Paper Mill and Viood Pulp Hews, Feb. 13, 1926. -Present state of Canada* s 
pulpwool resources, by R. D. Craig, pp. 14, 16, 30, 42. 


Paper Mill and Wood Pulp Hews, Pel). SL7, 1926, - The South is in earnest 
about reforestation, by V/» • L. Hall, pp. 42, 44, 204; Organizing for 
forest management in the southern Appalachians, "by w", J. Damtoft, 
pp. 78*j*82. 

Paper Trade Journal, Feb. 25, 1926. - British Columbia's pulp wood re- 
sources, by F. Giolma, pp. 101-102. 

Proceedings of the Louisiana Engineering Society, Dec. 1925. — V/hat we 
don't know about southern trees, by R. D. Forbes, pp. 242-251. 

Pulp and Paper Magazine of Canada, Jan. 21, 1926. - Causes and effects 
of windfall in forests, by 0. Schierbeck, pp. 85-90. 

Reclamation and Farm Engineering, Feb. 1926. - Effect of drainage of 
swamps upon forest growth, by R. Zon, pp. 33-37, 42. 

Scientific .American, Feb. 1926. - The standing stone forests of Wyoming, 
by G. E. Mitchell, pp. 98-99. 

Societe forestiere de Frariche-Comte. Bulletin trimestriel, Dec. 1925. - 
Technique de coupes d 1 amelioration, by A. Schaeffer, pp. 199-202. 

Timberman, Feb. 1926. - New method of pinu brush disposal, by R. H. 
West veld, pp. 114-15; Permanent lumber operation in the South, 
^y W. L. Hall, pp. 186, 188. 

U. S. Commerce Report, Feb. 8, 1926. - 'The paper trade of the United 
States during 1925, pp. 331-332; United States foreign trade in 
lumber in 1925, by A. Marlowe, pp. 341-342. 

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural Research, Ho v. 1, 
1925. - Methods of stimulating germination of western white pine 
seed, by J. A. Larsen, pp. 889-899. 

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural Research, Ho v. 15, 
1925. - Longevity of the teliospores and accompanying uredospores 
of Cronartium ribicola Fischer in 1923, by P. Spaulding and A. 
Rathbun-Gravatt, pp. 901-916; Some possible errors in the use of 
curves, iby D. Bruce, pp. 923-928; A preliminary study of the growth 
of noble fir, by E. J. Hanzlik, pp. 929-934, 

U. 3. Dept. of agriculture* Journal of agricultural research, Dec. 
15, 1925. - Studies in western yellow pine nursery practice, by 
D. R. Brewster and J. A. Larsen, pp. 1101-1120; Yield capacities 
of the pure yellow pine type on the east slope of the Sierra Hevada 
Mountains in California, oy S. B. Show,, pp. 1121-1135. 


U, S. Dept. of Agriculture. Journal of agricultural research, Mar. 

15, 1926o - A. method of preparing tiiiber-yield tables, "by D. Bruce, 
pp. 543-557; The ie termination of increment in cut-over stands of 
western yellow pine in Arizona,, oy H* Krauch, pp„ 501-541- 


**R . 




t 1 ' 




College Library 

September, 1926. 




September, 1926 

Published "bimonthly by the Forest Service, 
U. S, Department of Agricultuie, Washington, D. C, 



Announcements 3-4 

State forestry departments and organisations. ...... 5-12 

Education and extension 13-18 

Forest Service notes 19-28 

General forest news 29-38 

Foreign notes 39-44 

Personals 45-48 

Bibliography 49-55 



3 Mf " ' " ■ ■ V : ' haoa 

The twenty-first annual meeting of the Empire State Forest Prod- 
ucts Association and the second New York State wood-utilization confer- 
i nee will be combined ax Ithaca, N 1 . Y. , on October ?, The meetings will 
he held -under the auspices of the department of forestry of Cornell 
University. The program, as tentatively ai i d. Includes trips to the 
university woodlota and plantations and to three State parks, and open 
forum discussions of the farm woo&lot as a potential producer of timber. 
Inquiries in regard to the meeting should be directed to A* B. Recknagel, 
Secretary, Empire State Forest Products Association, 5SE Broadway, Albany, 

Small ""^'il p3j -ation at Syracuse 

The New York Sta 4 • College of try -:nse v N. Y. , invites 
the public to it 11 demonstration, October 14 and 15. 

Eow to obtain the mar.: , amount of the higher grades of lumber from the 
different types of 1c zi l hov; to cs re for and dispose of such lumber 
will be the subject of c : i "J ■ ation. Afterwards an 

effort will be male to oi ■ a perm lent state-wide association of 
snail timber land v a and operators for the purpose of obtaining better 
prices for the products oi the small woodlot. 

Portable Sawm ill Pern ens \ ~ r a;* - j o n at Pennsy Iran ? a S tat e 

A portable sawmill demonstration is to be held at Pennsylvania 
State College, Soto' .r 25-23, for which several new features are planned, 
In addition to the electric rooter and gasoline power used in previous 
exhibits, a steam unit and one ^r more types of so-called industrial 
units will be used, As in previous years sawing foi grade will be: empha- 
sized, and instruction will be given in filing and fitting saws and in 
estimating woodlot timber. 


Pennsylv ania Cop serra tion geek at the Sesquic entonnial 

The week September 27-Qctober 2 has "been designated "by the Penn- 
sylvania Sesquioontennial Coimjission as Conservation Week, and will be 
marked "by special observances in the Pennsylvania B\ii]ding, Sesquicen- 
tennial Grounds, Philadelphia. H Y. S.fcy&ri, secretary of the Pennsyl- 
vania Department of Forests and Waters, announces that a special con- 
servation program will he carried cv ■„ on each, day of the week and that 
interest will ho f ceased as mush as possible on the department's natural 
resources exhibit. 

^-^■giP 1 ^-" ^ 0:f T im ber Gr owing and logging P ract ice in the Cali fornia 
Pi ne Regi on (U. 3, Department of Agriculture Bull7tlnT402 ) is now ready 
for distribution. Those desiring copies can obtain them by writing to the 
U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C 



An effort to se~a the forest w alth of Florida is "being made by 
the Florida Forestry Association with the help of tie U„ S. Forest Serv- 
ice. Harry L* Bet-er of the Forc c -t r ice this sn: made an investi- 
gation of . p co Lti " .3 Li : - 19 State, worki g first with the Flor- 
ida Beautifical 0:1 I Fo" ec-tj / Si ty ai 1 later with the Florida For- 
estry Association. I v, .y results or this study, which was made under the 
provisions of Section 1 of the C larhe-t'cI'Tary Act, will be rood by the 
association in ep-" .op to re :ommev.d a State forestry policy to the 
legislature when it convenes in April, 1327. 

Florida has the climate and the soil for marvelous timber produc- 
tion, and its pines reproduce abundantly. Practically all cut-over areas 
in the State that have been kept absolutely free from, fire are fully stocked, 
But areas that have been so protected are extremely rare. Of the 17,600,000 
acres included in the State's pine region, it is estimated, at least 75 
per cent is burned over every year, and not more than 10 per cent ever 
escapes fire for three years in succession. Soil injury from fires has 
caused much of the former jJor-gleaf and slash pine area to revert to an 
undesirable forest type consisting of such specie" as scrub oak and sand 
pine. It is estimated that there are 683,000 acres of "scrub" lands in 
the State, a large portion of them in the r^dp:^ suction. largely be- 
cause of soil impoverishment by fire more than 3,000,000 acres have 
reached a state of devastation that classes them as barren land. On the 
12,000,000 acres of second-growth, pine forest only one tree is grcv.'ing 
where three should grow, and in consequence of repeated burning the young 
trees are retarded in growth and weakened by fire scars. 

Industries dependent on the forest rank among the most important 
in Florida. Until a few years ago the lumber industry led all others in 
the State, and it continues to moan more in dollars and cents than any 
other manufacturing industry. The 1925 production was worth $45,000,000, 
which is 21 per cent of the value of all products manufactured in the 
State during that year. In 1923, the latest year for which employment 
figures are available, this industry employed 22,256 persons and paid 
more than $18,000,000 for salaries, wages, and contracted work. 

For 15 years, since the naval stores industry was virtually extin- 
guished in the Carolinas, Florida has led the Union in the production of 
turpentine and rosin. Its crude gum distillation plants number 429. 


Florida's output of naval stores in 1910 exceeded that of all the other 
States combined, and in 19S5 constituted 36 per cer-t of the Nation's 
production. In the latter year the r^c&al stores operators of the State 
employed more than 14,000 people, paying salaries and wages aggregat- 
ing $10,000,000. 

The demand for wood for bc v .ps in wh\ch to ship Florida oranges 
and grapefruit has quadrupled since 1905. At least 16,000,000 b:>xes 
are now used for this purpose each year, She chipping of a year's crop 
of tomatoes, celery, lettuce, and other vegetables requires 8,000,030 
hampers and 12,000,000 crates, So Florida fruit growers and truck 
gardeners are using 160,000,000 "board feet of lumber a year. 

Thirteen other industries and trades of importance in Florida 
depend entirely upon the forest* Planing mills, separate from lumber 
mills, annually manufacture products worth $7 ,700,000. The business of 
producing railroad ties, posts, poles, piling, and timbers for use on 
farms amounts in a year to more than $9,000,000. The wo cd-dist illation, 
wo cd-pre serration, shipbuilding, cooperage, furniture, and wagon-works 
industries are worth mare than fe4,000 6 000 a year. There are 400 lumber 
yards in operation and 11,000 crrpenters and cabinet makers at work in 
the State. The grand total of 16 forest- dependent industries and trades 
accounts for the subsistence of 25 per cent of the State's population. 

With all its natural advantages for timber growing, Florida hardly 
more than meets its own lumber requirements, normally about 1^ billion 
feet a year. If the State continues to develop its industries and to 
neglect forest protection as at presort, it may reasonably be predicted, 
its consumption of lumber will increase annually by an average of 5 per 
cent of what it is now and its lumber production will recede in about the 
same proportion. 

Several civic and commercial organisations of Florida have shown 
interest in forestry matters, notably the Florida Federation of Women's 
Clubs, the Florida Chamber of Commerce, the stockmen's association, the 
realty board, and the Koo Hoo Club. The Pine Institute of America is im- 
pressing the people of the State with the need for safeguarding their 
naval stores industry through better turpentining methods and forest fire 
protection. The forestry investigation in which the State and the Fed- 
eral Government recently cooperated disclosed a live interest in the sub- 
ject among the people of the State, J. G. Peters, who directs the State 
cooperative work of the U. S. Forest Service, in a recent visit to Florida 
during which he gave a forestry talk by radio from Jacksonville met with 
fine response from representative citizens and from the press. Good hope 
is entertained by the friends of forestry that Florida may sotn join the 
ranks of the 40 States that have made forest protection a special func- 
tion of State government. 

Important Chanff e_s_ in Louisiana C onservation lav ? 

The General Forest Conservation law of Louisiana has been changed 
in important particulars through Act No. 153, signed by Governor Fuqua 
on July 8. It now requires that lumber or naval stores operators leave 
at least two unbled seed trees per acre for c^evy 10-acre plot, the act 
defining "seed tree" as "a healthy tree of the variety being cut or bled 
not less than 10 inches in diameter?. 4-g- feet from the ground." The law 
formerly required that an average of one tree per acre be left for every 
section of land; but this requirement was ineffective because it was made 
inapplicable to land which the. owner should declare to be susceptible of 
agricultural use and intended for sale or development as such. The sec- 
end change in the law provides for an additional member on the general 
forestry governing board, to be appointed by the governor from the mem- 
bership of the Louisiana State Park: Association. The board at present 
consists of the commissioner of conservation and four appointive members 
including two timber owners, cne farm land owner interested in farm land 
reforestation, and the professor of forestry in the Louisiana State Univer- 
sity. The third change permits the purchase 'of land for State forests at 
an average price per acre not exceeding $10, which formerly was the maxi- 
mum price per acre allowed, and the expenditure of $1,000 for lands for a 
State nursery. 

During its recent session the Louisiana Legislature adopted a joint 
resolution (Act No. 162) proposing an amendment to the constitution to fix. 
the limit of the severance tax in reforestation contracts; to grant a por- 
tion of this tax to the parishes; and to validate and ratify other refor- 
estation legislation passed at the 1926 session. This amendment would 
authorize the legislature to fix the limit of the severance tax that might 
be levied on forest products grown under reforestation contracts, and would 
grant three-fourths of the severance tax to the parish in which the opera- 
tion took place. It would also extend the maximum contract period from 40 
to 50 years. This amendment is to be submitted to the voters of the State 
in the elections of November, 1926. The present' law does not provide for 
any limitation on the severance tax or for payment of a portion of it to 
the parish. Consequently, State Forester Kine says, police juries have 
been reluctant to grant reforestation contracts. 

Act No. 120, which would be validated and ratified by the adoption 
of the proposed constitutional amendment, wotild for the present fix the 
severance tax on forest products grown under reforestation contracts at 6 
per cent. 

The annual appr o priation of the Division of forestry, Louisiana De- 
partment of Conservation, for the fiscal year 1927 is $80,000 as compared 
with $60,000 for the fiscal year 1926. 


Program of Pennsylvania's State. Forest Nurseries 

The annual output of planting stock from the State forest nurseries 
of Pennsylvania has reached the 10,000,003 mark, but still falls short of 
the demand. A new nursery, known as the Milton Forest Tree Nursery, is 
being developed on a 102-acre farm on the Susquehanna Trail about two miles 
south of Lewisburg, Pa., which was purchased by the State last fall, and 
the State bureau of forest extension hopes by 1930 to be producing 20,000,000 
instead of 10,000,000 trees a year. The species chosen, the number of trees 
of each species to be produced each year, and the annual seed requirements 
are as follows: 

Number of trees 

Species to be -produced Seeds required 

White pine 
Red pine 
Pitch pine 
Norway spruce 
Japanese larch 
Other conifers 
Red oak 
Wfct-U ash 
Black locust 
Black walnut 
Other hardwoods 












900 pounds 






350 bushels 

300 pounds 

120 " 

500 bushels 

125 pounds 


If poor seed years, labor troubles, or weather conditions make it im- 
possible to obtain the desired species, substitutes will be chosen from 
among Scotch pine, Japanese red pine, Austrian pine, white spruce, balsam 
fir, European larch, tulip poplar, and shellbark hickory. 

Unite pine, red pine, and Norway spruce will be shipped from the 
nurseries when 3 years old; pitch pin^, Scotch pine, Austrian pine, and 
larch when 2 years old; and hardwoods when 1 and 2 years old. For plant- 
ing on areas that are covered with a heavy sod or a dense growth of weeds 
it is desired to grow from 500,000 to 1,000,000 2-1 and 2-2 transplants of 
white pine, red pine, and Norway spruce. 

The capacity of the Louisiana State forest nursery has been enlarged 
from 1,000,000 to 4,000,000 trees. In this nursery, which is located at 
Woodruff, la., both longleaf and shortleaf pines and various native hard- 
wood seedlings are being produced for distribution to farmers and other 
landholders of the State. 


N ew Municipal -Forest -Plant inp; in New York Sta te 

An unusual number of municipal forests will be started in New York 
thjg. fall, the State conservation commission predicts on the basis of ord- 
ers received for planting stock. Before the end of July the commission 
had received orders from 9 municipalities for a total of 301,000 trees. 
This demonstrates on a smaller, scale the new interest in forest planting 
shown by the State's municipalities this spring, when they more than 
doubled their plantings of the spring of 1925. 

The 98 fall order?- from planters of all types granted by the commis- 
sion on or before July 15 aggregated 930,. 000 trees. Fail shipments from 
the State nurseries are especxed to exceed greatly those of any previous 
year. The trees available for fall planting include several varieties that 
the commission could not furnish this spring. The complete list is as fol- 
lows: White pine transplants ard seedlings, Norway spruce transplants and 
seedlings, white spruce seedlings, white cedar seedlings, black locust soed- 
lings, Carolina poplar cuttings, balsam seedlings, and European larch. 

North Carolina Forest Service Completes its- First Fire Tower 

The first fire lookout tower erected by the North Carolina Forest 
Service has just been completed on Cameron Kill, in Earnett County. Dis- 
trict Forester K. E. Kimball and his wardens designed and built it, with 
generous local cooperation. The expense of building the tower and about 50 
miles of connecting telephone lines was met from the dues of local members 
of the Cape Fear Forest Protective Association and from Federal cooperative 
funds. The corner supports of the tower are 63- foot juniper poles 8 inches 
in diameter at the upper end, and its braces are heart longleaf pine. It is 
sunk 4 feet in very hard soil, with heavy dead men bolts across the base 
of the poles on two sides. Creosote treatment given the base is believed 
to guarantee the tower's usefulness for at least 15 years. The 8 by 8 foot 
cabin surmounting the tower is glassed all around. On. fairly clear days it 
commands a view of objects 15 to 17 H&les distant, and its average effective 
range is estimated at about 10 miles. 

A cooperator of the Pennsylvania Department of Fore s ts and Waters 
is the Anthracite Forest Protective Association. Organized in 1917, this 
association now has 75 active and 158 associate members and operates 
throughout the anthracite region, having 124,217 acres entered. In coop- 
eration with the State department it erected the first steel lockout towers 
in the anthracite region. 


Maryland Ilurs erv to Exp and 

The Maryland Department of Forestry plans to increase the output of 
its forest nursery to 1,000,000 within the next three years. A recent in- 
ventory of the nursery showed 250, 0GO softwood and 150,000 hardwood trees 
available for forest planting this fall and next spring, also about 9,000 
larger trees suitable for roadside planting. The trees are sold at cost to 
residents of the State. 

The strongest demand upon the nursery at present is for loblolly 
pine to be planted on abandoned farm lands in the La stem Shore and south- 
ern Maryland sections. In the western part of the State white pine and 
red pine are the. most popular forest species. 

Tree Seedlings for Idaho Farms 

More than 80,000 seedlings were distributed to Idaho farmers during 
the spring of 1926 as part of the cooperative planting work being done in 
the State under the provisions of the Clarke-McKary Act. Most of this 
planting stock had been grown from seed and was furnished to the farmers at 
approximately half cost. It included the following numbers of seedlings of 
the five species used: 

Elack locust 64,000 

Willow and poplar 9 , 000 

Western yellow pine 3,000 

Western white pine 3,000 

Western red cedar 3,000 

Requests were received for many more trees than the nursery of the 
State university could supply, and it is planned to increase the output 
next year. 

About ,. 200,00 acr^s of timiherland in Tennessee is now protected from 
fire under the cooperative plan announced by the State forestry division 
less than a year ago. The owners deposit 1 cent per acre per year and 
the State contributes the same amount. The individual holdings vary in 
size from 40 to more than 40,000 acres. Most of the lands listed lie in 
the Cumberland Mountains. 

Tenness ee had a more favorable forest fire season this s pring: than 
last. Turing the period January 1-June 30, 1926, 706 fires occurred, 
burning over an average of 175 acres apiece. Last year during the same 
period there were 839 fires, with an average area of 193 acres burned. 


Texas FoTestrv Problems- , . 

(Fro™ Texas Forest Tacts, published by the State forestry department) 

The main forestry problems of T-^xas are concerned with measures to 
stimulate reforestation work and with management cf existing timber 
stands in the comaeTcial timber belt of east Texas, which includes rough- 
ly 40 counties with an area of about 20,000,000 acres. The virgin pine 
timber, which originally covered 14,000,000 acres, has been reduced to 
about 1,300,000 acres and is being cut at the rate of about 200,000 seres 
a year. More than 3,000,000 acres is not restocking, and an additional 
1,500,000 acres has only a poor stand of second growth coming on. 

It is estimated that with adequate fire protection at least 80 per 
cent of the nonsgricultural cut-over lands in East Texas would reforest 
naturally. Forest and grass fires are charged with being the main cause 
of the failure of cut-over lands to restock; the average piney woeds grass 
fire making almost a clean sweep of trees less than a year old. Careless- 
ness on the part of the general public is the chief cause of fires in the 
Texas woods, and special emphasis is placed on educational v£>rk by the 
State forestry department. 

A State forest located in each of the three principal pine regions 
of east Texas serves as a demonstration of methods of reforestation and the 
growing of timber on a sustained-yield basis » 

The fir st^orest_fi re o bs ervatio n tower in Texa s was erected this 
year on the Kirbyville State Forest. It is of steel construction, and 80 
feet In height. Situated on a high knoll, it gives an unobstructed view 
of the country in all directions. Smoke from mills 25 to 30 miles distant 
can be seen with the naked eye. 

In building this tower the Texas Forestry Department had the coop- 
eration of the Federal Government under the Clarke -McNary Act. 

In forest fire f iphtinp in the l ak e State s the State rangers are 
beginning to use water carried to the fire in galvanized iron tanks load- 
ed on trucks. Hanger LicDonald of Gordon, Wis., once this spring fought 
a fire from 10 a, m. to 5 p. m. with a small crew of men using a 3-barrel 
tank of water loaded on a truck. Five gallon hand pumps were kept in 
practically continuous operation, with the result that the fire was not 
only sur r ound e d but moppe d up . 



Pointers o n Logging Small Timber 

Extension foresters in several States are taking special interest 
in passing on to forest land owners and lumbermen a set of pointers on 
the wastefulness of logging small trees, based on the studies of W. W» 
Ashe of the U. S. Forest Service. For example, R. W. Graeber, extension 
forester of North Carolina, has distributed 1,000 copies of this material 
to farmers and small sswmill operators in his territory. The list as 
prepared for distribution by the extension forester of the Forest Serv- 
ice is as follows: 

It requires more than twice as long to fell and cut up 1,000 
feet mill cut in trees 8 inches in diameter as it does in trees 
25 inches in diameter. 

It requires three times as long to skid 1,000 feet of lumber 
in logs 8 inches in diameter as in logs 20 inches in diameter. 

It requires four times as long to load 1,000 feet in logs 
10 inches in diameter as in logs 20 inches in diameter. 

It requires more than twice as long to saw up into lumber 
1,000 feet from logs 8 inches in diameter as from iogs 20 inches 
in diameter. 

tJf equal significance is, the relative value of the lumber cut 
from trees of different sizes. Shortleaf North Carolina pine 10 
inches in diameter produces lumber selling at §26 a thousand. At 
20 inches in diameter, the lumber sells, for ^52 a thousand. Yellow 
poplar 10 inches in diameter produces lumber selling for ^29 a 
thousand. At 33 inches in diameter, the lumber sells at the rate 
of $48 a thousand, Red oak 15 inches in diameter produces lumber 
selling for $28 a thousand. At 25 inches in diameter, the lumber 
sells for $37 a thousand. The same is true of maple and birch; it 
is likewise true of West Coast timber. The differences are most 
significant with the high cost of logging in general, and with the 
higher cost of logging small timber the differences are trebly sig- 
nificant, for the operating value of the stumpage of the smaller 
timber is often negative. 

Copies of this list of logging pointers are available upon appli- 
cation to the U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C. 


Forestry and the Boy 
Ey John B. Cuno, U. S. Forest Service 

T mmrifVr wiiat advantage has boon taken "by foresters during the 
unrnmo-r just passed of the opportunity to teach hoys in camps che prin- 
ciples of fores : ;iy. Of course seme foresters have given talks, described 
forest fires, and offered help with tree identification; hut how many 
have made any continued effort to teach hoys what forestry really means? 
I have in mind some who have spent thoir vacations at this work, hut they 
are few indeed compared to the people who have devoted their vacations to 
teaching nature work. No one will deny that nature work is mighty fine 
work; hut it does not have behind it the usefulness to the Nation that 
forestry has. 

Foresters everywhere have an excellent opportunity during the sum- 
mer at boys' camps, which are ideal fcr forestry teaching, to put before 
the youth of the Nation our great need for forests. 'No one else is going 
to take the bull by the horns. It is up to foresters. Hence, in think- 
ing over what you are going to do next summer why not plan to give a 
month or two to handling the forestry work at some boys* camp. Or, if 
you can not do that, prepare a program during the winter months that can 
be followed at a bcyo* camp, possibly under the supervision of a forest- 
school student you may select. 

Also, what about the feasibility of making use of boys during the 
summer in 3 ookout work, fire fighting, and trail building? It seems to 
me that there are tremendous possibilities in combining such work with 
teaching the boys something of the first principles of forestry. 

Forestry on the Chautauqua Circuit in the Northwest 

Chautauqua audiences in 14 towns of Oregon and Washington were ad- 
dressed this summer on the subject of cooperative forestry. The Ellison- 
White Chautauqua Service introduced as the speakers on its fourth-night 
program Hon. W. V. Fuller, representing the Western Forestry and Con- 
servation Association, and George E. Griffith of the Portland office of 
the U. S. Forest Service. 'The forestry program, for which an excellent 
musical prelude was provided, consisted of an address and an illustrated 
lecture in which about 100 slides were used, showing forest resources, 
timber growing, forest fires, fire fighting, and fire prevention. On 
one occasion the Western Forestry and Conservation Association's motion 
picture "Forest Protection and Prosperity" was shown also. These Chau- 
tauqua lectures, which reached an. estimated total of 9,000 people and 
were very well received, were a continuation of the forest-protection cam- 
paign initiated by these men in Oregon in February. 


Forestry for Mississippi Schools 

State Forester Eogue of Mississippi plans to have the educational 
provisions of the Mississippi Forestry lav; put into effect early this 
fall, under the direction of a State supervisor of forestry education. 
The law directs State and county "boards of public education to intro- 
duce the study of forestry in all the public schools and colleges of the 
State and to provide for the celebration of Arbor Day by all public 
schools. It also directs the State forestry commission to encourage 
public interest in forestry through lectures and through the preparation 
and distribution of informational material. Arrangements are pending 
looking to the engagement of Mrs. Daisy Priscilla Edgerton, assistant 
editor of the Office of the Secretary of Agriculture, as State super- 
visor of these educational activities. Mrs. £dgerton taught for a 
number of years in the public schools of South Carolina, and has been 
connected with the U. S. Department of Agriculture for 18 years. During 
13 years of this period she v:as in the U. So Forest Service, where her 
activities included editorial work and educational cooperation^ particu- 
larly three years'" cooperation with the schools of the District of Colum- 
bia and a detail to the State of South Carolina at the request of the 
governor for a woman cooperator with, schools, colleges, and women* s clubs, 

Beys' Club Work a Great Success in Louisiana 

Boys' reforestation club work is remarkably popular in Louisiana. 
The annual enrollment has grown to about 600, and is limited to that 
number only because members of the State forestry organization can not 
give more time to the club work. As it is, many of the boys have carried 
a season's work to completion without the encou.ragement of even a second 
visit from an agent of the State forestry division. Grades are given to 
the boys, and prizes awarded, on the basis of their handling of forested 
plots, including protection and thinning, or their planting of plots of 
idle land. In 1925, State prizes of from $1(3 to $2.50 v?ere given out to 
180 boys and parish prizes of from $4 B 50 to fl.00 went to 82 boys. Con- 
tributions tomrd the prizes included $500 from the Great Southern Lumber 
Co., $100 from the Southern Pine Association, and $45 each from the Lumber 
Trade Journal and from Washington, St. Tammany, and Tangipahoa Parishes. 

State Forester Fine says that the efforts of the State forestry 
organisation, particularly in fire protection, are meeting with noticeably 
better results in the areas around most of the boys' club plots. Ee gives 
a large share of the credit for the success of the reforestation club 
work to the school authorities and tea-chers of the Sta,te, which was one of 
the first to provide for forestry instruction in the public schools. 


Porta ble S&wai ll Lemcnstratfton j n Connection-':; 

The first portable sawnill demonstration at a New England college 
was held August 5 and 6 at Connecticut Agricultural College, Storrs, 
Conn., as a feature of the forestry program of the annual farmers' week. 
The attendance averaged 150. Two portable mills of different makes were 
used, and several different power units. Logs cut from the college wood- 
lot and representing the product of the average Connecticut woodlot were 
sawed into 8/4 and 4/4 stock. Talks were given "by representatives of 
mill and saw manufacturers on the use of their products, a member of the 
National Hardwood lumber Association demonstrated lumber grading by the 
association's methods, and Prof. R. C. Bryant of the Yale Forest School 1 
lectured on "Southern New England Lumber and Its Future." 

Cooperative- 'Products Study in Idaho 

The School of Forestry of the University of Idaho and the Western 
Pine rianufacturers' Association have entered into a cooperative agreement 
for carrying on research, mainly with, regard to improvements in the use 
of wood products, durability, moisture content in relation to decay and 
stain, and new commercial uses. Also the forestry school is to cooperate 
in the study of the performance of "pondosa" pine (western yellow pinej 
in service which is being conducted by the manufacturers 7 association. 

T ■ 

With the opening of the fall semester the school of forestry will 
concentrate on preparations for research into some of the problems of 
the lumber industry in Idaho. 

i I' 

A forestry department is being organized in the School of Agricul- 
ture of Purdue University. B. N. Prentice, formerly jjrofessor of biol- 
ogy i heads the new department and has already begun forestry experiments 
on the university's farm near Farmland, Ind. 

The arboretum established by the Pennsylvania State Forest School 
in 1925 was enlarged in area this spring and received a number of new 
specimen trees. Among the trees planted were European white birch, 
Japanese black pine, Austrian pine, Pinon pine, bald cypress, high and 
low altitude Douglas fir, Hercules' club s umbrella magnolia, Chinese var- 
nish tree, Russian olive, and species of Populus, Juglans, and Aes cuius. 
Seed of 57 varieties from Japan and 13 from the Pacific coast was sown 
at the same time in the nursery beds. 


Idaho Forestry G rad uates Stick to Forestry 

A canvass of the alumni of the School of Forestry of the Univer- 
sity of Ddaho has shown that after graduation practically every one of 
them engaged in forestry work for a time and that 72 per cent are so en- 
gaged at present. Every man in the class of 1926 is going into forestry 
work or graduate study in forestry. Speaking of opportunities for em- 
ployment this year the Idaho Forester states that "every member of the 
senior class had a good job before he graduated and every available un- 
dergraduate was placed for the summer well before the close of the year." 

A Study in Short Length s 

A study of the utilization of short lengths will be made by the 
department of research in lumber retailing of Antioch College, Yellow 
Springs, Ohio, under the direction of T. F. Laist. The study was re- 
quested by the National Committee on Wood Utilisation of the Department 
of Commerce, and will be made with the cooperation of its subcommittee 
on waste prevention. Attention will be centered on finding new markets 
for short lengths and educating the public to the need for using this ma- 
terial. An attempt will be made to estimate the percentage of waste in- 
volved in the use of long lengths when short lengths might be used. It 
is hoped also that the investigation will reveal what the spread in price 
between long and short lengths should be. 

The Univer sit y of Minne sota, through the Cloquet Experiment Station, 
is cooperating with the Lake States Experiment Station in preparing for 
publication the volume tables for the important timber species of Minne- 

Forest plantations were begun or enlarged by 47 schools of Kew York 
State this spring. Frank ?. Craves, commissioner of education, in pro- 
claiming Arbor Day had urged such plantings as a means of reducing or 
eliminating school taxes in rural communities where cheap land is abundant. 
The rural school districts planted 227,700 trees, more than seven times as 
many as in the spring of 1925., 

In the school forest of Watson, Lewis County, trees are planted at 
the rate of 10,000 a year. This forest will eventually cover 98 acres. 


Bo y Sco uts Ride , Their Own Fire Truck 

Boy Scouts of Glenbrook, Cona. , ride to forest fires on their 
arm, fire truck. In the Huly wooden Futmeg Frank Van Iderstyne, Deputy 
Scout Commissioner, writes as follows of their work this year: 

"The Glenbrook Scout Troop has put out 22 fires this season. The 
district fire warden has not "been present at any of these. While prac- 
tically all of these are marked "grass fires," they were fires in the 
edge of the woodland, and if the hoys hadn't patrolled and put out these 
fires quickly considerable woodland in this district would have been 
burned. In fact, several woodlands around Darien have been burned eveiy 
year, but this year the Scouts stopped the fires at the edge. 

"Mr. Irving, who furnished the truck, made a good investment. We 
saved his woods twice. 

"The boys have answered most of -chese calls alone." 

Twenty- five Bo:/ Scouts of Hartfor d. Conn,, this spring planted 
24,000 pines on the Mohawk State Forest. The beys camped on the forest 
for a week, the State paying for their board and supervision. Each 
scout planted an average of 152 trees a day for five days. 



Timb er-Growin g Possibilit ies on the Ouachita Nat l ong l_Fo_r : ?s_t 
By W. P. Greeley, Fores cer, U. S. Forest Service 

The old Arkansas HatiGnal Forest, now the Ouachita, seems to be 
commonly regarded as the prize stamping ground for c niggers, ticks, and 
woods burners » Fire indeed has played a fearsome role on the Ouachita. 
Host any western coniferous forest, burned as often as that region, 
wyuld long since have disappeared. But ycung shortleaf pine has a mar- 
velous staying and sprouting capacity, its Knobby roots shoot up afresh 
after every burning. The oaks and hickories are equally resistant. 
And so the forest has outlived its abuse. Thinned down and defective 
as most of the stands are, representing probably half of the possible 
crop, they give a wonderful promise of the yields obtainable under real 
protection and forest culture. Areas that have been without fire for 
twelve or fifteen years make a forester's mouth water. 

These Arkansas hills are the natural home of shortleaf pine — an 
abundant seed bearer, a tre« of rapid growth, and a producer of high- 
quality, soft-textured wood that has given "Arkansas shortleaf" a dis- 
tinctive place among the southern pines. As we pass beyond the time when 
fire plays the dominant role in the Arkansas woods, I look to see short- 
leaf pine extend itself much more widely and attain a growth rate of at 
least 300 board feet per acre per year. White oak and hickory will be- 
other staple products of the Ouachita. There is every sort of mixture 
from pure pine to pure oak. 

The defect in the present hardwood timber is the forest's toughest 
silvicultural problem. For this we have to thank three cr four genera- 
tions of woods burning. A mighty job of forest sanitation must be pfit 
through to get sound hardwoods in the future. This has been tackl«3& through 
a silvicultural improvement fund of $1 deposited for each 1,000 board 
feet cut under current sales. With this money the Forest Service fells 
defective hardwoods, particularly old wo lit trees. 

Practically all the pint stumpage on the Ouachita is in keen de- 
mand, Nearly the entire forest is susceptible of truck logging. Trx 
largest landowner in the neighborhood has adopted permanent forest man- 
agement. Others are likely to follow suit. There will be keen local 
Interest and competition in practicing the forester's art. There will 
be opportunity for forest management as intensive as the woods facts 
collected will permit. There are chances to work ovvt all sorts of useful 
silvicultural methods — the thinning of second-growth pine so as to g< t 




Fa:" r 

La nd 



24 , 400 

12 , 000 





UP, 100 


GO , 9 7-0 





is& s o:o 


Five grades of land or "site classes" were distinguished — excell* : , 
gcod, fair, poor, and very poor* LIuch of the "excellent" quality land 
is on the foothills ana has agricultural value. There is little of the 
last two classes except on sterile gravel plains. The height of the 
timber in consideration of its age is the handiest -way to fix the qual- 
ity of the site. 

The following table gives some of the principal results of tl Is 
growth study — the normal yield of fully stocked stands of various ages 
on the three best classes of laud, in hoard feet by Scribher's rule, 
assuming close and complete utilisation.. 

Yield—Board Feet 





Fa r e on the Nat ional Forest s, in the Nor thwest 

The worst fire weather on record in Oregon and Washington occurred 
in July of this year. Somewhat similar conditions cf low humidity, high 
temperature, and high winds contributed to roiling up the fire losses 
also in northern California, end particularly in Idaho and Montana, in 
July and August. In addition, lightning played a heavy role in starting 
fires. In one period of 10 days 519 out of 597 fires In Washington and 
Oregon were caused by lightning. Much of the fire loss In northern Cali- 
fornia is. charged to lightning sierras ,. 65 fires In' the Sierra Forest 
starting from a sjngle storm. In one day lightning storms set 97 fires 
on the Kanihsu Forest in Washington and Idaho. 

By August £0 the fires in northern California, Washington, Oregon, 
northern Idaho, and western Montana had covered more than 500,000 acres 
of national forest land. Fires outside the boundaries of the national 
forests added many thousands of acres to the burned area . 

At the worst period more than 5,000 men were employed by the For- 
est Service in fighting fires In Montana and northern Idaho. Neighboring 
labor markets were drained in the see rah for men and troops from Fort 
Missoula, Mont. s and Fort George Wr? 1 :., Wash., were called on to help. 
The cost of fighrr.g the fires on the national forests in this territory 
was more than $1,? 50, 000. 

F*jL^^J?b Norther n Pacific Land Grant Claim s 

The special joint committee of Congress investigating the North- 
ern Pacific Railway Co.. land grants convened on April 14 of this year 
and held hearings until June 23, when it adjourned for the summer. 
This was the second series of hearings held Toy this committee, the first 
having been held from March 18 to May 20, 1925, The committee, which in- 
cludes five Senators and five Representatives, was created under joint 
resolution of June 5, 1924, to hear testimony in connection with the 
claim of the Northern Pacific of a right to select approximately 
2,600,000 acres of land included in the national forests of Montana, 
Idaho, and Y/ashington and valued at about ^25,000,000. 

The testimony at these hearings, a digest of which is now being 
prepared for use of the committee when it reconvenes in December, seems 
to indicate that the railroad company has not complied with the terms^of 
its land grant from the Government. to an extent warranting its effort to 
acquire title to 2-§- million acres of national forest land. 

The timber busi ness tr ansacted on the national forests during the 
year ending June 30, 1926, surpassed in a notable degree the previous 
high mark established during the fiscal year 1924. As compared with 
that year's record there was a gain of 4*3 per cent in amount cut, 9 per 
cent in the contract value of timber cut, and 10.7 per cent in timber 
receipts. In both the first and the fourth quarter timber receipts went 
beyond the million mark, which they had not reached in any quarter of any 
preceding year. The total amount of timber cut on the national forests 
during the year was Ij, 192 ,517, 000 board feet, its contract value was 
$3,370,618, and receipts from timber sales and settlement were $3,352,088, 

The purchase of 14 1,6 ^5 a cres w.Vthi.n th e eastern national for ests 
was authorized by the National Forest Reservation Commission during 1926, 
bringing the total area of these purchased forests to 2,709,103 acres. 
The largest purchase and the largest total area in any one State author- 
ized for purchase during the year was 58,530 acres in the Allegheny unit 
in Pennsylvania. Others of notable size were 36,704 acres in the Unaka 
and Cherokee Forests in Tennessee and 22,654 acres in the Ouachita and 
Ozark Forests in Arkansas. Purchases were authorized also in Virginia, 
West Virginia, Georgia, North and South Carolina, Alabama, Maine, and 
New Hampshire. 


Attempts to Solve a Nati on al Forest Game Problem 
By Will C. Barnes, U. S. Forest Service 

On the basis of several court decisions the States have claimed 
full jurisdiction ever all game animals within their boundaries whether 
on public or on private land, not excepting national forests, national 
paries, national monuments, or even national game refuges. This claim 
has been surrendered by the States to the Federal Government in the 
case of nearly all the national parks. Also Forth Carolina, Tennessee, 
Oklahoma, Georgia, and Pennsylvania have surrendered their claims to the 
game animals on all the national forests within their borders. On most 
of the national forests, however, the Forest Service, while directly 
responsible for forest administration, is powerless to take such action 
in connection with game management as in certain cases seems necessary 
to protect the areas and adjust the various phases of their utilization, 
unless the State game authorities approve and agree to such action. This 
anomalous state of affairs has brought about some very unsatisfactory 
and embarrassing situations. 

Game problems exist on almost every national forest, and some of 
them are extremely complicated and difficult of solution. Of the out- 
standing cases that of the deer herd on the Kaibab National Forest in 
Arizona is probably the first in importance. 

The Kaibab National Forest embraces the Kaibab Plateau, a huge 
island about a million acres in extent rising rather abruptly 3,000 to 
4,000 feet above the surrot">nding country. The major portion of this 
plateau is heavily timbered, principally with yellow pine. On the south 
and east the practically impassible Grand Canyon cuts it off from the 
rest of Arizona. To the wes* and north lies a wide belt of semi-desert 

Practically the entire plateau was included in the Grand Canyon 
Game Preserve established by President Roosevelt in 1906. Government 
hunters at once began a constant warfare on mountain lions and other 
animals that preyed upon the deer. Also, because there was not enough 
feed for both the deer and the domestic stock on the forest, the Forest 
Service has decreased the grazing permits from year to year until only 
about 2 ,£00 cattle are now grazed on the area. 

In 1919 about one-fourth of the Kaibab National Forest area was 
transferred to the Grand Canyon National Park. This introduced a supple- 
mentary complication: while the national forest portion of the area is 
managed by the Forest Service of the Department of Agriculture, the 
park portion is under the Park Service of the Department of the Interior. 
Within all national parks the killing of any game animals except those in 
the predatory class is prohibited by law* It is estimated that about 
®ne-third of the Kaibab deer herd now range normally within the boundaries 
of the national park, the remainder for the most part grazing within the 
national forest. 


Under almost corap?.etc protection the deer have increased so 
rapidly that in 1926 they nizriber about 35,000 or 40,000. According to 
the test estimates of the Department of Agriculture the grazing capac- 
ity of the range is not more than P.O. 000 or 25,000 head. In other 
words, this area is now overstocked "by from 15,000 to 20,000 head of 
deer. Hemmed in "by the desert and the canyon, the deer can not spread 
to other grazing grounds. Hunting under the State laws is decidedly in- 
operative, owing- to the fact that the area can be reached "by residents 
of Arizona only with great difficulty and the nonresident license is 
expensive, and permits the killing of but one deer. 

With the cooperation of the Biological Survey, the Forest Service 
has endeavored to work out plans by which the annual surplus of from 
6,000 to 8,000 head may "be disposed of in a legitimate economic manner 
and the herd maintained at a fairly uniform number. To allow the herd 
to go on increasing without some plan for disposing of the surplus can 
not be considered for a moment, The service proposed that sportsmen 
be allowed to enter the area at certain periods and kill a restricted 
number of the deer, "but the G-cvernor of Arizona refused to allow the 
State game laws to be set asiuoc In the second place it was propose* to 
ship the surplus to portions of the country where deer are not now found 
or to private estates and zoos. This was given a trial. It involved 
building a crate for each Individual deer, capturir.g the deer in trap 
corrals, and transporting them by motor truck over 150 miles of very 
difficult road to the railway. Although every scheme was tried that gave 
any promise of success only 18 deer were coaxed Into the corrals, and of 
these 10 dashed themselves to death against the wails as soon as efforts 
were made to work them into the close pens and thence into the crates. 
The actual cost to the Government of the. crates and transportation to the 
railroad was £35 per animal. 

A third proposition was to capture' fawns and raise them for dis- 
tribution to other areas. This was thoroughly tried out in 1925. In the 
beginning nothing \?as known as to the proper methods of capturing and 
raising the fawns. The Biological Survey had experimented with raising 
antelopes in northern Nevada, with considerable success, hut much of its ex- 
perience was found to he Inapplicable to the dee-r* The plan arrived at 
was to contract with men living near the forest to capture the fawns as 
early after birth as possible, raise them on cows' milk, and deliver them 
in the fall to the Forest Service at an agreed price of £'20 each. The 

Forest Service undertook to ship these fawns to applicants after October 
15 at the nominal rate of $35 each delivered at the railway point in Utah. 

Several fawn-raising centers were established in May, 1925. 

The young animals were practically all dropped between June 15 and 
July 10, and almost invariably on the high ridges. In searching for them 
the practice was to ride horseback through the timber keeping keen watch 


for the little animals, which when found were always tying prostrate on 
the ground and which were not easy to discern. The instant a fawn 
realized that it was discovered it was up and off. The fawns run very 
fast, hence only the very young ones could be captured. Dogs trained 
to handle sheep were used with good results. A dog would run a fawn 
down and bump it over with his nose, generally holding it down with his 
front paws. Some of the dogs were muzzled, because occasionally they 
would attempt to hold the fawns with their mouths, and the slightest in- 
jury to the little animals was invariably fatal. 

The captured fawns were carried at once to the farms and placed in 
enclosures of one or two acres surrounded with woven wire fences 4 feet 
high. It was necessary to keep them in small pens for a few days until 
they learned to take milk from a bottle and until they were tamed a little. 
At first they were extremely wild and would injure themselves by jumping 
against the fence. All were fed .with warm milk from a bottle with a rub- 
ber nipple. In the beginning each fawn was fed about one pint of milk 
three times a day. Later on they were fed only twice a day. They thrived 
under this system and were always hungry when offered the bottle. Rock 
salt and water were kept in the pens, and, after the first month, some al- 
falfa and oats. The fawns were extremely fond of aspen leaves, and they 
trimmed up the little pine trees inside the pens but were nvver seen to 
eat grass. Aspen and yellow pine branches were cut and placed in the pens 
as feed, whi ch the y b r owse d f r e e ly . 

Some of the fawns died from constipation in spite of every effort 
to save them, but scours were effectively controlled by giving hot scalded 
milk, losses were heavy all summer long. Many of the fawns died for no 
reason that could be determined. In a number of cases death was caused by 
flies laying their eggs in the long hair on the hind legs of the fawns* 
As soon as this was discovered further loss was prevented by clipping the 
hair from the infested parts and treating with sheep dip. On one of the 
farms an entire herd died of a mouth disease, which was found to have been 
caused not by the close confinement or any infection in the pens but by 
■conditions existing in the animals before they were captured. Ticks 
caused one or two deaths. 

The fawns on one or two of the farms, as they grev; older, were 
turned loose in the near-by timber. They would disappear for the entire 
day but invariably came back at feeding time when called. The fawns so 
treated made much better growth than those not turned loose. 

The total n-umber of fawns captured was 363. Of this number 94 sur- 
vived and were delivered to the Forest Service. Two died en route to the 
railroad. Only one or two died during the railroad journey, the rest reach- 
ing their destinations in good condition. Shipments went to every section 
of the country and to nearly every State. 


While the experience gained during the season of 1925 resulted in 
improved plans for 1926, it is obvious that this method will never ac- 

mnt for the number of animals that should be taken from the game pre- 
serve from year to year, because the demand for fawns raised in captivity 
is not strong. In the final ana3.ysis reductions must be effected through 
longer open seasons, the allowance oi more than one deer to a hunter, 
and a lower charge for the nonresident license. To these variations 
from the State law the State authorities seriously object, without offer- 
ing any alternative measures. 

The problem is still there— and unsolved. 

Planting Imported Chestnuts 

Plantings of the Chinese chestnut ( Castanopsis delavayi) , which has 
proved to be unsuitod to the climatic conditions of the southern Appalach- 
ians, are to be made in the. region of the Everglades and perhaps also in 
the central part of Florida, by arrangement between the U. S. Forest Serv- 
ice and the Florida State Agricultural Experiment Station. Another trial 
Is to be made in the California coast . redwood region near Fort Bragg, 
through the courtesy of the Union Lumber Co., and at Scotia, Calif., 
through the kindness of the Pacific Lumber Co. Some 200 trees will be set 
out in the two California plantations. An equal number will be planted by 
the Pacific northwest Forest Experiment Station, at the Wind River station. 
The presence in the Northwest of a native species of Castanopsis would 
seem to indicate a regional adaptation of this group. 

Castanea mollissima . a true chestnut usually known as the Chinese 
woolly chestnut, has been grown by the Bureau of Plant Industry for some 
i2 years at the Bell, Md., station, -where it appears to be perfectly 
adapted climatically and has shown unquestionable ability to resist the 
chestnut bark disease. Plantations of this species made this spring at 
the Appalachian Forest Experiment Station and at Letchwcrth Park, N. J, , 
during the past season have shown satisfactory growth and have not revealed 
the presence of disease; but it is too soon to say how successfully C ast a- 
nea m ollissi ma will meet the test of disease and show fitness for growth in 
the soil and climatic conditions in which our native chestnut has lived and 

Dr. Walter Van Fleet produced a thoroughly blight -free hybrid 
chestnut by crossing Castanea mollissima and our native Castanea numila. 
The fruit of this hybrid is sweet and larger than that of our native 
chestnut. This hybrid is likely to be of great importance as an orchard 
chestnut, because it can be multiplied abundant ly „ by budding and grafting. 
But since hybrid nuts can not be depended upon as a means of propagation 
it is not likely to be of service as a forest tree. 


Government Specifications for Wood Preservati on 

The Federal Specifications Board, which is concerned with stand- 
ardizing specifications for materials for purchase and use by the Govern- 
ment, has adopted as the Government standard the current specifications 
of the American Wood-Preservers' Association and subsequent revisions 
that may be made. This action was taken on the recommendation of a com- 
mittee on wood preservation, composed of eight men from as many differ- 
ent branches of the Government headed by a member of the Forest Service 
as chairman. The specifications are embodied in Master Specification No. 
395 and are made mandatory from July 1, 1926. 

The specifications of the American Wood-Preservers' Association 
represent the best commercial practice in existence at the present time. 
These specifications are "based upon the results of exhaustive research 
and experimentation in the field of wood preservation by both Government 
and private agencies, and have had wide practical application "by Federal 
and State agencies, by railroad companies, telephone and telegraph com- 
panies, steamship lines, and electric light and power companies, and in 
other industrial fields. They cover preservatives, processes of treat- 
ment, treatable material in various forms, and analyses and tests of 

Attached to and made a part of Master Specification Fo. 395 is a 
schedule of recommended practice in the preservative treatment of timber 
in various forms, prepared in the form of a tabular statement. This 
schedule shows by kinds of wood the various classes of products which it 
is good practice to treat, the kind of preservative to use, the requisite 
absorption, and the specification for treatment, and includes explanatory 
remarks bearing on each class of product and its treatment. Copies of 
tni§ schedule of recommended practice may be obtained upon application 
to R. K. Helphenstine, jr., Chairman of the Wood Preservation Committee, 
U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C. 

Experimental Tract Presented to the Gove rn ment 

The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co. of Marquette, Mich., has presented 
320 acres of land to the Federal Government to be used by the Lake States 
Forest Experiment Station for experimental purposes. This tract, con- 
sisting of partially cut-over hardwood and swamp land, adjoins the half- 
section of virgin timber which the company has already given to the Govern- 
ment subject to the 20-year reservation of timber cutting. The Michigan 
Conservation Commission has contributed $2,500 for buildings, and other 
agencies are cooperating in improving the grounds and in starting work. 
A sample area has been carefully marked to demonstrate selective cutting 
in old-growth hardwoods, and instrumental methods are being employed to 
get at the effect of cutting upon the local climate. 


Fire Weather Signals for Northern Rocky Mountain Region 

She. Northern Rocky Mountain Experiment Station, at Priest River, 
Idaho, this season issued a bulletin to field men in northern Idaho and 
western Montana, with the following table of weather indicators of fire 




55 degrees 
or less 


56 to 70 de- 

71 per cent 46 to 70 
or more per cent 


71 to 85 

26 to 45 
per cent 


Over 85 degrees F. 

25 per cent or 

The forest tax investigative staff has moved from New Haven to 
Minnesota, the State chosen for its first field study. Headquarters have 
"been established at University Farm, St. Paul. Miss Jennie GoSdard has 
reported for duty as statistician. With the help of officers of the 
State government, the University of Minnesota, the Minnesota Tree Society, 
and the Lake States Experiment Station, the staff are familiarizing them- 
selves with local sources of information. Initial studies are under way 
in several counties, and statistical studies covering the entire State 
have been begun. 

The N ational Board of Dire cto rs of the National Tent an d Awning 
Manufactu rers ' Association has approved a suggestion of W. I. Hutchinson 
of the "J. S. Forest Service that all tent manufacturers stencil on the 
door 'flaps of their tents the slogan "Help Prevent Fires — It Pays." 
This recommendation will be brought before the members of the association 
at their national convention on October 25. 

The stream flow study at Vvag onw hc-el Gap, Colo ., has been discontinued 
by -agreement of the Weather Bureau and the Forest Service. Observations 
have been carried on over a period of 19 years on two watersheds, one of 
which was denuded in 1919. The gauging stations will be dismantled in 
October. C. G. Bates of the Forest Service and B. C Zadel of the Weather 
Bureau will cooperate this winter in compiling the data. 



■American Forest Week 

Morican Forest Week is a spring festival; "but if the music of 
the festival is to "be a glorious and successful harmony it behooves the 
singers to choose their tunes and do a little practicing in the fall and 

This spring the week was a decided success on the whole; judging 
by reports, however, some important opportunities were missed because of 
last-minute arrangements and insufficient localization. The Forest Worker 
can not speak for the committee; hut unless the trend of the movement is 
reversed effort will continue to be directed toward more and more locali- 
zation — more regional and especially more State organization of the work- 
It is not too early for wide-awake State forestry associations and other 
regional, State, and county organizations to be thinking ahout methods of 
making the week a success in their locality next spring. Now is the time 
also to begin the preparation of material for publication and programs. 
Last year almost every variety of public appeal was used — official proclama- 
tions, pamphlets, newspaper articles, radio talks, addresses, pageants, 
motion pictures., exhibits, posters, window displays. Business men in some 
localities carried .American Forest Week information or slogans in their 
advertisements. In one city the hotels featured .American Forest Week an- 
nouncements on their menus. In most States the schools cooperated active- 
ly in celchrating the week. More than 5,000 talks are known to have been 
given — and probably this is not a third of the total. Forestry was on the 
air during the week at least 175 times. The published material sent out by 
the Forest Service alone amounted to more than 1,500,000 pieces. 

In spite of the success of the week nationally and in most of the 
States, there ware fail spots where the seed failed to germinate. One 
school head refused to have anything to do with the week, saying it inter- 
fered with the pupils' training. Here and there it appeared that enough 
local information was not available to make the week a full success. ■ The 
answer to most of the difficulties encountered is apparently more local 
action. State leaders, county leaders, community and neighborhood leaders 
are best able to discover and provide for local needs. There is special 
opportunity for professional foresters in private practice to prepare arti- 
cles for the press and thus at once identify themselves with a progressive 
movement and strengthen the hands of the State and, local organizations. 
It is to be hoped that through State and extension foresters, local forestry 


associations, and other similar agencies "better provision can be made for 
meeting local needs next year than ever before. The time to start is now, 
and every reader of the Forest Worker can have a part in the good work. 
Have yon thought about the things that need to be done and the material 
that needs to be prepared to make the week a success in your particular 
community next spring? 

The Progress of \7ood Preservation in the United States 
By E. K. Helphenstine, jr., U. S. Forest Service 

In his address before the National Conference on the Utilization of 
Forest Products President Coolidge said "A tree saved is a tree grown." 
In the field of wood preservation an even higher degree of economy is ef- 
fected. A fence post that is properly treated will last three times as 
long as an untreated post. A fence post treated means two fence posts 
saved . The same holds good with other forms of forest products. 

Although the injection of chemicals into wood to prolong its life 
has been practiced for a great many years, the commercial treatment of tim- 
ber did not begin in this country until 1648, when a kyanizing plant (a 
plant employing mercuric chloride as a preservative) was constructed at 
Lowell, Mass. This plant, which was originally used for the treatment of 
canal and lock timbers, is still in operation. About 1874 a treating 
plant using creosote was constructed at West Pascagoula, Miss. From that 
time until the beginning of the present century the growth of the Industry 
was very gradual, and even as late as 1904 there were only 30 treating 
plants in operation in the United States. 

After that year, however, the industry began to make remarkable 
progress. In 1909, or just 5 years later, the number of plants had more 
than doubled. The 64 plants in operation in 1909 consumed 51,431,212 
gallons of creosote and 16,215,107 pounds of zinc chloride in the treat- 
ment of 75,946,419 cubic feet of wood. In 1920 there were 115 active 
treating plants. In other words, the industry in just 11 years had again 
nearly doubled its capacity. These plants during that year treated 
173,309,505 cubic feet of wood, consuming 68,757,508 gallons of creosote, 
49,717,929 pounds of zinc chloride, 1,848,911 gallons of paving oil, and 
1,772,084 gallons of miscellaneous preservatives. 

In 1925, the latest year for which statistics of the industry have- 
been compiled, 167 treating plants were actively engaged in the preserva- 
tion of wood. This represents a further gain of nearly 50 per cent in 
plant capacity since 1920. The preservatives consumed in 1925 consisted 
of 167,642,790 gallons of creosote, 13,048,539 gallons of petroleum, 
2.080,287 gallons of paving oil, 26,378,658 pounds of zinc chloride, and 
531,591 gallons of miscellaneous preservatives. The total quantity of wood ■ 
that was given preservative treatment during that year was 274,474,538 cubic 
feet, or more than 5§- times the quantity reported in 1909. 


Color as an Indicatio n of Infestation in Yollov; Pine Forests 
~By"l.". d. Edmonston, U. S. Bureau of Entomology 

A forest entomologist in viewing a body of yellow pine for the 
first time depends to a greet extent upon his knowledge of color. Any 
c] mge in the color of the foliage from normal s n at once attracts 
hie attention. In a preliminary Insect evi-vey of extensive areas color 
is chiefly depended neon to supply the data necessary as a "basis for in- 
tensive surveys. In a mouritainous cr'etry ve cm ints of vantage 
distant timbered areas can be viewed, it is , ay notir.g the vari- 
ous colors of the foliage, to arrive at cone-] as bo increase or de- 
crease of infestation as well as at an estimate of the yearly loss. 

Yellow pine which is attached by Dendroctonus ponderosae in August 
rarely if ever shows any change in the color of the foliage until the 
following year, luring the past season or the 10 Hal) ITabicral Ferret, 
Ariz., a large series of Infested yellow pine t] ■ close?.*/- observed 

and changes in the color of the foliage were recorded as they occurred. 

Twenty infested trees with an average diameter of 25 inches, in 
eight group infestations located at rax Lr ; distances on a mile strip, 
were constantly varder observation, Ev v bhree or four days the color 
of the foliage was noted and compared with that of the other trees in the 
group, xhe trees were attacked '"■-;, . "' " 4, anc 1 the records cov- 

ered the period from Llay 1 to Sopl mher 13, 1925. The foliage of all in- 
fested trees remained green up to 7 ay 10. On the 1] fch only a few had 
faded. This fading was more nar-3 -\ ' . tree had boon felled, vih'Tn. it 

was found that the leai : ■- "■ ;re a r- ; i . cad On the 18th a 

slight yellowing of a few trees was v c i id. 0a the 22nd nearly all the 
trees had faded and from the 24th to the 27*h they T 1 a decided yellowish 
tinge. On June 15 all the i ■ i ., rare a decided ; ' >w, on the 22nd a few 
were slightly sorrel. From the 13th to the 2?rd of July all were decided- 
ly sorrel and on the 30th a few were beginning tc turn reddish. The 
line of demarcation between yellow and sorrel is difficult to assign to a 
specific date. However, a noticeable eh rye from yellow to sorrel was 
recorded after the end of Jan~ and all the trees could he classed as sorrel 
after the end of July. From the 12th tc the 20th of Augast most of the 
sorrel-colored trees were decidedly reddish and from then until the mid- 
dle of September all the trees could he classed as red tops. 

It would appear that the period June 15-July 51 is the logical 
time for field examinations if color of the foliage is to be the basis 
upon which the location and amount of inf es tation is judged. 


Lodging Small Hardwood s Unpr ofitab le 

(Abstract from an address by Raphael Zon before the northern 
Hemlock and Hardwood Manufacturers* Acsociation. ) 

A study by the Lake States Forest Experiment Station of the cost of 
logging large and snail hardwood trees in liichigan and Wisconsin has 
brought out the fact that lumber produced from logs of a top diameter 
of 11 inches just aboiirt covers the cost of production, without allowing 
anything for stumpage. cr profit, and that logs below 13 or 14 inches are 
being produced and milled at a loss. 

The total cost of logging is much greater for small logs than for 
large logs. For 1,000 board feet, gross scale, of 8-inch logs the cost 
is about $20. For 24-inch logs the cost is about $9.37. The cost of both 
logging end milling 8-inch logs is $33.20 a thousand; and for 20-inch logs 
$21.20. With the sale value of the lumber from 8-inch logs at §22.10 and 
of 20-inch logs at $41.40, there is a loss of $14.10 on the 3-inch logs 
and a profit of #20.20 on the 20-inch logs. 

The reason for the small value of lumber from the 8-inch logs is 
the large amount of lower grades. All of the lumber from 8-inch logs is 
common and 75 per cent of it is No. 3 common. Logs IS inches at the top 
yield about 18 per cent of the higher grades and only 45 per cent of ITo. Z 
common. Logs 20 inches in diameter at the top yield 23 per cent of the 
higher grades and only 37 per cent of ITo. 3 common. 

The study indicates that trees below 15 inches in diameter, breast 
high, are being logged at a loss. 

Turpent i n ing 5rta.ll Trees Unprofitable 

There is no profit in turpentining trees that yield less than 25 
barrels of spirits from a "crop" of 10,000 trees, according to Lenthall 
Ylynan, associate silviculturist of the Southern Forest "Experiment Station. 
In his opinion, anyone who works trees smaller than this pays for the 
privilege of doing so. 

Tables prepared by the T J. 3. Forest Service show that 7-inch 
trees yield roughly 25 barrels, based on 32 streaks or tappings, during 
the season. To give a fair margin of profit, it is recommended that no 
tree under 8 inches in diameter at breast height, or 9 inches in diam- 
eter at 2 feet above the ground, should be worked. In 5 or 6 years such 
trees will yield 6 or 7 more barrels of spirits to the crop. 


The Latest N ews o n Woods fertilizer 

Dr. C. C. Fletcher of the Bureau of Soils, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, has made a chemical analysis of the "straw" of longleaf, 
shortleaf, and loblolly pine. According to his figures a ton of "straw," 
which is the quantity estimated xo "be deposited yearly on an acre well 
stocked with mature trees, contains fertilizer materials of the follow- 
ing quantities and values: 

long l e af Pino 

Ilitrogen , 22.0 lbs., @ 15^ = $3.30 

Phosphoric acid.... 5.8 " " 5$* = .29 

Potash , ( trace ) 


Shortleaf P ine 
(Shortleaf Yellow, or Upland Shortleaf) 

Ilitrogen.. 14.2 lbs., © 15^ = $2.13 

Phosphoric acid 5.4 " " 5^ = .27 

Potash none 


Loblolly Pine (Qldfield Pine) 

hitrogen ..9.0 lbs., £ 15^ = $1.35 

Phosphoric acid.. ... .3.6 " " 5^ = .16 

Potash. none 


The 1925 Fire Sco re 

In the calendar year 1925, 85,762 forest fires were reported to 
the Forest Service. They burned over 26,518,715 acres of land, all told. 
This is a decrease of 6,159 fires and 2,304,0GG acres from the 1924 totals. 

Incendiarism is again reported as the cause of the greatest number 
of fires, 17,174. Brush burning was responsible for 13,889, smokers for 
9,805, railroads for 8,672, lightning for 6,647, comp fires for 6,069-, 
and lumbering for 4,755. The causes of 11,330 are unknown. 


The total damage to timber, young growth, and forage was $23,952,473 
and to improvements o,nd forest products $4,102,405, decreases from 1924 
of $7,462,564 and $2,610,984 respectively. 

The greatest number of fires occurred in the Southeastern States, 
the total there "being 33,610, or 39.2 per cent of the national total. 
The West Mississippi States had 23.1 per cent of the total, the Pacific 
States 7.9 per cent, and the Northeast 8 per cent. More than 54 per cent 
of the total damage and 51 per cent of the total burned area was in the 

The Advance of Stump age Prices 

Stumpage prices of Lower Mississippi timber hare in the period 
1900-1924, inclusive, made a greater advance in relation to average prices 
for the United States than those of any other region. This reflects the 
tremendous increases in the prices of longleaf pine and cypress. The 
striking contrast of this advance with the trend of stumpage prices in 
other regions in the 25-year period is shown in the following figures based 
on a study by C. 17. Boyce of the U. S. Forest Service: 


United States 

New England 

Middle Atlantic 

Lake States 

South Atlantic 

Lower Mississippi 

Northern Rocky Mountain. 

Pacific Northwest 


Average Per Cent 
Price U.S. Average 

Average Per Cent 
Price U.S. Ave rage 





































Forestry at the International Plant Congress 

The Forestry Section of the International Congress of Plant Sciences 
held at Ithaca, N. Y. , August 15-23, had as its general topic "The Scien- 
tific Foundation of Forestry As Exemplified by Forest Experiment Station 
Work.." Tor Jonson, head of the National Forest School of Sweden, was chair- 
man; C. D. Howe of the University of Toronto, vice chairman; and Ralph S. 
Hosmer of Cornell University, secretary. Addresses were made by Doctors 
Jonson and Howe; A. Rodger of the Forest Research Institute and College, 
Pehra Pun, India; James W. Tourney of the Yale Forest School; and Raphael 
Zon and E. N. Manns of the U. S. Forest Service. Papers to be read before 


the section were sent by Arrigo Serpieri and Aldo Pavari, of the Insti- 
tute of Agriculture and Forestry, Firenze, Italy; II. E. Tkatchenko of 
the State Institute of Experimental Agronomy, Leningrad, Russia; Sven 
Petrini of the Swedish Forest Experiment Station, and A. K. Cajander of 
the Forestry Department of Finland* A. 3. Recknagel of Cornell Univer- 
sity led a symposium on international forest bibliography, and S. T. Dana 
a round-table discussion of reorganization of the International Associa- 
tion of Forest Experiment Stations. 

Several reels of motion pictures illustrating the work of the U.S. 
Forest Service were shown at an evening session. 

The field meetings of the section were very much interrupted by 
heavy rains, which thoroughly soaked the participants. 

The section agreed on the following recommendations: 

That a committee on forest "bibliography be established to include 
those countries that have active forestry organizations, Doctor 
Hesselmarm of Sweden continuing to serve as chairman of the committee. 

That the International Union of Forest Experiment Stations be 
revived and all countries conducting forest research on an organ- 
ized basis, through either experiment stations, forest products 
laboratories, or economic studies, be invited to participate. 

That the International Institute of Agriculture, at Rome, be 
made a clearing house for all forestry information for the pres- 
ent, instead of a new international enterprise being organized 
separately or such an office being established in the Interna- 
tional Union of Forest Experiment Stations. 

At the conclusion of the congress the New York Conservation De- 
partment entertained the visiting delegates with a 4-day tour through the 

The Ithaca meeting was a disappointment in that so few foreigners 
attended. The foreign foresters present included, beside those named 
above, Dr. F. Comte of Yverdon, Switzerland, and Dr. J. von I/Ionroy of 
Saxony, Germany. The following American institutions and organizations 
were represented: The forestry department of Cornell University, the 
Pennsylvania State School of Forestry, the New York State College of 
Forestry, the Yale Forest School, the Hew York Botanical Garden, the 
division of forestry of the Indiana Department of Conservation, the 
Tropical Plant Research Foundation, the Boyce Thompson Institute for 
Plant Research, the Browne Paper Co. of New Hampshire, and the U. S- 
Forest Service. 


Southern Pino Ass cci ation Adopts cations f or 
Sac-?' 1 a : - whs a 3 iiiiubj ; t 

At its midsummer meeting at Ifemphis, July S3, the Southern Pine 
Association adopted rules for grading,, bundling., and trimming end- 
matched lumber. Lengths recognized for flooring were minimum averages 
of 5 to 9 feet for the different gx-ades. all material "co he hundled, 
and the shortest bundle 2 feet. The minimum average length permitted 
for 6, and 8 inch sheathing, ship lop, and roofers is 10 feet. The prac- 
tice of end-matching has an important 'bearing on the utilization of 
short lengths and the reduction of waste. 

Paper Company Estab lishes "¥oods V igilance Committee" 

The G-reat northern Paper Co. announced in the August number of 
its periodical The Northern the establishment of a new department — the 
fire patrol* This department operates as a separate unit, with a super- 
intendent in charge of each of the two sections of the company's terri- 
tory and patrolmen "equipped with Ford trucks, motor-cycles, canoes, 
motor canoes, and 'shanks mare*. 11 The men are described as the "woods 
vigilance committee to discover and prevent forest fires." In addition 
to the superintendents, 22 men are listed as taking part in this patrol 

One hundred an d fifty California organizations and agencies en- 
gaged in economic and statistical research have joined to form an eco- 
nomic research council. This action was sponsored by the conservation 
department of the California Development Association — the State organiza- 
tion of chambers of commerce, of which Norman H. Sloane, formerly super- 
visor of the Monterey and Cleveland national Forests, is general manager. 
0. L. Hill of the California District office of the U. S. Forest Service 
is chairman of the committee on natural resources. 

The Federa tio n of Uc;nen T s Cl ub s of the State of "Tanhinp-ton has pur- 
chased 60 a.cres of fine virgin timber on the Sunset Highway, 15 miles 
above North Bend, Wash- , for a State park. An individual or club sub- 
scribing $100 can have its name placed on a tree. 

The Bastrop Pulp and Paper Co. , Bastrop, La., has purchased 150,00' 
acres of timber land, mostly cut over, from a lumber company which re- 
tained title to timber 11 inches or more in diameter. The company ex- 
pects not only to utilize the small timber now on the land in the manu- 
facture of paper but also to grow timber for that purpose. 

Forestry Pays Texas Farcers 

Fow well forestry pays the Tej&s farmer Is Illustrated by C. B. 
Webster, farm forester for the Texas Bepartiasnt of Forestry, with the 
following instances. L. A. Bryan, a banker and farmer of Kawkins, Wood 
County, recently sold the third crop of timber from the 300 -acre forest 
on his farm. He received for this one crop more than he had origidic ily 
paid for his forest together with 200 acres adjoining it when the whole 
SCO-acre tract was covered with virgin timber. A Gregg County farmer 
last year sold his mature timber for a sum covering not only the orig- 
inal purchase price of his entire farm but the price of "bonds the inter 
est from which will pay all the taxes on the farm. Young trees remain- 
ing on this property will be ready to harvest within 10 years. 

Hore than half the wooded area of the piney woods country of 2exas 3 
Mr- Webster says, is owned by farmers, who are thus in a position to cap- 
ply at least 50 per cent of the State's timber needs. Ke predicts that 
the area of woods on east Texas farms will not decrease further and may 
be increased. 


Fire L ines Built by Nachines 

A machine for constructing fire lines was used recently on the op- 
eration of the Growers* Supply Co, on the Lassen National Forest. 
The equipment consists of a 10-ton tractor and a specially constructed V- 
shaped drag. The drag is built of manganese steel plates , and is about 
five feet on the sides and three feet wide at the bach. The sides ere 
straight, about one foot high, with a solid horizontal plate at the mid- 
point. The top of the drag is loaded with boulders held in place by cross 

Except on very rocky ground, the drag digs a furrow some six inches 
deep and three feet wide., The dirt is shouldered out and forms a bank 
about one foot wide on each side, giving a total width of mineral soil 
of about' five feet. Brush, reproduction, old logs up to 2 feet in diam- 
eter, scuaw carpet, and lave boulders up to 300-400 pounds are mowed down 
or sieved aside with ease. 

Something like a mile of line, requiring little hand work to touch 
it up, can be built in an hour, at an. expense of not more than $4. Super- 
vise; £u.rbin figures that a similar line of the same length built by hand 
would cost $.100. 

^^J^ , ™J!?i:^2BPi^J!!^?S229!l» ,, as applied to a group oi Philippine 
woods not relate! to true mahogany, is misleading and should not be use 
according to orders issued by the Federal Trade Commission in July. 


County Forest Project in Wisconsin 

A county forest is one of the projects on the program